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AP Biology Lab #3 Mitosis and Meiosis

Horace Zhang 4B Partners: Lorenzo Eddy Introduction: In this lab we will be investigating mitosis and meiosis. We will count cells in both animal and plants samples. Based on these observations, we will be able to estimate the relative amount of time animal and plant cells spend in mitosis. We will also be able to compare animal and plant mitosis. Then we will be simulating the stages of meiosis by using chromosome models. And finally, we will determine the percentage of crossing over in a type of fungus. Cells are formed by cell division which consists of division of the cell's nucleus (karyokinesis) and the cytoplasm (cytokinesis). The two types of cell division are mitosis (division of somatic cells) and meiosis (division of sex cells). To find cells in plants and animal undergoing mitosis, we need to look for regions with cell development. So in this lab we will be observing onion root tips and whitefish blastula. Mitosis creates 2 cells with the same number of chromosomes. Meiosis creates 4 daughter cells with each having half as many chromosomes as the original cell. During meiosis(the formation of sperm or egg cells) DNA molecules break from nonsister chromatids and then rejoin, this is known as crossing over. References: %20101%20laboratory/mitosis/mitosis.htm Hypothesis: Mitosis occurs in whitefish blastula and onion root tip and the stages of it are observable. Meiosis is observed in the production of gametes and spores. The cell spends the majority of mitosis in interphase. Procedure: 1. Examine prepared slides of onion root tips and whitefish blastula. Find cells in each stage of mitosis and sketch them. Data and Obsevations 1. Interphase: the nondividing cell is in this stage. the nucleus is filled with dark nucleli and chromatin threads. DNA replication occurs in this stage.

2. Prophase: The chromatin has condensed into chromosomes and the chromatids shorten and thicken. The nuclear envelope is no longer visible during late prophase. The microtubules also begin to form.

3. Metaphase: The chromosomes have moved to the center of the spindle and the centromere of each chromosome is attached to the spindle. The chromosomes have lined up on the metaphase plate.

4. Anaphase: The centromere of each pair of chromatids separate and are moved towards opposite poles by the spindle. The separated chromatids are known as chromosomes.

5. Telophase: The chromosomes condense and a new nuclear envelope forms around each group of chromosomes. In plant cells, a new cell wall forms and in animal cells, a cleavage furrow forms to separate the two cells.

Analysis Questions: 1. Explain how mitosis leads to two daughter cells, each of which is diploid and genetically identical to the original cell. What activities are going on in the cell during interphase? The chromosomes duplicate and then condense during prophase. During metaphase and anaphase, The sister chromatids separate into two chromosomes for each chromatid. The chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends of the cell. Finally, during telophase, the chromosomes become less condensed and 2 new cells are formed. The cells are diploid because the chromosomes were duplicated in the cell undergoing mitosis and then were evenly

distributed to the daughter cells. Assuming mitosis has proceeded correctly, the chromosomes should be genetically identical to the parent cell. During interphase (which is about 90%) of the cell cycle, the cell copies its chromosomes and various organelles to prepare for division. 2. How does mitosis differ in plants and animal cells? How does plant mitosis accommodate a rigid, inflexible cell wall? In animal cells, a cleavage furrow pinches the cell apart into 2 cells and in plants cells, a cell plate forms between the separated chromosomes. The rigid cell plate that forms in plants mitosis is composed of vesicles coming from the Golgi apparatus. Eventually the plate gorws into a cell wall completely separating two plant cells. 3. What is the role of the centrosome? Is it necessary for mitosis? The centrosomes are where mitotic spindles start to form. They are necessary for mitosis because the mitotic spindle anchor in the centrosomes and they are what pull sister chromatids apart. Procedure 3A.2 1. Observe every cell in a field of view and count how many cells are in each phase. Count at least 200 cells in at least 2 fields of view and record the data. 2. Calculate the percentage of cells in each phase. Data Percentage of cells in stage x 1440 minutes = minutes of cell cycle spent in stage. # of Cells Field 1 Interphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase 47 14 8 4 Field 2 36 13 3 6 1 Field 3 37 16 14 3 14 Total 120 43 25 13 24 % of Cells 53.00% 19.00% 11.00% 5.78% 11.00% Time in stage 12.72hrs 4.56hrs 2.64hrs 1.38hrs 2.64 hrs

Telophase 9 Total Cells counted: 225 Questions:

1. If your observations had not been restricted to the area of the root tip that is actively dividing, how would your results have been different? We would have observed many more cells in interphase because they would not be dividing. 2. Based on the data in the table, what can you infer about the relative length of time an onion root tip cell spends in each stage of cell division? According to the data the cell spends the majority of mitosis in interphase. Anaphase happens

relatively quickly and the other 3 phases take about an equal amount of time. 3. A pie chart of the onion root tip cell cycle.

