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TheoryofDesign

SEMVI Prof.KarteekG.

DESIGNVALUE
PHYSICAL

FORMANDSPACE

SolidsandVoids ExteriorandInterior

PERPETUAL

PERCEPTIONANDTIME

Approach,Movement,Functioningof activitieswithinspaces,Qualityof light,color,textureetc. light color texture etc

CONCEPTUAL

Orderedanddisordered relationshipsamongelements andsystems

Images,patterns,signs,symbols, contextetc.

THEORY AsetofIDEASthatintendtoexplainsomething Asetofprinciples THEOREM Generalpropositionorrulethatcanbeprovedbyreasoning HYPOTHESIS Aproposedexplanationbasedonlimitedevidenceusedasa A proposed explanation based on limited evidence used as a startingpointforfurtherinvestigationonthesubject

THEORIES
Tounderstandcomplexity

IDEAOLOGYisimportanttoacceptorrejectaTheory.

THEORIES

OriginandFunctionstudies Origin and Function studies Tostudyhistory ValueJudgmentcantbemade easily NormsofGoodandBad N fG d dB d Valuestobejudged Responsiveandrelevantto usercontext TheoriesthattendtoanswermostofthequestionsisaGoodTheory. Statementswithqualifications

THEORY
PRIMARYTHEORY SetofSECONDARY THEORIES THEORIES

ToUnderstand Complexities
Doesntnecessarily givesolution Tomakepredictions

VALUE

Inevitableingredient ofdecisions

COMPREHENSIVETHEORIES Statements

HUMANVALUES BroadsensethanTheory Broad sense than Theory

FORMANDSPACE

FORM

Urbanform Urban form ArchitecturalForm Contours C Planes Surfaces

Asanenvelopeofspace As an envelope of space

Characteristicsofform

TIME SPACE THEORIES EVENTS ByeLaws

SEMINAR
Rationaleforthestudy PurposeandFunction Purpose and Function VISION TheoreticalApproach Theoretical Approach Context Physical,Social,Historical, Economic EvolutionofFormandConfiguration VisualQuality/Imageability Impactonthecity Social, Environmental,Economic,Design CRITICISM ImplementationandLessons

STYLE
AppreciationoftheaffectofeachISMonsucceedingstylesisimportant.

Alldesigncomesfromtheunderstandingofprecedent Historical,CulturalorSocial

Parameters Aesthetic Function

Appropriateness:RelatestotheContemporaryCulture ArchitecturalconceptsandIdeashavetobeaccommodativetochangingCULTURES,USERS andFUNCTIONS.

DESIGN Earlier was referred to any skill or mastery. Design is D i i a SELF EXPRESSION To make A STATEMENT of some kind Communicating an IDEA, an EMOTION or a PURPOSE Provides a creative platform for discussions and creates opportunity for change in thought or Appreciation of the expression in Design Design.

AESTHETICS Aesthetics is the study of beauty and taste. Immanuel Kant, the German philosopher saw aesthetics as a unitary and selfsufficient type of human experience. ArchitecturalAestheticsrelatestoHistory,Culture andReligion.

ALVARALTO
BorninKuortane,Finlandin1898

AMODERNARCHITECT Graduatedwithhonors fromHelsinki Polytechnicin1921 Professor of Architecture at MIT 1946 to 1948, f f , and was President of the Academy of Finland 196368 Early work was borrowed from the Neoclassic movement Adapted the symbolism and functionalism of the Modern Movement.

Worker'sClub,atJyvaskyla,Finland,1924.

functionalist/expressionist and humane style, successfully applied to libraries,


Unique civic centers, churches, housing, etc generated a style of functionalism which avoided romantic excess and neoclassical monotony. Alvar Aalto

StudioatMunkkiniemi,Helsinki,Finland,1956

ALVARALTO Redefined the generic examples of modern architecture that existed in most of Europe and recreated them into a New Finnish architecture. Aalto's designs were particularly significant because of their Response to site, material and form. The spectrum of Aalto's work exhibits a sensual detailing that separates him from most of his contemporaries. Aalto was a master of form and planning, as well as of details that relate a building successfully to its users. His buildings have provided renewed inspiration in the face of widespread disillusionment with

