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CHAPTER SEVEN BEARING DEVICES AND GIRDER ANCHORAGES

7.1 GENERAL Conventional Bridges supported by abutments and piers require bearing devices that will transfer the girder reactions to the substructure elements without over-stressing them. Bridge bearings generally are more critical and more elaborate than those needed for buildings. The forces created by temperature changes, elastic deformation, shrinkage and creep are usually more acute than for buildings and need additional attention if they are to be properly addressed.

Because of total exposure to weather, bridges will often experience more frequent and greater expansion and contraction movements than most other structures. Therefore, bridge bearings should be designed as maintenance free as possible. In addition to bridge dead loads, bearing devices must be capable of withstanding and transferring dynamic live load forces and resulting vibrations that may

be transmitted to and through them. Lack of

attention to bearing devices and details may result in premature wear and/or eventual

substructure failure.

A potential source of movement in bridge

bearings that is often overlooked is the move- ments caused by the lengthening of the bottom flange that occurs as the dead load of the beam and deck slab are applied. Article 541.374B of the NMSHTD Standard Specifications For Highway and Bridge Construction makes accommodation for this movement by requir- ing that for expansion bearings, the sole plates should not be welded to the beams until the deck slab has been placed. The movement should take place as slip between the beam flange and the sole plate. No other design considerations are therefore required for this force.

Bridge bearings are of two general types, expansion and fixed. Expansion bearings provide for rotational movements of the girders as well as longitudinal movement for expansion and contraction of bridge spans. Corrosion in an expansion bearing may cause friction, which may interfere with expansion and contraction of the span. These corrosion and the resulting friction forces may lead to future maintenance problems.

The function of the fixed bearing is to prevent the superstructure from moving longitudinally on the substructure elements. The fixed bear- ing acts as a hinge by permitting rotational movement while at the same time preventing longitudinal movement. Both expansion and fixed bearings transfer lateral forces such as wind and centrifugal loading from the super- structure to the substructure. Both bearing types are set parallel to the direction of struc- tural movement.

7.2 ELASTOMERIC BEARINGS

Elastomeric bearing pads are by far the most

commonly used bridge bearing device in New Mexico. Bearing pad material and testing shall conform to the requirements of the current AASHTO LRFD Bridge Construction Specification Section 18.2.

Elastomeric bearings are fabricated as plain bearing pads or as laminated (reinforced) bearing pads. Plain bearing pads consist of the elastomer only. Laminated (reinforced) bear- ing pads consist of alternating bonding layers of elastomer and steel or fabric reinforcement. These bearings are designed to transmit loads and accommodate movements between a bridge and it’s supporting structure. Perform- ance information indicates that elastomeric bearings are functional and reliable when designed within the structural limits of the material.

EARING DEVICES AND GIRDER ANCHORAGES

Plain bearing pads must be 3/4 inch or less in thickness. Pads thicker than 3/4 inch must be reinforced with laminates. Each laminate layer should have a spacing of 1/2 inch or less throughout its entire thickness. AASHTO Bridge Specifications do not permit tapered elastomer layers in reinforced bearings. The Department requires that the thickness of the laminate steel reinforcement layers (sheet metal shims) be specified as 11 gage and conform to ASTM A366 or A569. The De- partment’s preferred bearing pad details are shown in Figure 7.2A.

than 75 percent of the total anticipated move- ment due to temperature. Refer to Section 3.1.7.1 for specifics. Pads should also be designed for all other anticipated movement including creep, shrinkage and elastic short- ening.

Laminated (reinforced) bearings can be de- signed according to the AASHTO LRFD Specifications, Article 14.7.5, and 14.7.6 Method A or B. The Department prefers to use Method A as it is a conservative design and requires less testing.

