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Project Report on

Traffic Accident Automatic Detection And Remote Alarm Device



The main aim of this project introduces an Automatic alarm device for traffic accidents that works using GSM and GPS technology and MEMS. The project consists of EMBEDDED based processor with the interfacing of MEMS, GSM, and GPS.


An automatic alarm device for traffic accidents is introduced in this project. It can automatically detect a traffic accident, search for the spot and then send the basic information to first aid center within two seconds covering geographical coordinates, the time and circumstances in which a traffic accident takes place. By means of satellite navigation system, first aid rescuers can accurately locate the place, so that they can save the injured people as soon as possible.

The traffic accident automatic detection system consists of control module, Information detection module, message sending module. The information detection module contains GPS navigation system and tri axis accelerometer. When a vehicle collision accident occurred, accelerometer detects the level of the collision automatically, vehicle rollover accident occurred, the Z-axis of small range acceleration sensor automatically detects the vehicle roll angle . Accident signal is sent when the angle is greater than the set value given. using SMS accident information (accident geographical coordinates, altitude, license plate number, time, date) sent to the owner's family and friends, rescue units.

In general, the detection of accident area cannot be identified until it is given by any other passengers. Due to this, time gap to respond by the officials there may be a chance of loosing lives. To overcome this we are developing an embedded system for smart car. In this paper we are developing a partial system of our concept, which report information regarding road vehicles accidents on highways automatically using MEMS, GSM modem and GPS.

The project report describes the design Development and Fabrication of One demo unit of the project work Traffic Accident Automatic Detection and Remote Alarm Device by using embedded systems. The rapid development of economic construction and people's living standard continues to improve, as well as road traffic accident take place frequently which caused huge losses of life and property to the country and people. So it is the time to design an equipment which can detect accidents, search of accident place and sent rescue alarm automatically. Application of this device can significantly shorten the warning time of the accident and determine the accident site. Accident detection and information sending are full automated, which win a valuable rescue time. Now a day's every system is automated in order to face new challenges. In the present days Automated systems have less manual operations, flexibility, reliability and accurate. Due to this demand every field prefers automated control systems. Especially in the field of electronics automated systems are giving good performance. There are various GPS (Global Positioning System) based tracking systems prevailing today. Still in the Indian scenario they are not in much of use because of economy. Similarly, all over the world the systems installed are predominantly for the four wheelers; but for a country like India where majority of the population thrives using two wheelers, here is the cheapest source of an anti-theft tracking system. This system works purely on GSM (Global System for Mobiles) and proves to be enormously effective.

The microcontroller block is playing a major role in this project work. The micro controller chip used in this project work is PIC 16F877A and this is like heart of the project. The PIC 16F877A microcontroller is a 40-pin IC.

RELATED WORK: To complete our project, we studied about embedded systems basics and system design cycle to know how to develop the Microcontroller and Microprocessor based projects. Further, we analyzed some of latest controllers architecture available in the market. Finally we selected PIC 16F877A controller because of its features (it is discussed in hardware requirements). For our successful completion of this project obviously we utilized howstuffworks.com, www.microchip.com, www.google.com, en.wikipedia.org.


The Scope of the project is introduces a first of its kind vehicle tracking system that works only using GSM technology, which would be the cheapest source of vehicle tracking anti-theft system. It is a small kit that consists of a GSM module and several other components. The system can be switched ON by an SMS from the owner, which in turn instructs the microcontroller to turn OFF the vehicle, receive information about the vehicles current location or more. Once this is done, the microcontroller stimulates the GSM module to forward the details of the nearest Base Station to the owners mobile via text message.

INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDEDSYSTEMS EMBEDDED SYSTEM: Embedded System is a combination of hardware and software used to achieve a single specific task. An embedded system is a microcontroller-based, software driven, reliable, real-time control system, autonomous, or human or network interactive, operating on diverse physical variables and in diverse environments and sold into a competitive and cost conscious market. An embedded system is not a computer system that is used primarily for processing, not a software system on PC or UNIX, not a traditional business or scientific application. High-end embedded & lower end embedded systems. High-end embedded system - Generally 32, 64 Bit Controllers used with OS. Examples Personal Digital Assistant and Mobile phones etc .Lower end embedded systems - Generally 8,16 Bit Controllers used with an minimal operating systems and hardware layout designed for the specific purpose.

Examples Small controllers and devices in our everyday life like Washing Machine, Microwave Ovens, where they are embedded in. SYSTEM DESIGN CALLS


V Diagram

In this place we need to discuss the role of simulation software, real-time systems and data acquisition in dynamic test applications. Traditional testing is referred to as static testing where functionality of components is tested by providing known inputs and measuring outputs.Today there is more pressure to get products to market faster and reduce design cycle times. This has led to a need for dynamic testing where components are tested while in use with the entire system either real or simulated. Because of cost and safety concerns, simulating the rest of the the system with real-time hardware is preferred to testing components in the actual real system. The diagram shown on this slide is the V Diagram that is often used to describe the development cycle. Originally developed to encapsulate the design process of software applications, many different versions of this diagram can be found to describe different product design cycles. Here we have shown one example of such a diagram representing the design cycle of embedded control applications common to automotive, aerospace and defense applications. In this diagram the general progression in time of the development stages is shown from left to right. Note however that this is often an iterative process and the actual

development will not proceed linearly through these steps. The goal of rapid development is to make this cycle as efficient as possible by minimizing the iterations required for a design. If the x-axis of the diagram is thought of as time, the goal is to narrow the V as much as possible and thereby reduce development time. The y-axis of this diagram can be thought of as the level at which the system components are considered. Early on in the development, the requirements of the overall system must be considered. As the system is divided into sub-systems and components, the process becomes very low-level down to the point of loading code onto individual processors. Afterwards components are integrated and tested together until such time that the entire system can enter final production testing. Therefore the top of the diagram represents the high-level system view and the bottom of the diagram represents a very low-level view. Notes: V diagram describes lots of applicationsderived from software development.

Reason for shape, every phase of design requires a complimentary test phase. Highlevel to low-level view of application.

This is a simplified version. Loop Back/ Iterative process, X-axis is time (sum up).

Characteristics of Embedded System: An embedded system is any computer system hidden inside a product other than a computer There will encounter a number of difficulties when writing embedded system software in addition to those we encounter when we write applications Throughput Our system may need to handle a lot of data in a short period of time. ResponseOur system may need to react to events quickly TestabilitySetting up equipment to test embedded software can be difficult DebugabilityWithout a screen or a keyboard, finding out what the software is doing wrong (other than not working) is a troublesome problem Reliability embedded systems must be able to handle any situation without human intervention Memory space Memory is limited on embedded systems, and you must make the software and the data fit into whatever memory exists Program installation you will need special tools to get your software into embedded systems

Power consumption Portable systems must run on battery power, and the software in these systems must conserve power

Processor hogs computing that requires large amounts of CPU time can complicate the response problem

Cost Reducing the cost of the hardware is a concern in many embedded system projects; software often operates on hardware that is barely adequate for the job.

Embedded systems have a microprocessor/ microcontroller and a memory. Some have a serial port or a network connection. They usually do not have keyboards, screens or disk drives.