HouseofCultureHelsinki,Finland,1958

high modernism on one hand, and post modernism on the other other.
DiedinHelsinkiinMay1976 Riola ParishChurchRiola,Italy,197578

ALVARALTO His work exhibits a carefully crafted balance of intricate and complex forms, spaces and elements and traditionalism rooted in the cultural heritage and physical environment of Finland

BakerHouse,MIT,Cambridge,MA,194749

INTERPRETATIONS SKYSCRAPPER,MIES

CottbusUniversityLibrary, Cottbus University Library HerzogdeMeuron

Alto

PiazzaDelCampiDoglio onCapitolineHill
PALAZZO SENATORIO (which structure was completed by Giacomo dalla Porta and Girolamo Rinaldi between 1582 and 1605) and seat of the city municipality; PALAZZO DEI CONSERVATORI ( th right side of th square), b ild b (on the i ht id f the ) build by Guidetto Guidetti and Giacomo Dalla Porta in 1568, following original drawings by Michelangelo, host nowadays the Pinacoteca Capitolina ( p (Capitoline Art Museum); ); PALAZZO NUOVO (on the left side of the square), build by the Rinaldi brothers in 1655 again following original drawings by Michelangelo, where the Capitoline museum is located (museum with Hellenic and Roman masterpieces). R t i )

PiazzaDelCampiDoglio onCapitolineHill

PiazzaDelCampiDoglio onCapitolineHill

PiazzaDelCampiDoglio onCapitolineHill

PiazzaDelCampiDoglio onCapitolineHill

FEDERATIONSQUARE PROJECT: Federation Square LOCATION: Melbourne, Australia BUILDING TYPE: Recreational/Cultural, Commercial ARCHITECTS: Donald L. Bates and Peter Davidson YEAR: 2002 AREA: 10 acres

FederationSquareisthecreationofanewurbanorderonasitethathadneverbeforeexisted.Morethanjusta newsetofbuildings,federationsquareisthenewcentreofculturalactivity forMelbourneamidstnetworkof technology,fastcommunication andhighspeedmovement.

CONCEPTION
ThedevelopmentofFederationSquarebeganinthemid1990saspartoftheJolimont The de elopment of Federation Sq are began in the mid 1990s as part of the Jolimont RailYardrationalizationproject thatreducedtherailwaylinesrunningparalleltothe Yarra River fromatotalof53linesto12.

TheGovernmentofthestateofVictoriaandtheMelbourneCityCouncillookedatthe conceptofdevelopingasquareovertheraillines andbringingdown twouniversally dislikedbuildingscalledthe'GasandFuel'towers,thatstoodas aphysicalandvisual dividebetweenthecityanditsriver.

Conceivedasapublicciviccentre andmeetingplace,theFederationSquarelinksthe Conceived as a public civic centre and meeting place the Federation Square links the cityscentralbusinessdistrict (CBD)northoftheYarra Rivertotheriveritself andthe gardensandparklandsacross

LOCATION
CITY

GREATER MELBOUNE MELBOURNECITYCENTRE

TheprojectislocatedonthenorthernbankoftheriverYarra,atthe intersectionofthetwomajorthoroughfares ofthecity,closetotheheart ofthecentreofMelbourne.Itservesasagatewaytothecity.

ACCESS
Themetrotrains,theTramnetworkandtheYarra River togetherprovideastronglinktothesiteforthe Melbournians. M lb i TheSquareisconvenientlyaccessedbothbypedestriansfromflindersstation,thetramstops andthe river andthe vehiclesfromthetwothoroughfaresalongthesite.
St. Pauls

CITY CENTRE

FLINDERS STREET Railway Lines cont tinuing derneath th site he from und SWA ANSTON ST TREET

Flinder s Station

visitor centres (shards)

centre of t f moving images

North atrium

art galleries

Transport bldg.

Yarra bldg. bldg

South atrium

VEHICULAR PEDESTRIAN

RIVER YARRA

TRAMSTOP

Bourkestreet

Exhibitions street

TRANSIT Connectivityofthesiteisindicatedbythe multitudeofmetroandraillines that passthroughtheFlinders Streetstation bythesite.