The range of thermal movement used in elas- tomeric bearing pad design shall be not less

Laminated bearings must be placed on level bearing surfaces, or gravity loads will produce shear strain in the bearing due to inclined

Figure 7.2A - Bearing Pad Details

L

C BEAM A C W A
C BEAM
A
C
W
A

PLAN

BEARING

11 GAUGE SHEET METAL SHIMS 1/8" clr. typ EQUALLY SPACED ASTM A 366 OR ASTM
11 GAUGE SHEET
METAL SHIMS
1/8" clr. typ
EQUALLY SPACED
ASTM A 366 OR
ASTM A 569
L
T

SECTION A

EQUALLY SPACED ASTM A 366 OR ASTM A 569 L T SECTION A DUROMETER SHEAR MODULAS:

DUROMETER

SHEAR MODULAS:

 

ELASTOMERIC BEARING PAD SCHEDULE

 
 

DIMENSIONS

NO.

DESIGN

NO.

MOVEMENT

LOCATION

 

WLT

 

SHIMS

LOAD

REQ'D

LENGTH

         

DL=

   

ABT. NO. 1

LL=

         

DL=

   

PIER NO.

LL=

PIER NO.

       

DL=

   

LL=

         

DL=

   

ABT. NO. 2

LL=

forces. The surface between the pad bottom and the concrete must be level and full contact between the pad and concrete must occur over the entire area.

The angle between the alignment of the underside of the girder (due to the slope of the gradeline, the rotation of the girder due to loading, and camber) and the alignment of the bottom of the bearing must not exceed the allowable rotation angle defined in the AASHTO LRFD Specifications Article 14.7.6.3.5a The top sole plate may need to be tapered so that the rotation angle is not ex- ceeded. The tapered sole plate must have a minimum thickness of ¾ inch.

It is recommended that keeper bars be used to keep pads from “walking” out from under the girders.

When anchor bolts / anchor rods are used to hold the sole plate and bearing pad in place, the anchor bolts / anchor rods are to be threaded along their full length. The nuts, anchor bolts, and washers are to be galvanized according to NMDOT Standard Specifica- tions. Generally the use of anchor bolts / anchor rods should be avoided.

During the process of welding sole plates to the beams heat from the welding may damage the bearing pads. To avoid such damage, sole plates need to be thick enough so that there will be a distance of at least 1½ inches be- tween the weld and the surface of the bearing pad closest to it. The distance is measured along the diagonal between the weld and bearing pad.

7.3 TFE BEARING SURFACES

TFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) is also known as PTFE or its trademark name, Teflon. Bearings with TFE surfaces are designed to translate or rotate by sliding a self-lubricating

polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) surface across

a smooth, hard, mating surface preferably of

stainless steel or other equally corrosive-

resistant material. Teflon Expansion bearings

are not used without providing for rotation. A

layer of elastomer is provided to facilitate

rotation due to live load deflection or change

of

camber. The Teflon sliding surface must

be

bonded to a rigid backing material capable

of resisting horizontal shear and bending stresses to which the sliding surfaces may be

subjected. Design and construction require- ments for TFE bearing surfaces are given in

the AASHTO LRFD Specifications.

An advantage of TFE is that it can be made into different shapes and forms. Its use as a bearing material is suited to many different types of expansion bearings. Many combina- tions of Teflon bearings and backing materials are commercially available. When the other side of the selected backing material is pro- posed for bonding to an elastomeric pad, the pad must have a hardness in the range of a 70 durometer reading to allow sliding of contact surfaces. The backing material must possess

the tensile strength to restrain the elastomeric pad. The AASHTO LRFD Specifications contain minimum coefficient of friction values to be used for the design of TFE bear- ing devices. These values vary with contact pressure and the type of PTFE surface being specified. See Table 14.7.2.4-1 and 14.7.2.5-1

in the LRFD Specification.

7.4 GIRDER ANCHORAGES

A design feature generally associated with

bearings is the girder anchorage system. The intent of such a system is to prevent longitu- dinal, transverse, vertical or a combination of any of these movements at the girder ends. The traditional method of providing beam anchorages in New Mexico has been through the anchor bolt / anchor road and sole plate method illustrated in Figure 7.4A. Experience

has proven that this design is prone to prob- lems. There are several reasons for this. First, sole plates have, in many instances, not been correctly positioned during construction so that the slotted holes are not able to accom- modate the total range of expected movement. Secondly, the gap T between the sole plate and the beam seat causes the horizontal loads to be applied to the bolt at an eccentricity of T plus half of the sole plate thickness above the beam seat. This in turn creates a bending movement in the anchor bolt / anchor rod. Since the anchor bolts / anchor rods are not flexural rigid they, in many cases simply bend over, pull out of or crack the concrete. More effective methods of anchorage therefore need to be used.