APPLICATIONS: 1. Military and aerospace embedded software applications 2. C om m uni c at i on App l i ca t i o ns 3. In du s t ri al au t om a t i on a nd p ro c es s co nt r ol so ft w ar e CLASSIFICATION: Real Time Systems. RTS is one which has to respond to events within a specified deadline. A right answer after the dead line is a wrong answer

RTS CLASSIFICATION: Hard Real Time Systems Soft Real Time System


"Hard" real-time systems have very narrow response time. Example: Nuclear power system, Cardiac pacemaker.

SOFT REAL TIME SYSTEM: "Soft" real-time systems have reduced constrains on "lateness" but still must operate very quickly and repeatable. Example: Railway reservation system takes a few extra seconds the data remains valid. LANGUAGES USED: C C++ Java Linux Ada Assembly

MPLAB FEATURES: MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a free, integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications employing Microchip's PIC and dsPIC microcontrollers. MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a free, integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications employing Microchip's PIC and dsPIC microcontrollers. MPLAB IDE runs as a 32-bit application on MS Windows, is easy to use and includes a host of free software components for fast application development and supercharged debugging. MPLAB IDE also serves as a single, unified graphical user interface for additional Microchip and third party software and hardware development tools. Moving between tools is a snap, and upgrading from the free software simulator to hardware debug and

programming tools is done in a flash because MPLAB IDE has the same user interface for all tools. MPLAB IDEs SIM, high speed software simulator for PIC and dsPIC (Digital Signal Processing PIC Microcontroller) devices with peripheral simulation, complex stimulus injection and register logging.


Block Diagram:

Power supply unit

GSM Network

Triaxis accelerometer Sensor

Single-Chip computer

GSM module

GPS Navigator module

GSM Network

Message to family and friends, rescue team


The major components of this project are micro controller, MEMS, GSM Module and GPS tracking devices and Mobile Unit.

Power supply: The Entire Project needs power for its operation. However, from the study of this project it comes to know that we supposed to design 5v and 12v dc power supply. So by utilizing the following power supply components required power has been gained. (230/12v (1A and 500mA) Step down transformers, Bridge rectifier to converter ac to dc, booster capacitor and +5v (7805) and +12v (7812) regulator to maintain constant 5v & 12 supply for the controller circuit and driver circuit).

PIC Microcontroller: The major heart of this project is PIC16F877A microcontroller, the reasons why we selected this in our project? it has more features like 16bit timer, 10-bit ADC, USART, SPI, I2C, 256 bytes of EEPROM memory, and 8kbytes of flash program memory, then at last its speed of program execution is about to 1 microsecond or 10 MIPS (10 Million Instructions per second), etc. However, compare to other microcontroller it is fast and very ease to program in C language because of huge support can gain from the manufacturer (Microchip Corporation)for programming. The special IDE offered by the manufacture, it is named as MPLAB IDE for it code generation purpose. Then one more thing is several cheapest programming tools to dump the coding in to the controller are available, for example: ProPIC, PIC Flash, ProMATE, and ProUniversal.


Overview: Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz, It is estimated that many countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership. Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunications applications. Throughout the evolution of cellular telecommunications, various systems have been developed without the benefit of standardized specifications. This presented many problems directly related to compatibility, especially with the development of digital radio technology. The GSM standard is intended to address these problems. From 1982 to 1985 discussions were held to decide between building an analog or digital system. After multiple field tests, a digital system was adopted for GSM. The next task was to decide between a narrow or broadband solution. In May 1987, the narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA) solution was chosen. GSM provides recommendations, not requirements. The GSM specifications define the functions and interface requirements in detail but do not address the hardware. The reason for this is to limit the designers as little as possible but still to make it possible for the operators to buy equipment from different suppliers. The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system (SS), the base station system (BSS), and the operation and support system (OSS).

GSM Architecture:

The Switching System: The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and subscriber-related functions. The switching system includes the following functional units.

Home Location Register (HLR) The HLR is a database used for storage and management of subscriptions. The HLR is considered the most important database, as it stores permanent data about subscribers, including a subscriber's service profile, location information, and activity status. When an individual buys a subscription from one of the PCS operators, he or she is registered in the HLR of that operator. Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) The MSC performs the telephony switching functions of the system. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. It also performs such functions as toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel signaling, and others. Visitor Location Register (VLR) The VLR is a database that contains temporary information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area, the VLR connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR. Later, if the mobile station makes a call, the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time. Authentication Center (AUC) A unit called the AUC provides authentication and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in today's cellular world. Equipment Identity Register (EIR) The EIR is a database that contains information about the identity of mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized, or defective mobile stations. The AUC and EIR are implemented as stand-alone nodes or as a combined AUC/EIR node.

The Base Station System (BSS): All radio-related functions are performed in the BSS, which consists of base station controllers (BSCs) and the base transceiver stations (BTSs). BSC The BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between the MSC and BTS. It is a high-capacity switch that provides functions such as handover, cell configuration data, and control of radio frequency (RF) power levels in base transceiver stations. A number of BSCs are served by an MSC. BTS The BTS handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The BTS is the radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the network. A group of BTSs are controlled by a BSC. The Operation and Support System: The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS). The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized, regional, and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations.

Additional Functional Elements: Message Center (MXE) The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice, fax, and data messaging. Specifically, the MXE handles short message service, cell broadcast, voice mail, fax mail, e-mail, and notification. Mobile Service Node (MSN) The MSN is the node that handles the mobile intelligent network (IN) services. Gateway Mobile Services Switching Center (GMSC) A gateway is a node used to interconnect two networks. The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC. Gsm Interworking Unit (GIWU) The GIWU consists of both hardware and software that provides an interface to various networks for data communications. Through the GIWU, users can alternate between speech and data during the same call. The GIWU hardware equipment is physically located at the MSC/VLR GSM Cellular Network: GSM is a cellular network, which means that mobile phones connect to it by searching for cells in the immediate vicinity. GSM networks operate in four different frequency ranges. Most GSM networks operate in the 900 MHz or 1800 MHz bands. Some countries in the Americas (including Canada and the United States) use the 850 MHz and 1900 MHz bands because the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands were already allocated. The rarer 400 and 450 MHz frequency bands are assigned in some countries where these frequencies were previously used for first-generation systems. GSM-900 uses 890915 MHz to send information from the mobile station to the base station (uplink) and 935960 MHz for the other direction (downlink), providing 124 RF