Elizabethst treet

Queenstreet
TOWNHALL

Findersstreet
FINDERSSTREETSTATION

Russel stree et

BATMANAVE.

Botanic Botanic gardens

i yarr ari ver

Commercialrd. Albertparklake

LAND USE PATTERN


FederationSquareisfamiliarasapublic buildingbecauseitunderinvestsinfloorarea andoverinvestsinbuildingquality.

Agrandsquare joinsseamlesslytothe surroundingstreetscapeatSwanstonStreet.


GROUNDCOVER32.5% SQUARE19% OPENSPACE(includesparking)48.5%

Itisapurelyculturalandcommercial facility withacompleteabsenceof residential landuse.

Thefederationsquareconformstothe reputationofMelbourneasaculturally vitalcity.

/ CULTURAL/RECREATIONAL86% COMMERCIAL14%

ISSUES
FordecadestheJolimont railyardshavebeenanunsightly scaronthefaceofcentralMelbourne,cuttingitofffromthe h f f l lb ff f h Yarra River.Butnow,FederationSquarehasbeenbuiltona deck overthetopoftheserailyards removingthissightfrom thecityscape.

TheconstructionofthedeckbeneaththeSquare is understoodtobethelargestexpanseofrailwaydecking everbuiltinAustralia. b il i A li

Thedeckissupportedbyover3,000tonnes ofsteelbeams,1.4kilometres ofconcrete'crashwalls' andover4,000vibrationabsorbingspringcoils andrubberpadding. Thedeckisdesignedtosupport someofthemostsensitiveuses imaginable galleries,cinemas,andradioandtelevisionstudios andit imaginable galleries, cinemas, and radio and television studios and it neededtoisolatethemfromvibrationandnoise.

THE DECK

Thebuildingrepresentstheneedforacommonmantoaddress publicspaceassomething,whichgeneratesvariety andbreaksout ofthefamiliar. of the familiar


Sandstone,zinc andglass havebeenusedascladding,structuredwithina triangulargrid. Themodularsystem uses5singletrianglestomakeupaselfsimilarlarger triangularpanel.Fivepanelsfollowingthesamegeometricallogicarejoined togethertocreateamegapanelthatismountedontoastructuralframe. Thefractalfacadesystem allowsforindividualbuildingsofthesquaretobe differentiatedfromeachotherwhilesimultaneouslymaintaininganoverall coherence.

Facadepanelcomprisingfivetiles

THE FRACTAL TECHNOLOGY

Mazeofzigzag corrugatedconcretewalls isauniquepassiveclimatecontrolsystem fortheglazed atrium'snorthandsouthsections.Zigzag profiledoublesthecoolingcapacity. Spreadoveranareaof40x40metres,thelabyrinth ispositionedbeneaththecivicplazaandabove thedeckovertherailway,usingaspacethatwouldhaveotherwisebeenunoccupiable. Itsimultaneouslyprovidessupportfortheplazadeckslab. yp pp p Coolairispumpedthroughthelabyrinth'scellsatnight,whichinturncoolstheconcretewalls.Byday, airisagainpumpedthroughthecells,thistimebeingcooledbytheconcrete.Inwinterthelabyrinth's thermalmassmaintainsaninherentwarmingpotential,whichwillbesupplementedasrequired. Thesystemdirectsairtotheatrium,introducedatfloorlevel,dispersedbyuseofalowvelocity displacementsystem. Equivalenttoconventionalairconditioning butusingonetenthoftheenergyconsumption.

LABRYINTH

Positionoflabryinth underplaza

Thesquareisthecivic andspatialcomponent,establishing connectionswiththediversecontextofthecity andthesurrounding urbanandriversidelandscape. urban and riverside landscape

Itopenstothesurroundingstreetscapeandrisesuponelevel It opens to the surrounding streetscape and rises up one level towardstheeast,providingentryatanupperleveltofurther buildings.