When possible, the preferred method of providing beam anchorage is through the use of fully integral or semi-integral pinned attachments to substructure units as is illus- trated for abutments in Figure 9.3A. When integral designs cannot be used, designs illustrated in Figures 7.4B, through 7.4G can be used to resist various loads.

7.5 DESIGNING FOR SUPERIMPOSED

DEFORMATIONS As was discussed in 7.1 one function of expansion bearings is to permit movements caused by temperature change, shrinkage and

EARING DEVICES AND GIRDER ANCHORAGES

creep. The movements caused by these factors deform the pad and thus develop stresses in them. These stresses are transferred as forces into the substructure. If care is not taken in the selection and design of the bearings, the movement induced forces can have a pro- found effect on the design and cost of the substructure in new bridges - and can seri- ously overstress existing substructures in bridges that are being rehabilitated. Some methods that can be use in reducing the movement induced stresses that are trans- ferred into the substructure are:

To increase the thickness of the pad the extent that stability considerations will permit

To use Teflon coated bearings. (This method should be used only if a conven- tional pad that will meet code requirements cannot be designed.)

There are with out doubt also other solutions. The thing to remember is that forces due to the superimposed deformations can be huge. Careful attention needs to be paid to the design so that the forces are limited in magni- tude.

EARING DEVICES AND GIRDER ANCHORAGES

Figure 7.4A Traditional Anchorage System

(USE OF THIS SYSTEM IS NOT ENCOURAGE)

Anchorage System (USE OF THIS SYSTEM IS NOT ENCOURAGE) September 2005 NMDOT BRIDGE PROCEDURE S AND

EARING DEVICES AND GIRDER ANCHORAGES

Figure 7.4B Anchorage For Expansion Bearings

ANCHORAGES Figure 7.4B Anchorage For Expansion Bearings September 2005 NMDOT BRIDGE PROCEDURE S AND DESIGN GUIDE

EARING DEVICES AND GIRDER ANCHORAGES

Figure 7.4C Cable for Limited Expansion & Vertical Movement

7.4C Cable for Limited Expans ion & Vertical Movement September 2005 NMDOT BRIDGE PROCEDURE S AND

EARING DEVICES AND GIRDER ANCHORAGES

Figure 7.4D Cable Anchor For Vertical Movement

ANCHORAGES Figure 7.4D Cable Anchor For Vertical Movement September 2005 NMDOT BRIDGE PROCEDURE S AND DESIGN

EARING DEVICES AND GIRDER ANCHORAGES

Figure 7.4E Concrete Keeper Block For Expansion Bearings

BEAM CONC KEEPER BLOCK USE TO PROVIDE TRANSVERSE LATERAL SUPPORT SOLE PLATE BEARING PAD BEAM
BEAM
CONC KEEPER BLOCK
USE TO PROVIDE TRANSVERSE
LATERAL SUPPORT
SOLE PLATE
BEARING PAD
BEAM SEAT
ELEVATION

EARING DEVICES AND GIRDER ANCHORAGES

Figure 7.4F Wingwall Located on the Outside of Abutment for Expansion Bearing

WINGWALL LOCATED ON THE OUTSIDE OF THE ABUTMENT CAP. ELEVATION
WINGWALL LOCATED ON THE
OUTSIDE OF THE ABUTMENT CAP.
ELEVATION

DECK SLAB

ABUTMENT DIAPHRAGM

WINGWALL USE TO PROVIDE TRANSVERSE LATERAL SUPPORT

ABUTMENT CAP

POLYSTRENE INSULATION

EARING DEVICES AND GIRDER ANCHORAGES

Figure 7.4G Reinforcing for Pinned Connection

ANCHORAGES Figure 7.4G Reinforcing for Pinned Connection September 2005 NMDOT BRIDGE PROCEDURE S AND DESIGN GUIDE