channels (channel numbers 1 to 124) spaced at 200 kHz. Duplex spacing of 45 MHz is used. In some countries the GSM-900 band has been extended to cover a larger frequency range. This 'extended GSM', E-GSM, uses 880915 MHz (uplink) and 925960 MHz (downlink), adding 50 channels (channel numbers 975 to 1023 and 0) to the original GSM-900 band. Time division multiplexing is used to allow eight full-rate or sixteen half-rate speech channels per radio frequency channel. There are eight radio timeslots (giving eight burst periods) grouped into what is called a TDMA frame. Half rate channels use alternate frames in the same timeslot. The channel data rate for all 8 channels is 270.833 kbit/s, and the frame duration is 4.615 ms. GSM has used a variety of voice codecs to squeeze 3.1 kHz audio into between 5.6 and 13 kbit/s. Originally, two codecs, named after the types of data channel they were allocated, were used, called Half Rate (5.6 kbit/s) and Full Rate (13 kbit/s). These used a system based upon linear predictive coding (LPC). In addition to being efficient with bitrates, these codecs also made it easier to identify more important parts of the audio, allowing the air interface layer to prioritize and better protect these parts of the signal GSM Network Classification: There are five different cell sizes in a GSM networkmacro, micro, Pico, femto and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell varies according to the implementation environment. Macro cells can be regarded as cells where the base station antenna is installed on a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level; they are typically used in urban areas. Pico cells are small cells whose coverage diameter is a few dozen meters; they are mainly used indoors. Femto cells are cells designed for use in residential or small business environments and connect to the service

providers network via a broadband internet connection. Umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells. Cell horizontal radius varies depending on antenna height, antenna gain and propagation conditions from a couple of hundred meters to several tens of kilometers. The longest distance the GSM specification supports in practical use is 35 kilometers (22 mi). There are also several implementations of the concept of an extended cell, where the cell radius could be double or even more, depending on the antenna system, the type of terrain and the timing advance. Indoor coverage is also supported by GSM and may be achieved by using an indoor pico cell base station, or an indoor repeater with distributed indoor antennas fed through power splitters, to deliver the radio signals from an antenna outdoors to the separate indoor distributed antenna system. These are typically deployed when a lot of call capacity is needed indoors, for example in shopping centers or airports. However, this is not a prerequisite, since indoor coverage is also provided by in-building penetration of the radio signals from nearby cells. The modulation used in GSM is Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK), a kind of continuous-phase frequency shift keying. In GMSK, the signal to be modulated onto the carrier is first smoothed with a Gaussian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency modulator, which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring

Subscriber Identity Module:

GSM transmitter One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM), commonly known as a SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the user's subscription information and phone book. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets. Alternatively, the user can also change operators while retaining the handset simply by changing the SIM. Some operators will block this by allowing the phone to use only a single SIM, or only a SIM issued by them; this practice is known as SIM locking, and is illegal in some countries. GSM security: GSM was designed with a moderate level of security. The system was designed to authenticate the subscriber using a pre-shared key and challenge-response. Communications between the subscriber and the base station can be encrypted. The development of UMTS introduces an optional USIM, that uses a longer authentication key to give greater security, as

well as mutually authenticating the network and the user - whereas GSM only authenticates the user to the network (and not vice versa). The security model therefore offers confidentiality and authentication, but limited authorization capabilities, and no nonrepudiation. GSM uses several cryptographic algorithms for security. The A5/1 and A5/2 stream ciphers are used for ensuring over-the-air voice privacy. A5/1 was developed first and is a stronger algorithm used within Europe and the United States; A5/2 is weaker and used in other countries. Serious weaknesses have been found in both algorithms: it is possible to break A5/2 in real-time with a cipher text-only attack, and in February 2008, Pico Computing, Inc revealed its ability and plans to commercialize FPGAs that allow A5/1 to be broken with a rainbow table attack [1]. The system supports multiple algorithms so operators may replace that cipher with a stronger one. GSM Modems and Modules A GSM modem is a wireless modem that works with a GSM wireless network. A wireless modem behaves like a dial-up modem. The main difference between them is that a dial-up modem sends and receives data through a fixed telephone line while a wireless modem sends and receives data through radio waves. A GSM modem can be an external device or a PC Card / PCMCIA Card. Typically, an external GSM modem is connected to a computer through a serial cable or a USB cable. A GSM modem in the form of a PC Card / PCMCIA Card is designed for use with a laptop computer. It should be inserted into one of the PC Card / PCMCIA Card slots of a laptop computer. Like a GSM mobile phone, a GSM modem requires a SIM card from a wireless carrier. Sim300 GSM Module (GSM / GPRS: SIM300)

Detailed Modem Description: The Sim300 is a Tri-Brand GSM GPRS solution in a compact plug-in module. Featuring an industry-standard interface, the sim300 delivers GSM GPRS 900 1800 1900MHz performance for voice, SMS, Data, and Fax in a small form factor and with low power consumption. The leading features of Sim300 make it ideal for virtually unlimited application, such as WLL applications (Fixed Cellular Terminal), M2M application, handheld devices and much more. 1) Sim300 is a Tri-band GSM GPRS module with a size of 40x33x2. 85mm 2) Customized MMI and keypad LCD support 3) An embedded Powerful TCP IP protocol stack 4) Based upon mature and field-proven platform, backed up by our support service, from definition to design and production.


OVERVIEW GPS is a Satellite Navigation System. GPS is funded by and controlled by the U. S. Department of Defense (DOD). While there are many thousands of civil users of GPS worldwide, the system was designed for and is operated by the U. S. military. GPS provides specially coded satellite signals that can be processed in a GPS receiver, enabling the receiver to compute position, velocity and time. Four GPS satellite signals are used to compute positions in three dimensions and the time offset in the receiver clock.

INTRODUCTION Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is a great boon to anyone who has the need to navigate either great or small distances. This wonderful navigation technology was actually first available for government use back in the late 1970s. In the past ten or so years, It has been made available to the general public in the form of handheld receivers that use this satellite technology provided by the U.S. government. Through the use of these handheld receivers, one can navigate back to a starting point or other predetermined locations without the use of maps or any other equipment. In conjunction with accurate maps like ones provided by the USGS, and other basic tools like a compass and Lat/Long or UTM scales, one can navigate to identified locations on maps or take readings from a location that they are at or have been at and plot those locations on a map. All of these features make it a very desirable and useful technology for a mirid of activities including Search and Rescue, Aviation and Nautical navigation, hiking, hunting, camping, fishing, and many more. All of these various GPS users have unique needs which require different levels of understanding and skill in using this technology. Operating Principles: The basis of the GPS technology is a set of 24 satellites that are continuously orbiting the earth. These satellites are equipped with atomic clocks and send out radio signals as to the exact time and their location. These radio signals from the satellites are picked up by the GPS receiver. Once the GPS receiver locks on to four or more of these satellites, it can triangulate its location from the known positions of the satellites. This is a very simple explanation, but

unless you are a surveyor or engineer who needs to understand how to use GPS to locate within fractions of an inch, this is all you really need to know. Regarding the issue of time, UTC (UTC - Universal Time Coordinated: The time on which
all G.P.S. signals are synchronized, same as Greenwich Mean Time.) time is the basis of all GPS

time functions and calculations. If nothing else, in owning a GPS receiver, you have in your possession the most accurate time piece available. Your receiver updates itself from the atomic clocks on the satellites. It is also very important for you to understand that your receiver must know the time difference between your location and of Greenwich England or UTC time. This is a function in the set-up of all GPS receivers. With many GPS manufacturers, this is referred to as Offset which is referring to the offset or difference in time zones from the present location to UTC time. The function ability of a receiver is dependent on the ability to receive signals from the satellites. Certain locations such as under very thick foliage or down in the bottom of a slot canyon will preclude your receiver from getting a good signal from enough satellites to determine your location. With many of the newer receivers however, these problems are minimal. All receivers have warning messages when they are not getting sufficient signal to properly navigate. The 3 segments of GPS The NAVSTAR system( the acronym for Navigation Satellite Timing and Ranging, the official U.S Department of Defense name for GPS) consists of a space segment(the satellites), a control segment (the ground stations), and a user segment( user with GPS receiver).