Exercise 3B/ Meiosis Meiosis is two nuclear division and produces four haploid cells. The relative distance between two genes on a chromosome can by estimated by calculating the crossing over percentage. Meiosis/Procedure: Interphase: DNA synthesis occurs and each chromosome now has 2 strands. Prophase I: Homologous chromosomes condense the pairing of these is known as synapsis. A tetrad of four chromosomes is formed. Crossing over between the chromosomes in each tetrad has occurred the regions where crossing over has occurred are known as chiasmata. Metaphase I: The crossed over tetrads line up in the center of the cell. Anaphase I: The homologous chromosomes separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell. Telophase I: 2 haploid cells are formed and each chromosome is composed of two chromatids. Interphase II: DNA replication does not occur. The time spent in this phase depends on the organism. Meisosis II: The chromatids must be separated again to form 2 more daughter cells per cell. The amount of DNA is reduced to one strand of DNA per chromosome. Prophase II: The spindle apparatus form and duplicated centrioles separate and move to opposite ends. Metaphase II: The chromosomes line up in the middle of each daughter cell. Anaphase II: The centromere regions of the chromatids separate and the chromosomes are pulled toward opposite ends of the cell. Telophase II: The four chromosomes each go into their own cell. The nuclear envelope forms, the chromosomes decondense, and the cytoplasm divides. Analysis and Investigation. 1. List Three major differences between mitosis and meiosis. a. Mitosis produces 2 diploid cells and meiosis produces 4 haploid cells

b. Only in meiosis does synapsis and crossing over occur. c. Mitosis produces somatic cells and meiosis produces gametes. Table 3.2 Mitosis Chromosome Number of Parent Cells Number of DNA replications Number of Divisions Number of Daughter Cells Produced Chromosome Number of Daughter Cells Purpose/Function 2n 2 1 2 2n Growth and repair Meiosis 2n 2 2 4 n Production of sex cells

3. How are meiosis I and meiosis II different? In meisois I two haploid cells form. It is in meiosis II where 4 haploid cells actually form. So After meiosis I the cells go into meiosis II. The chromosomes are no longer double and each daughter cell receives half of a sister chromatid. 4. How do oogenesis and spermatogenesis differ? Oogenesis is meiosis to produce female egg cells and this occurs in the ovaries. Spermatogenesis is meiosis to produce sperm cells and this occurs in the testes. 5. Why is meiosis important for sexual reproduction? Meiosis is the process in which sex cells are produced. Without meiosis, sexual reproduction could not occur. In addition to this, meiosis accounts for the genetic diversity important to sexual reproduction. Each daughter cell is not genetically equivalent to its parent cell. With many genetic variations between partners, there is a huge diversity possible in sexual reproduction. Exercise 3B.2 Procedure: 1. Observe a slide of perithecia and record the observations in the data table. Data: Number of 4:4 Number of Asci Total Asci % Asci showing Gene to showing crossover crossover /2 centromere distance (map units) 15 36 51 35.3 35.3

Analysis 1. Determine the distance between the gene for spore color and the centromere. Then calculate the percentage of crossovers. The map distance is the percentage of crossovers divided by 2. 2. Draw a pair of chromosomes in MI and MII and show how you would get a 2:4:2 arrangemnt by crossing over.

Conclusion: In this lab, we investigated mitosis and meiosis. The difference in between the two is that mitosis is for growth and repair of somatic cells while meiosis is for the production of gametes. Mitosis produced two identical daughter cells while meiosis produces 4 haploid cells genetically different from the parent cell. To investigate mitosis, we looked at frozen slides of cells undergoing division. By counting the number of cells in each stage of mitosis, we were able to approximately determine the amount of time the cell spends in each stage of mitosis. We then simulated meiosis with beads and explored the difference between mitosis and meiosis. Finally we observed the effect of crossing over and meiosis in mutant Sordaria. From the frequency of crossover, we were able to determine the map unit distance from gene to centromere. This is because the frequency of crossing over is determined by the distance between 2 genes. Error in this lab would mainly be caused by human error in counting the number of cells and observations. However, this lab was not heavily based on data and the data that was collected was not required to be very exact. Because of this, some error in the lab was acceptable as long as we learned about the processes of mitosis and meiosis.