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2011 4th International Congress on Image and Signal Processing

Fingerprint Recognition-Based Access Controlling System for Automobiles

Zhaoxia Zhu
College of Computer Science Yangtze University Jingzhou, China
AbstractTraditional identifying system of automobiles includes key system, door-controlling system, Ultra High Frequency (UHF) sending/receiving system, alarm system and so on. Once the key is lost or stolen, those persons that have not the ownership can also open the door of the car with it. Biometric recognition technologies can overcome this shortcoming. As an Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), fingerprint recognition-based access control system of automobiles, in which fingerprint encryption technique is utilized, has some advantages such as smartness, security, low power, low cost, etc. Keywords- Access control system of automobiles; Fingerprint recognition; Automatic fingerprint identification system

Fulong Chen
Department of Computer Science and Technology Anhui Normal University Wuhu, China new field of biometric technology, the way to identify people through theirs physical characteristics is attractive. In this paper, an embedded application system- access control system based on fingerprint recognition for automobiles, which is a kind of Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), will be introduced. The following parts of this paper are organized as follows. Section 2 presents a brief review of biometric technologies for recognition. Section 3 introduces fingerprint recognition technology and its process. A precise description of this system will be discussed in section 4. And the last section gives some concluding remarks.
A/D Converter Sample-and -Holder Sensors Information Processor Display Device D/A Converter Environment Actuators



With the development of computer theory and technology, more and more smart embedded devices are applied in many fields, e.g. automobiles electronics, handheld game systems, industrial environments, telecommunication or fabrication equipments, aircraft electronics, medical systems, military applications, authentication systems, consumer electronics, smart buildings, robotics, etc. Embedded systems can be defined as information processing systems embedded into these enclosing products [1]. Hence, embedded computer has also been called the disappearing computer, which forms the basis of the so-called pervasive computing era. As shown in Figure 1, sensors receive signals or information from the physical environment, and send them to A/D converters or sample-and-holders, which convert continuous sequences of analog values to discrete sequences of digital values. The kernel of the whole embedded system information processor processes those digital values and generates some digital results. These results can be sent to display device, which displays these results, and also be used to control the external environment through actuators, which convert digital signals to analog ones. In recent years, in automobiles, the amount of electronic devices, for instance, sensors, actuators and Electronic Control Units (ECU) as well as electronic devices for entertainment and navigation systems has drastically increased [2]. Traditional methods of access control system for automobiles usually use a key or PKE (Passive Keyless Entry). The great problem is that these resources can be robbed, lost, and be used by a person that doesn't have authorization. So, it is not surprising that the

Figure 1. Architecture of Embedded System



Biometric technologies have great potential in various technical fields such as network security, public security, and financial industry systems. Biometrics has grown into an independent industry, whose standardization is making rapid progress with a large number of standards. These standards have focused on various aspects of biometric industrialization, including data formats, application program interfaces, security issues, system profiles, and evaluation methodologies. Table 1 lists some biometric technologies for recognition. In Table 1, fingerprint recognition technology has many prominent advantages such as high catholicity, high uniqueness, high stability, high feasibility and low cost. Therefore, AFIS has been applied in PDA (access control, data protection), cellular phones, smart phones (access e-business), notebook, PC-add on (access control, e-business), PIN (Personal Identification Number) code replacement, automated teller machines, POS (Points of Sells), building access, electronic keys (cars, home, etc.), portable fingerprint imaging for law enforcement and TV access. Access control system

978-1-4244-9306-7/11/$26.00 2011 IEEE


based on fingerprint recognition for automobiles also adopts

TABLE I. Technologies Face shape Ear shape Hand shape Fingerprint DNA Iris Retina Palm Voice Signature Catholicity High Mid Mid High High High High Mid Mid Low

fingerprint recognition technology.

DIFFERENT BIOMETRIC RECOGNITION TECHNOLOGIES Stability Mid High Mid High High High Mid High Low Low Collectible High Mid High Mid Mid Mid Low Mid Mid High Feasibility Low Mid Mid High High High High High Low Low Deceivability High Mid Mid Mid Low Low Low Mid High High Cost High High High Low High High High Low Low Low

Uniqueness Low Mid Mid High High High High High Low Low



The whole process of fingerprint recognition can be divided into four main steps:(1) acquirement of fingerprint;(2) fingerprint processing;(3) saving of fingerprint minutiae;(4) fingerprints matching. A. Acquirement of fingerprint The quality of acquired fingerprint is very important for fingerprint recognition. In order to acquire a very good quality, a fingerprint sensor, which tolerates miscellaneous skin types, dryness or humidity of the finger grain, is needed. In AFIS, practicable fingerprint image sensors include optics sensor, silicon crystal sensor and ultrasonic sensor. Make using of principle of optics reflection, optics sensor the CCD (Charge Coupled Device) [8,9], which has been applied in observation telescopes in astronomical domains, medical imaging systems and personal cameras, is a solid-state chip that turns light into electric signals. In order to obtain two dimensional image signals, a CCD array is made of hundreds of thousands of CCD elements that are arranged in rows and columns at regular intervals. Silicon crystal sensor appears in the market in recent years. Capacitance sensor [10] is a kind of silicon crystal sensor, which transforms non-electrical variety into capacitance variety and captures fingerprint image. Comparing with other sensors, capacitance has four advantages that are high resolution, rapid dynamic response, obtaining little energy from signal and simple mechanism. Atmel's [3] fingerprint sensor uses the patented Finger-Chip technology based on thermal technology. It measures the temperature differential between the skin ridges and the air caught in the fingerprint valleys, allowing the device to operate in adverse conditions. Moreover, ultrasonic sensors [11] transmit ultrasonic waves from its sensor head and again receive the ultrasonic waves reflected from an objects surface. By measuring the length of time from the transmission to reception of the sonic wave, it detects the grains of the objects surface. B. Fingerprint processing After acquired, the image of fingerprint needs be enhanced. For fingerprint image enhancement, Wei Peng [4] introduced a wavelet-based method, which obtains a more clarity