Position and Time from Four GPS Satellite Signals

Space Segment The Space Segment of the system consists of the GPS satellites. These space vehicles (SPACE VEHICLES s) send radio signals from space.

GPS Satellite

The nominal GPS Operational Constellation consists of 24 satellites that orbit the earth in 12 hours. There are often more than 24 operational satellites as new ones are launched to replace older satellites. The satellite orbits repeat almost the same ground track (as the earth turns beneath them) once each day. The orbit altitude is such that the satellites repeat the same track and configuration over any point approximately each 24 hours (4 minutes earlier each day). There are six orbital planes (with nominally four SPACE VEHICLES s in each), equally spaced (60 degrees apart), and inclined at about fifty-five

degrees with respect to the equatorial plane. This constellation provides the user with between five and eight SPACE VEHICLES s visible from any point on the earth. GPS Constellation

GPS Satellites and Ground Tracks

GPS Nominal Orbit Planes

Control Segment The Control Segment consists of a system of tracking stations located around the world GPS Master Control and Monitor Network

The Master Control facility is located at Schriever Air Force Base (formerly Falcon AFB) in Colorado. These monitor stations measure signals from the SPACE VEHICLES s which are incorporated into orbital models for each satellites. The models compute precise orbital data (ephemeris) and SPACE VEHICLES clock corrections for each satellite. The Master Control station uploads ephemeris and clock data to the SPACE VEHICLES s. The SPACE VEHICLES s then send subsets of the orbital ephemeris data to GPS receivers over radio signals.

GPS Control Monitor

User Segment The GPS User Segment consists of the GPS receivers and the user community. GPS receivers convert SPACE VEHICLES signals into position, velocity, and time estimates. Four satellites are required to compute the four dimensions of X, Y, Z (position) and Time. GPS receivers are used for navigation, positioning, time dissemination, and other research. Navigation in three dimensions is the primary function of GPS. Navigation receivers are made for aircraft, ships, ground vehicles, and for hand carrying by individuals.

GPS Navigation

Precise positioning is possible using GPS receivers at reference locations providing corrections and relative positioning data for remote receivers. Surveying, geodetic control, and plate tectonic studies are examples. Time and frequency dissemination, based on the precise clocks on board the SPACE VEHICLES s and controlled by the monitor stations, is another use for GPS. Astronomical observatories, telecommunications facilities, and laboratory standards can be set to precise time signals or controlled to accurate frequencies by special purpose GPS receivers. Research projects have used GPS signals to measure atmospheric parameters.

GPS Receiver Set-Up: To be able to properly use a GPS receiver, it needs to be set-up and initialized. Set-up establishes the basic information about the units of distance, speed, Map Datum, Navigation Grid system, time difference from Greenwich England or UTC time, and other basics. The users manual that comes with each GPS receiver gives detailed instructions on the process of selecting the options for initialization and set-up. This must be done to be able to use the unit for navigation. Most Common Set-up Components: 1. Initialization Initialization is the process of telling the receiver your approximate location on the surface of the earth. This must be done the first time you use the receiver or if it has moved more than 300 miles from the last location where it was being used. Otherwise, it will take an unreasonable amount of time for the receiver to establish what is called a Position Fix. 2. Units, for speed, distance etc. Self explanatory, units of feet, meters, miles. 3. Grid System Latitude & Longitude or UTM can be selected. Lat./Long usually has choices of Degrees, Minutes, & seconds or Degrees, Minutes, and ,oo Minutes (instead of seconds).

4. Datum This references the map that coordinates will be plotted on or taken from. A common datum is NAD27 ). 5. North reference Either Magnetic North (same as compass) or True North. 6. Time Offset. From UTC Time zone difference from Greenwich England. Once the set-up has been completed and the unit has been initialized, it will then lock on the signals of three or more satellites and establish a Position Fix. The Position Fix is the calculated position of the receivers current location. GPS Receiver Basic Use : Once the receiver is initialized and set-up, the most useful and immediate function is to save the current position as a waypoint. Saving Current Position as a Waypoint: To save the current position as a named or numbered waypoint you must access the function for your unit that does this. On many of the Garmin units, the "MARK" button is specifically for this purpose. Other units may access a menu first where "Create Waypoint" or some other related option is available. Usually, the current position coordinates are then displayed and can be edited if you choose to create a waypoint that is not the current location. If you are saving the current position, you then proceed with the menu choices to name and save the waypoint. With many units available, the waypoint will automatically be assigned a sequential number that can be changed to a name of your choosing. This is so a waypoint can

be saved quickly and the name noted. You can go back later and rename it if you choose or you can rename it as you are saving it initially. The naming process is usually simple using the up and down arrows of your keypad to choose various letters and the left and right arrows being used to move to the different characters. This process will be adequately described in the users manual. GOTO Once a location has been saved as a waypoint, the next obvious activity will be to navigate to that waypoint when you are away from it. In almost all GPS units this is called the "GOTO" function. A classic example would be if you were going hiking or camping and acquired a position fix at your camp and named it something like "CAMP399". Try and use something descriptive enough so as not to be confused with other names. In our example, we put the month and year at the end of the name so we will know more about it. It is important for you to understand that you will get confusing headings and distances using the GOTO, if you dont get more that about mile away first. If you activate the GOTO right after saving the waypoint and are essentially in the same location, you are very likely to get indications that it is .2 to .3 miles away. This is primarily due to Selected Availability errors, but may be confusing if you dont understand the problem. When you activate the GOTO, the receiver will then go into the navigation mode and you will have on your display any of a number of "Navigation Screens" available. There are options to select various Navigation Screens and a default one can usually be established in Set-up. The main types of screens available are:

Highway - This screen looks like a highway and shows the direction you are progressing toward the destination. You will have values displayed for Heading, Distance, and Speed. CDI - Course Deviation Indicator: This has a horizontal graph usually towards the bottom of the screen with the center representing being on course. If you deviate to the left or right, a pointer or vertical line will indicate that you are to the left or right of course and a numeric value will usually indicate by how much. This screen also has values displayed for Heading, Distance, and Speed. Compass Card - This display shows a set of compass values with a pointer indicating what direction you are traveling. This screen also has values displayed for Heading, Distance, and Speed. There is some variety in Navigation Screens, but the essential information on Bearing, Heading, Distance and Speed are always displayed. It is important to understand the difference between Bearing and Heading when navigating to a waypoint. Bearing - This is the compass heading (When Magnetic North is in Set-up) to the waypoint. Heading - This is the direction you are traveling. Ideally if terrain were not a consideration, the Heading would be the same as the Bearing. GPS Satellite Signals The SPACE VEHICLES transmit two microwave carrier signals. The L1 frequency (1575.42 MHz) carries the navigation message and the SPS code signals. The L2 frequency (1227.60 MHz) is used to measure the ionospheric delay by receivers. Three binary codes shift the L1 and/or L2 carrier phase.