Todistinguishitfromthecity'sexistingpavement,thesquarewas surfacedinhandlaid (approx.500,000)cobblestones ofvariegated coloredKimberleysandstone. colored Kimberley sandstone

The sandstone paving has been laid in a patterned design It Thesandstonepavinghasbeenlaidinapatterneddesign.It comprisesaseriesofoverlappingstonetablets inlaidwithlayersof typographicallyscaledandinterwoventexts.

TheFederationSquarehasrecoveredagroundandfoldeditbackto thecity

THE SQUARE

Thedesign'sgeometry allowsforavastarrayofconfigurationsand arrangements,fromthelargestscalepublicgatheringofupto15,000 people tointimatesitesofrelaxationandcontemplation.

FLINDERS STREET SWANS STON STREET

Theatriumisauniquecoveredpublicspace whichprovidesacomplementtothe openplaza. Symbolicofapublicstreet runningthroughthesite. Continuouslyopenandpubliclyaccessible,theatriumisemblematicoffederation square'sintendedconnectionofcityandriver.

Interiorvolume16metres high andupto20metres across

Southatriumstepsfromthedecklevel overtherailwaydowntotheriverside p y promenade offeringtransitionalperspectives ofthecitybeyond. Thedeepspaceofthissupportingframeactsasathermalchimney,evacuatingthe buildupofhotair.theatriumspaceisconditionedbyapassivecoolingsystem,using alowlevelairdisplacementsystemtokeeptheatriumcoolerthantheoutside temperature insummer.

ATRIUM

ArtNouveau A style of d l f decorative art, architecture and h d Design prominent in western Europe and the U.S. from 1890 until world warI and characterized b i t i t li h t i d by intricate linear d i designs and d flowing curves based on natural forms. Developed principally i F D l d i i ll in France and B l i d Belgium Art Nouveau is seen primarily as the bridge from stuffy classicism to modernism
MuseumofAppliedArts,Budapest

Key Elements Aesthetic based on natural forms Organic and dynamic forms Curving design C i d i Writhing plant forms Strict avoidance of historical traits

BeauxArts A very rich lavish and heavily ornamented rich, classical style taught at L'Ecole des Beaux Arts in Paris in the 19th century. Influenced the last phase of Neoclassicism in the United States The style was popularized during the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. p g
KeyElements
Symmetricalfacade Roofs:flat,lowpitched Wallsurfaceswithdecorative garlands,floralpatterns, or cartouches drippingwithsculpturalornament Facadeswith quoins, pilasters,or columns (usuallypaired with Ionic or Corinthian capitals) Wallsofmasonry(usuallysmooth,lightcolored stone) Palais Garnier isacornerpiece ofBeauxArtsarchitecture

Firststorymaybe rusticated Largeandgrandiosecompositions Exuberanceofdetailandvarietyofstonefinishes Projectingfacadesorpavilions PairedcolossalcolumnsandEnrichedmoldings Freesandingstatuary,Windows:framedbyfreestanding columns,balustraded sill,andpedimented entablatureontop Pronouncedcornicesandenrichedentablaturesaretoppedwith SanFranciscoWarMemorialOperaHouse,completed 1932 atallparapet,balustrade,oratticstory

ArtDeco The predominant decorative art style of the 1990s and 1930s characterized by smooth swirls, swirls curves and high gloss finishes precise highgloss finishes, and boldly delineated geometric shapes and strong colors and used most notably in household objects and Architecture Architecture.
BombayArtDeco

KeyElements Flatroofsandsmoothwalls Thewallsofartdecohomesareoftenmadeof Flat roofs and smooth wallsThe walls of art deco homes are often made of smoothstuccoandhaveroundedcorners. BoldexteriordecorationsBuildingsinthestylewereoftendecoratedwith zigzags,swans,liliesandsunrisemotifs. ExperimentationwithinteriormaterialsArtdecodesignersused"new"materials suchasglassblock,neon,chrome,mirrorsandopaqueglasspanels. such as glass block, neon, chrome, mirrors and opaque glass panels.

ChryslersBuilding

Modernism Europe nurtured the seeds of the modern movement in Architecture through a well known sequence of events and manifestos that q came about to answer BeauxArts attitude.