fingerprint, distinctly improves the precision of minutiae extraction module, and more effective and robust than other existing methods. Fingerprint classification relates to the assignment of any fingerprint to the corresponding class. Then, the structure of papillary lines is examined and the anomalies are detected and extracted as features. Professor Tang [5,6] presents a novel approach to optical character recognition that utilizes ring-projection-wavelet-fractal signatures, which is impervious to images direction. Therefore, ring-projectionwavelet-fingerprint is recommended. C. Saving of fingerprint minutiae The next step is enrollment and presentation of users. The enrollment process essentially introduces a person to the authentication system. The process by which a users ID data is initially acquired, assessed, processed and stored in the form of a template for ongoing use in an AFIS is called enrollment. Subsequent verification and identification attempts are conducted against the templates generated during enrollment. After a user provides required personal information to begin enrollment, such as name or user ID, he or she must present at least a fingerprint data. Of course, all other fingers fingerprints are also useful. Presentation is the process by which a user provides fingerprint data to the fingerprint sensor. Figure 2 shows these processes.

Enroll users ID Capture fingerprint


Enhance fingerprint Class fingerprint Extract minutiae Put it into Bank

IDs and Fingerprints Bank

Figure 2. Saving of fingerprint minutiae

D. Fingerprints matching The comparison of fingerprint templates to determine their degree of similarity or correlation is called matching. The process of matching fingerprint templates results in a match


score, which, in most systems, is compared against a threshold. If the match score exceeds the threshold, the result is a match. Otherwise, the result is a non-match. The matching process involves the comparison of a verification template, created when the user provides fingerprint data, with the enrollment templates stored in the IDs and fingerprints bank. In AFIS, a fingerprint template is matched against a users enrollment template or templates (a user may have more than one fingerprint template enrolled). This process is shown as Figure 3. The first, second and third international competitions on fingerprint verification (FVC2000, FVC2002 and FVC2004) were organized in 2000, 2002 and 2004, respectively. FVC2006 (the Fourth International Fingerprint Verification Competition) focuses on fingerprint verification software assessment [7]. From FVC2006, there are many algorithms presented for AFIS.

plastic. Fingerprints of authorized persons can be stored in fingerprints database of DCS in advance. When someone wants to open the door, he must press the button ON of KS to open the keys power, slide his finger over the surface of the key, and send his fingerprint image to DCS through UHF sender. After receiving the fingerprint image through UHF receiver, DCS compares it with ones of fingerprints database. If the fingerprint matches one fingerprint in the database, DCS will send a signal to its actuator to unlock the doors of the car, and also send a signal to some control circuit that can unlock the igniter so that drivers can ignite to launch the vehicle. Otherwise, DCS will switch on its buzzer to give an alarm, and send a signal to lighting system, which keeps turning on/off lamps constantly for a few of minutes. If drivers want to leave the automobile and lock it, he can press the button ON of KS, which will close its power and send a signal to DCS to lock all doors and the igniter of the car. Lamps

Capture fingerprint I Enhance fingerprint Class fingerprint Extract minutiae No other candidate? Select a candidate Matched? IDs and Fingerprints Bank Welcome Warn
Figure 3. Fingerprints matching

Built on door Key system Door-controlling system Flash ROM CPU UHF Receiver

ON UHF Sender

Fingerprint Input

Actuator Door


Taken by driver
RECOGNITION FOR AUTOMOBILES Figure 4. Access control system for automobiles

In 1996, ATMEL [3] invents some fingerprint sensors, e.g., AT77C101B, AT77C102B, AT77C103A and AT77C104B, which can capture slices of the fingerprint when a finger slides over these sensors and put them together to obtain a complete fingerprint image with very low power consumption (6mA in image acquisition only, 10A in sleep mode for AT77C101B), wide operating temperature range (-40 C to +85 C for AT77C101B) and full speed (500 dpi resolution for AT77C101B). This technique can be applied in identifying system for automobiles (Figure 4). It includes two Key Systems (KSs) and a Door-Controlling System (DCS). One KS built on the door of the automobile is composed of a finger-chip and a circuit connected with DCS, and, the other one taken by the driver is constitutive of a fingerchip and an Ultra High Frequency (UHF) sender capsulated in



Access control system based on fingerprint recognition for automobiles is an AFIS. Once the unauthorized key is used to open the door of the automobile, it can alarm through the buzzers, and it also make its lamps flash constantly. It is very convenient to open the automobiles door with fingerprint encryption key system. This technique has some advantages such as smartness, security, low power, low cost, etc. At present, it is being studied how access control system is interconnected with other systems such as lighting system, engine system, GPS navigation system, multimedia system for automobiles through Controller Area Network (CAN) bus. This system is being recommended for producing.





This paper is supported by Project of Scientific Research for Young University Teachers of Anhui Province of China under Grant No.2008jq1057, Key Project of Natural Science of Education Department of Anhui Province under Grant No.KJ2010A148, and China Postdoctoral Foundation under Grant No.20100480701. REFERENCES
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