The C/A Code (Coarse Acquisition) modulates the L1 carrier phase. The C/A code is a repeating 1 MHz Pseudo Random Noise (PRN) Code. This noise-like code modulates the L1 carrier signal, "spreading" the spectrum over a 1 MHz bandwidth. The C/A code repeats every 1023 bits (one millisecond). There is a different C/A code PRN for each SPACE VEHICLES. GPS satellites are often identified by their PRN number, the unique identifier for each pseudo-random-noise code. The C/A code that modulates the L1 carrier is the basis for the civil SPS. The P-Code (Precise) modulates both the L1 and L2 carrier phases. The P-Code is a very long (seven days) 10 MHz PRN code. In the Anti-Spoofing (AS) mode of operation, the P-Code is encrypted into the Y-Code. The encrypted Y-Code requires a classified AS Module for each receiver channel and is for use only by authorized users with cryptographic keys. The P (Y)-Code is the basis for the PPS. The Navigation Message also modulates the L1-C/A code signal. The Navigation Message is a 50 Hz signal consisting of data bits that describe the GPS satellite orbits, clock corrections, and other system parameters. GPS Signals

GPS Data The GPS Navigation Message consists of time-tagged data bits marking the time of transmission of each sub frame at the time they are transmitted by the SPACE VEHICLES. A data bit frame consists of 1500 bits divided into five 300-bit sub frames. A data frame is transmitted every thirty seconds. Three six-second sub frames contain orbital and clock data. SPACE VEHICLES Clock corrections are sent in sub frame one and precise SPACE VEHICLES orbital data sets (ephemeris data parameters) for the transmitting SPACE VEHICLES are sent in sub frames two and three. Sub frames four and five are used to transmit different pages of system data. An entire set of twenty-five frames (125 sub frames) makes up the complete Navigation Message that is sent over a 12.5 minute period. Data frames (1500 bits) are sent every thirty seconds. Each frame consists of five sub frames. Data bit sub frames (300 bits transmitted over six seconds) contain parity bits that allow for data checking and limited error correction.




Clock data parameters describe the SPACE VEHICLES clock and its relationship to GPS time. Ephemeris data parameters describe SPACE VEHICLES orbits for short sections of the satellite orbits. Normally, a receiver gathers new ephemeris data each hour, but can use old data for up to four hours without much error. The ephemeris parameters are used with an algorithm that computes the SPACE VEHICLES position for any time within the period of the orbit described by the ephemeris parameter set. Almanacs are approximate orbital data parameters for all SPACE VEHICLES s. The ten-parameter almanacs describe SPACE VEHICLES orbits over extended periods of time (useful for months in some cases) and a set for all SPACE VEHICLES s is sent by each SPACE VEHICLES over a period of 12.5 minutes (at least). Signal acquisition time on receiver start-up can be significantly aided by the availability of current almanacs. The approximate orbital data is used to preset the receiver with the approximate position and

carrier Doppler frequency (the frequency shift caused by the rate of change in range to the moving SPACE VEHICLES) of each SPACE VEHICLES in the constellation. Each complete SPACE VEHICLES data set includes an ionospheric model that is used in the receiver to approximates the phase delay through the ionosphere at any location and time. Each SPACE VEHICLES sends the amount to which GPS Time is offset from Universal Coordinated Time. This correction can be used by the receiver to set UTC to within 100 ns. D) MICRO-ELECTRO-MECHANICAL SYSTEMS (MEMS): Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through micro fabrication technology. While the electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences (e.g., CMOS, Bipolar, or BICMOS processes), the micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible "micromachining add new structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical devices. MEMS promises to revolutionize nearly every product category by bringing together silicon-based microelectronics with micromachining technology, making possible the realization of complete systems-on-a-chip. MEMS is an enabling technology allowing the development of smart products, augmenting the computational ability of microelectronics with the perception and control capabilities of micro sensors and micro actuators and expanding the space of possible designs and applications. Microelectronic integrated circuits can be thought of as the "brains" of a system and MEMS augments this decision-making capability with "eyes" and "arms", to allow Microsystems to sense and control the environment. Sensors gather information from the environment through measuring mechanical, thermal, biological, chemical, optical, and magnetic phenomena. The electronics then process the information derived from the sensors and through some decision making capability direct the actuators to respond by moving, positioning, regulating, pumping, and filtering, thereby controlling the environment for some desired outcome or purpose. Because MEMS devices are manufactured using batch fabrication

techniques similar to those used for integrated circuits, unprecedented levels of functionality, reliability, and sophistication can be placed on a small silicon chip at a relatively low cost.

Circuit Diagram:
Schematic Diagram of MEMS and its Interfacing

Here we are using MEMS accelerometer to measure the level of vibration also used for tilt or alignment of the motor also... Accelerometers can be used for measuring both dynamic and static measurements of acceleration. The Free scale MMA6200Q and MMA7260Q series accelerometers are good solutions for XY and XYZ tilt sensing. These devices provide a sensitivity of 800mV/g in 3.3V applications. All of these accelerometers will experience acceleration in the range of +1g to -1g as the device is tilted from -90 degrees to +90 degrees.

The MAX232 family of line drivers/receivers is intended for all EIA/TIA-232E communications interfaces. MAX232 is a level converter which converts the voltage levels coming from one side, compatible to another side. So it helps in communication between microcontroller and GSM and also between GSM and PC, performing RS232 communication. Some of the features are,

Operate from Single +5V Power Supply

Low-Power Receive Mode in Shutdown (MAX223/MAX242) Meet All EIA/TIA-232E and V.28 Specifications Multiple Drivers and Receivers 3-State Driver and Receiver Outputs Open-Line Detection (MAX243)

Table showing voltage levels in and out using MAX232

TTL Voltage to/from RS232 Line Type & Logic Level RS232 Voltage MAX232 Data Transmission (Rx/Tx) Logic 0 Data Transmission (Rx/Tx) Logic 1 Control Signals (RTS/CTS/DTR/DSR) Logic 0 +3 V to +15 V -3 V to -15 V -3 V to -15 V 0V 5V 5V 0V

Control Signals (RTS/CTS/DTR/DSR) Logic 1 +3 V to +15 V

It is helpful to understand what occurs to the voltage levels. When a MAX232 IC receives a TTL level to convert, it changes a TTL Logic 0 to between +3 and +15 V, and changes TTL Logic 1 to between -3 to -15 V, and vice versa for converting from RS232 to TTL. This can

be confusing when you realize that the RS232 Data Transmission voltages at a certain logic state are opposite from the RS232 Control Line voltages at the same logic state. To clarify the matter, see the table below. For more information see RS-232 Voltage Levels.