ModernArchitecture Evolved to reconcile an idealized vision of society with f i t ith forces of I d t i l R l ti f Industrial Revolution. ItwasanAttitude Division of Labour Design of a product is seperated from its meaning. An Utopian Socialism World can be improved Socialism and should be made a better place for all. Standardization Set of styles and ways of solving problems using set of patterns.
SeagramBuilding,NewYork

ModernArchitecture Modernist architecture emphasizes function. It attempts to provide for specific needs rather than imitate nature. The roots of Modernism may be found in the i th work of B th ld L b ki (1901 1990) a k f Berthold Luberkin (19011990), Russian architect.

Reform of the materialist city and its replacement by a supposedly more Humane and harmonious order enriched through contact with nature.

Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art at Cornell University by I.M.Pie y y

Simplication ofFORM Eliminationofornament FormfollowsFunction Lessismore(LouisSullivan)

Melnikov House near Arbat Street in Moscow by Konstantin Melnikov.

BauhausStyle Flat roofs, smooth f d Fl f h facades and cubic shapes d bi h characterize the Bauhaus style.
Bauhaus is a German expression meaning house for building. In 1919, the economy in Germany was collapsing after a crushing war Architect Walter Gropius was appointed to war. head a new institution that would help rebuild the country and form a new social order. Called the Bauhaus, the Institution called for a new "rational" social housing for the workers.

NewUnitybetweenARTandTechnology Bauhaus architects rejected "bourgeois" details such as cornices eaves and cornices, eaves, decorative details. They wanted to use principles of Classical architecture in their most pure form: without ornamentation of any kind.

EXPRESSIONISM The art form that distorts reality to produce a highly emotional effect , exhibited in painting, literature, film, architecture and music. ItfocussedonExpressivecharacterandmodeof communication,useofdistortionandexaggeration foremotionaleffect. for emotional effect Itemergedastheavantgardemovementinpoetry andpaintingbeforethe FirstWorldWar. and painting before the First World War Depictsnotobjectiverealitybutratherthe subjectiveemotionsandresponses. j p Characterized by symbolic colours, distorted forms, a twodimensional careless manner and larger thanlife imagery.

The Scream Expressionism oil on canvas 1893 by Edward Munch

Erich Mendelsohn's Einstein Tower in Potsdam, Germany completed in 1921

DESTIJL(TheStyle) Dutch Artistic movement found in 1917 Also known as NEOPLASTICISM The new plastic Art. People who propagated the philosophy philosophy Designer, writer, and critic Theo van Doesburg (18831931) (1883 1931), Painters et o d a ( 8 9 ), Piet Mondrian (18721944), Vilmos Huszr (18841960), and Bart van der Leck (18761958), Architects Gerrit Rietveld (18881964), Robert van 't Hoff (18871979), and J.J.P. Oud (18901963)

CONSTRUCTIVISTARCHITECTURE Emerged from the wider constructivist art movement, which grew out of Russian Futurism in 1919. It was not strictly an art movement but rather a trend in the arts that was closely linked with industry and manufacturing, architecture and the applied arts. The term constructivism was first coined by the movements leading artists Naum Gabo and Antoine Pevsner. Constructivist architecture was a form of modern architecture which involved advance technology and engineering with a Communist Social Purpose.
Main features Acceptance of modernity Abstract art Emphasis on geometric experimentation Optimistic and Objective

CollectivehousingDesign by NikolaiLadovsky,1920

Tatlin towerbyRussian artistandarchitectVladimir Tatlin

shapes

and

METABOLISTMOVEMENT Future vision for Cities inhabited by a Mass society were characterized by Large scale Flexible d Fl ibl and Expandable structures that facilitate an organic growth process
Kisho Kurokawa is one of the founders of the Metabolism and others who demonstrated the philosophy were Kenzo Tango, Kisho Kikutake, Takashi Asada, Noboru Kawazoe, Fumihiko Maki Peter Cookand Moshe Safdie Maki, Safdie. Often called Technocratic also. ClustersintheAirin196062forTokyobyArata Isozaki.

CapsuletowerbyKisho Capsule tower by Kisho Kurokawa GraphicArtsCentrebyPaulRudolph