1.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DISCRIPTION POWER SUPPLY: Power supply unit consists of Step down transformer, Rectifier, Input filter, Regulator unit, Output filter. The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly, thus it is stepped down. The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. To reduce or step down the voltage, the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential. This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit. The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage. There are Half-Wave, Full-Wave and bridge Rectifiers available for this specific function. The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias. Capacitors are used as filter. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging. It charges in positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle. Here we used 1000F capacitor. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. This filter is fixed before the regulator. Thus the output is free from ripples. Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. As and then the AC voltage changes, the DC voltage also changes. Thus to avoid this Regulators are used. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms, the output gets affected. Thus this can be successfully reduced here. The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage. Here we used 7805 & 7812 positive regulators. 7805 it reduces the 12V dc voltage to 5V dc Voltage and 7812 it will maintain constant 12. The Filter circuit is often fixed after the Regulator circuit. Capacitor is most often used as filter. The principle of the capacitor is to charge and discharge. It charges during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and discharges during the negative half cycle. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. This filter is fixed after the

Regulator circuit to filter any of the possibly found ripples in the output received finally. Here we used 0.1F capacitor. MICCONTROLLER CIRCUIT: The PIC 16f877A microcontroller is a 40-pin IC. The first pin of the controller is MCLR pin and the 5V dc supply is given to this pin through 10K resistor. This supply is also given to 11th pin directly. The 12th pin of the controller is grounded. A tank circuit consists of a 4 MHZ crystal oscillator and two 22pf capacitors are connected to 13 th and 14th pins of the PIC. 2.WORKING PRINCIPLE OF THE PROJECT A tracking device that employs the GPS and GSM and MEMS utilizes the following as its major components: A GPS Tracking device, a GPS server and a user interface. Actually what is done here is that, the tracking device is placed in the vehicle which is activated when the user desires to switch ON and with the help of the global positioning satellite, the data is transmitted and is available online. Using suitable map software, the user can determine the exact location of the tracked system. This uses the GPS server and the user interface during transmission and reception of valid data.The major drawback here is the cost, owing to the specific use of positioning satellites and the internet access that is required a) TRANSMITTER CIRCUIT: The transmitter circuit consists Gsm, Gps is directly connected to micro controller PC7 pin for giving the input.And Gsm is connected to micro controller transmitter pin (i.e. PC6) for transmitting the data received from micro controller. b) RECEIVER CIRCUIT: The receiver circuit consists of LCD display and Gsm receiver. GSM is directly connected to micro controller transmitter and receiver pins (i.e. PC7 and PC6) to receive the data from transmitter circuit and sends the data to micro controller. LCD data pins are connected to micro controller PORT D pins and RS is connected to PC1 for register select, RW is connected to PC2 for read write operations and EN is connected to PC3 for enabling the LCD. The total LCD is used for display whether the passengers are available in next stop or not to the driver.

A. MICROCONTROLLER INTRODUCTION TO MICROCONTROLLER: A computer-on-a-chip is a variation of a microprocessor which combines the processor core (CPU), some memory, and I/O (input/output) lines, all on one chip. The computer-on-a-chip is called the microcomputer whose proper meaning is a computer using a (number of) microprocessor(s) as its CPUs, while the concept of the microcomputer is known to be a microcontroller. A microcontroller can be viewed as a set of digital logic circuits integrated on a single silicon chip. This chip is used for only specific applications. Most microcontrollers do not require a substantial amount of time to learn how to efficiently program them, although many of them, which have quirks, which you will have to understand before you, attempt to develop your first application. Along with microcontrollers getting faster, smaller and more power efficient they are also getting more and more features. Often, the first version of microcontroller will just have memory and digital I/O, but as the device family matures, more and more pat numbers with varying features will be available. In this project we used PIC 16f877A microcontroller. For most applications, we will be able to find a device within the family that meets our specifications with a minimum of external devices, or an external but which will make attaching external devices easier, both in terms of wiring and programming. For many microcontrollers, programmers can built very cheaply, or even built in to the final application circuit eliminating the need for a separate circuit. Also simplifying this requirement is the availability of micro-controllers wit SRAM and EEPROM for control

store, which will allow program development without having to remove the micro controller from the application circuit. PIC MICRO CONTROLLER CORE FEATURES: High-performance RISC CPU. Only 35 single word instructions to learn. All single cycle instructions except for program branches which are two cycle. Operating speed: DC - 20 MHz clock input DC - 200 ns instruction cycle. Up to 8K x 14 words of FLASH Program Memory, Up to 368 x 8 bytes of Data Memory (RAM) Up to 256 x 8 bytes of EEPROM data memory. Pin out compatible to the PIC16C73B/74B/76/77 Interrupt capability (up to 14 sources) Eight level deep hardware stack Direct, indirect and relative addressing modes. Power-on Reset (POR). Power-up Timer (PWRT) and Oscillator Start-up Timer (OST). Watchdog Timer (WDT) with its own on-chip RC oscillator for reliable operation. Programmable code-protection. Power saving SLEEP mode. Selectable oscillator options. Low-power, high-speed CMOS FLASH/EEPROM technology. Fully static design. InSingle 5V In-Circuit Serial Programming capability. In-Circuit Debugging via two pins.

Processor read/write access to program memory. Wide operating voltage range: 2.0V to 5.5V. High Sink/Source Current: 25 mA. Commercial and Industrial temperature ranges. Low-power consumption. In this project we used PIC 16f877A microcontroller. PIC means Peripheral Interface

Controller. The PIC family having different series. The series are 12- Series, 14- Series, 16Series, 18- Series, and 24- Series. We used 16 Series PIC microcontrollers. ADVANTAGES OF USING A MICROCONTROLLER OVER MICROPROCESSOR: A designer will use a Microcontroller to Gather input from various sensors Process this input into a set of actions Use the output mechanisms on the Microcontroller to do something useful RAM and ROM are inbuilt in the MC. Cheap compared to MP. Multi machine control is possible simultaneously. 8051 (ATMEL), PIC (Microchip), Motorola (Motorola), ARM Processor.


APPLICATIONS: Cell phones. Computers. Robots. Interfacing to two pcs.




POWER SUPPLY UNIT COSISTS OF FOLLOWING UNITS: 1) Step down transformer 2) Rectifier unit 3) Input filter 4) Regulator unit v) Output filter STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER: The Step down Transformer is used to step down the main supply voltage from 230V AC to lower value. This 230 AC voltage cannot be used directly, thus it is stepped down. The Transformer consists of primary and secondary coils. To reduce or step down the voltage, the transformer is designed to contain less number of turns in its secondary core. The output from the secondary coil is also AC waveform. Thus the conversion from AC to DC is essential. This conversion is achieved by using the Rectifier Circuit/Unit. RECTIFIER UNIT: The Rectifier circuit is used to convert the AC voltage into its corresponding DC voltage. There are Half-Wave, Full-Wave and bridge Rectifiers available for this specific

function. The most important and simple device used in Rectifier circuit is the diode. The simple function of the diode is to conduct when forward biased and not to conduct in reverse bias. The Forward Bias is achieved by connecting the diodes positive with positive of the battery and negative with batterys negative. The efficient circuit used is the Full wave Bridge rectifier circuit. The output voltage of the rectifier is in rippled form, the ripples from the obtained DC voltage are removed using other circuits available. The circuit used for removing the ripples is called Filter circuit. INPUT FILTER: Capacitors are used as filter. The ripples from the DC voltage are removed and pure DC voltage is obtained. And also these capacitors are used to reduce the harmonics of the input voltage. The primary action performed by capacitor is charging and discharging. It charges in positive half cycle of the AC voltage and it will discharge in negative half cycle. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. This filter is fixed before the regulator. Thus the output is free from ripples. REGULATOR UNIT:

7805 REGULATOR Regulator regulates the output voltage to be always constant. The output voltage is maintained irrespective of the fluctuations in the input AC voltage. As and then the AC voltage changes, the DC voltage also changes. Thus to avoid this Regulators are used. Also when the internal resistance of the power supply is greater than 30 ohms, the output gets

affected. Thus this can be successfully reduced here. The regulators are mainly classified for low voltage and for high voltage. Further they can also be classified as: 1) Positive regulator Input pin Ground pin Output pin

It regulates the positive voltage. 2) Negative regulator Ground pin Input pin Output pin

It regulates the negative voltage. OUTPUT FILTER: The Filter circuit is often fixed after the Regulator circuit. Capacitor is most often used as filter. The principle of the capacitor is to charge and discharge. It charges during the positive half cycle of the AC voltage and discharges during the negative half cycle. So it allows only AC voltage and does not allow the DC voltage. This filter is fixed after the Regulator circuit to filter any of the possibly found ripples in the output received finally. Here we used 0.1F capacitor. The output at this stage is 5V and is given to the Microcontroller.

SOFTWARE TOOLS HI-Tech PIC C Compiler MPLAB Protel Propic

INTRODUCTION TO EMBEDDED C: Ex: Hitec c, Keil c HI-TECH Software makes industrial-strength software development tools and C compilers that help software developers write compact, efficient embedded processor code. For over two decades HI-TECH Software has delivered the industry's most reliable embedded software development tools and compilers for writing efficient and compact code to run on the most popular embedded processors. Used by tens of thousands of customers including General Motors, Whirlpool, Qualcomm, John Deere and many others, HI-TECH's reliable development tools and C compilers, combined with world-class support have helped serious embedded software programmers to create hundreds of breakthrough new solutions. Whichever embedded processor family you are targeting with your software, whether it is the ARM, PICC or 8051 series, HI-TECH tools and C compilers can help you write better code and bring it to market faster. HI-TECH PICC is a high-performance C compiler for the Microchip PIC micro 10/12/14/16/17 series of microcontrollers. HI-TECH PICC is an industrial-strength ANSI C compiler - not a subset implementation like some other PIC compilers. The PICC compiler implements full ISO/ANSI C, with the exception of recursion. All data types are supported including 24 and 32 bit IEEE standard floating point. HI-TECH PICC makes full use of specific PIC features and using an intelligent optimizer, can generate high-quality code easily rivaling hand-written assembler. Automatic handling of page and bank selection frees the programmer from the trivial details of assembler code.

EMBEDDED C COMPILER ANSI C - full featured and portable Reliable - mature, field-proven technology Multiple C optimization levels An optimizing assembler Full linker, with overlaying of local variables to minimize RAM usage Comprehensive C library with all source code provided Includes support for 24-bit and 32-bit IEEE floating point and 32-bit long data types Mixed C and assembler programming Unlimited number of source files Listings showing generated assembler Compatible - integrates into the MPLAB IDE, MPLAB ICD and most 3rd-party development tools Runs on multiple platforms: Windows, Linux, UNIX, Mac OS X, Solaris

MPLAB INTEGRATION MPLAB Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a free, integrated toolset for the development of embedded applications employing Microchip's PIC micro and dsPIC microcontrollers. MPLAB IDE runs as a 32-bit application on MS Windows, is easy to use and includes a host of free software components for fast application development and super-charged debugging. MPLAB IDE also serves as a single, unified graphical user interface for additional Microchip and third party software and hardware development tools. Moving between tools is a snap, and upgrading from the free simulator to MPLAB ICD 2 or the MPLAB ICE emulator is done in a flash because MPLAB IDE has the same user interface for all tools. Choose MPLAB C18, the highly optimized compiler for the PIC18 series microcontrollers, or try the newest Microchip's language tools compiler, MPLAB C30, targeted at the high performance PIC24 and dsPIC digital signal controllers. Or, use one of the many products from third party language tools vendors. They integrate into

MPLAB IDE to function transparently from the MPLAB project manager, editor and compiler. EMBEDDED DEVELOPMENT ENVIRONMENT This environment allows you to manage all of your PIC projects. You can compile, assemble and link your embedded application with a single step. Optionally, the compiler may be run directly from the command line, allowing you to compile, assemble and link using one command. This enables the compiler to be integrated into third party development environments, such as Microchip's MPLAB IDE. EMBEDDED SYSTEM TOOLS ASSEMBLER An assembler is a computer program for translating assembly language essentially, a mnemonic representation of machine language into object code. A cross assembler (see cross compiler) produces code for one type of processor, but runs on another. The computational step where an assembler is run is known as assembly time. Translating assembly instruction mnemonics into opcodes, assemblers provide the ability to use symbolic names for memory locations (saving tedious calculations and manually updating addresses when a program is slightly modified), and macro facilities for performing textual substitution typically used to encode common short sequences of instructions to run inline instead of in a subroutine. Assemblers are far simpler to write than compilers for high-level languages. ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE HAS SEVERAL BENEFITS Speed: Assembly language programs are generally the fastest programs around. Space: Assembly language programs are often the smallest. Capability: You can do things in assembly which are difficult or impossible in High level languages. Knowledge: Your knowledge of assembly language will help you write better programs, even when using High level languages. An example of an assembler we use in our project is RAD 51. SIMULATOR Simulator is a machine that simulates an environment for the purpose of training or research. We use a UMPS simulator for this purpose in our project.

COMPILER A compiler is a program that reads a program in one language, the source language and translates into an equivalent program in another language, the target language. The translation process should also report the presence of errors in the source program. Source Program Target Program


Error Messages

There are two parts of compilation. The analysis part breaks up the source program into constant piece and creates an intermediate representation of the source program. The synthesis part constructs the desired target program from the intermediate representation. COUSINS OF THE COMPILER ARE 1. Preprocessor. 2. Assembler. 3. Loader and Link-editor. A naive approach to that front end might run the phases serially. 1. Lexical analyzer takes the source program as an input and produces a long string of tokens. 2. Syntax Analyzer takes an out of lexical analyzer and produces a large tree. Semantic analyzer takes the output of syntax analyzer and produces another tree. Similarly, intermediate code generator takes a tree as an input produced by semantic analyzer and produces intermediate code

PHASES OF COMPILER The compiler has a number of phases plus symbol table manager and an error handler. Input Source Program Lexical Analyzer Syntax Analyzer Symbol Table Manager

Semantic Analyzer Intermediate Code Generator Code Optimizer Code

Error Handler

Generator Out Target

Program FABRICATION DETAILS The fabrication of one demonstration unit is carried out in the following sequence. Finalizing the total circuit diagram, listing out the components and sources of procurement. Procuring the components, testing the components and screening the components. Making layout, repairing the interconnection diagram as per the circuit diagram. Assembling the components as per the component layout and circuit diagram and soldering components. Integrating the total unit, interwiring the unit and final testing the unit.

DESIGN OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM Like every other system development design cycle embedded system too have a design cycle. The flow of the system will be like as given below. For any design cycle these will be the implementation steps. From the initial state of the project to the final fabrication the design considerations will be taken like the software consideration and the hardware components, sensor, input and output. The electronics usually uses either a microprocessor or a microcontroller. Some large or old systems use general-purpose mainframe computers or minicomputers. USER INTERFACES User interfaces for embedded systems vary widely, and thus deserve some special comment. User interface is the ultimate aim for an embedded module as to the user to check the output with complete convenience. One standard interface, widely used in embedded systems, uses two buttons (the absolute minimum) to control a menu system (just to be clear, one button should be "next menu entry" the other button should be "select this menu entry").

Another basic trick is to minimize and simplify the type of output. Designs sometimes use a status light for each interface plug, or failure condition, to tell what failed. A cheap variation is to have two light bars with a printed matrix of errors that they select- the user can glue on the labels for the language that he speaks. For example, most small computer printers use lights labeled with stick-on labels that can be printed in any language. In some markets, these are delivered with several sets of labels, so customers can pick the most comfortable language. In many organizations, one person approves the user interface. Often this is a customer, the major distributor or someone directly responsible for selling the system. PLATFORM There are many different CPU architectures used in embedded designs such as ARM, MIPS, Coldfire/68k, PowerPC, X86, PIC, 8051, Atmel AVR, H8, SH, V850, FR-V, M32R etc. This in contrast to the desktop computer market, which as of this writing (2003) is limited to just a few competing architectures, mainly the Intel/AMD x86, and the Apple/Motorola/IBM PowerPC, used in the Apple Macintosh. With the growing acceptance of Java in this field, there is a tendency to even further eliminate the dependency on specific CPU/hardware (and OS) requirements. Standard PC/104 is a typical base for small, low-volume embedded and ruggedized system design. These often use DOS, Linux or an embedded real-time operating system such as QNX or Inferno. A common configuration for very-high-volume embedded systems is the system on a chip, an application-specific integrated circuit, for which the CPU was purchased as intellectual property to add to the IC's design. A related common scheme is to use a fieldprogrammable gate array, and program it with all the logic, including the CPU. Most modern FPGAs are designed for this purpose. TOOLS Like typical computer programmers, embedded system designers use compilers, assemblers, and debuggers to develop embedded system software. However, they also use a few tools that are unfamiliar to most programmers. Software tools can come from several sources:

Software companies that specialize in the embedded market. Ported from the GNU software development tools. Sometimes, development tools for a personal computer can be used if the embedded

processor is a close relative to a common PC processor. Embedded system designers also use a few software tools rarely used by typical computer programmers. One common tool is an "in-circuit emulator" (ICE) or, in more modern designs, an embedded debugger. This debugging tool is the fundamental trick used to develop embedded code. It replaces or plugs into the microprocessor, and provides facilities to quickly load and debug experimental code in the system. A small pod usually provides the special electronics to plug into the system. Often a personal computer with special software attaches to the pod to provide the debugging interface. Another common tool is a utility program (often home-grown) to add a checksum or CRC to a program, so it can check its program data before executing it. An embedded programmer that develops software for digital signal processing often has a math workbench such as MathCad or Mathematics to simulate the mathematics. Less common are utility programs to turn data files into code, so one can include any kind of data in a program. A few projects use Synchronous programming languages for extra reliability or digital signal processing. DEBUGGING Debugging is usually performed with an in-circuit emulator, or some type of debugger that can interrupt the microcontroller's internal microcode. The microcode interrupt lets the debugger operate in hardware in which only the CPU works. The CPU-based debugger can be used to test and debug the electronics of the computer from the viewpoint of the CPU. This feature was pioneered on the PDP-11. As the complexity of embedded systems grows, higher level tools and operating systems are migrating into machinery where it makes sense. For example, cell phones, personal digital assistants and other consumer computers often need significant software that is purchased or provided by a person other than the manufacturer of the electronics. In these systems, an open programming environment such as Linux, OSGi or Embedded Java is required so that the third-party software provider can sell to a large market.

OPERATING SYSTEM Embedded systems often have no operating system, or a specialized embedded operating system (often a real-time operating system), or the programmer is assigned to port one of these to the new system. BUILT- IN SELF- TEST Most embedded systems have some degree or amount of built-in self-test. There are several basic types. 1. Testing the computer. 2. Test of peripherals. 3. Tests of power. 4. Communication tests. 5. Cabling tests. 6. Rigging tests. 7. Consumables test. 8. Operational test. 9. Safety test. START UP All embedded systems have start-up code. Usually it disables interrupts, sets up the electronics, tests the computer (RAM, CPU and software), and then starts the application code. Many embedded systems recover from short-term power failures by restarting (without recent self-tests). Restart times under a tenth of a second are common. Many designers have found a few LEDs useful to indicate errors (they help troubleshooting). A common scheme is to have the electronics turn on all of the LED(s) at reset (thereby proving that power is applied and the LEDs themselves work), whereupon the software changes the LED pattern as the Power-On Self Test executes. After that, the software may blink the LED(s) or set up light patterns during normal operation to indicate

program execution progress or errors. This serves to reassure most technicians/engineers and some users. An interesting exception is that on electric power meters and other items on the street, blinking lights are known to attract attention and vandalism.


1. Step Down Transformer 2. Capacitors 3. Regulators 4. Light Emitting Diodes 5. PIC microcontroller 6. Crystal Oscillator 7. Resistors 8. GSM MODEM 9. GPS MODEM 10. MEMS(Triaxis accelerometer sensor) 11. MAX232

:( 230 /12V) Diodes :( 1N4007) 8 No. : 1000F 2 No., 22pF- 4 Nos. : 7805 2 No., 7812 1No. : LED`s 6Nos. : 16f877A 2 Nos. : 4MHz 2Nos. :330 2Nos.,10 K- 2 Nos., 1 K 6Nos.,


1. Reduce the road Traffic Accidents.

2.Find out the accident spot accurately.

3.The control module controls all the information. 4.Information detection module. 5. message sending module.



An automatic alarm device for traffic accidents is designed in this paper. It can shorten the alarm time greatly and locate the accident spot accurately, realizing the automation of accident detection and information transmission. Consequently, it will save the rescuers form wasting their time in search. The experiments of model cars collision and rollover proved that this system can automatically detect corresponding accident and sent related information. Such functions can be achieved by buttons representing "false alarm", help and safety, respectively.


1. Introduction System to GSM and GPS Systems. Antionio.J. Williams 2. The Personal mobile utilization for security and safety purpose of vehicles moving in highways. EFY- DEC-2007. 3. http://www.radio-electronics.com 4. http://www.8051projects.info/exp12_8.asp 5. http://embsystechnologies.com/products-r-and-d-academic-engineeringembedded-resources-development-boards-projects-sensors-wireless-modulesgsm-gps-zigbee-products.php 6. http://btechzone.com/b-tech-mini-projects-on-robotics-for-ece-electronicstudents 7. http://www.microcodes.info/antenna-projects-3292.html 8. http://www.techlib.com/electronics/index.html 9. http://pixdoc.com/doc/gsm+modem+block+diagram 10. www.topprojects.blogspot.com