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Approved for public release, distribution unlimited

Distribution authorized to U.S. Gov't. agencies and their contractors; Operational and Administrative Use; Sep 1963. Other requests shall be referred to U.S. Army Materiel Command, Alexandria, VA 22304.

USAMC ltr, 2 Jul 1973


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Tho Engineering Design lHsndbjok sofie.$Is intended to provide & Co xfita4isnat ptacipioo sadtfundmental late to eup~,lwnent experientce in assisting engineer@ in the evolution of now design. which will meet tactical ane ten nk al soeds while also embooyirq satisfactory producibility and muaintainabi~lity. Listed below awv the lisnaboolrawhich have been publieliedor submitted forp'ehlcati. ttadbookswith publication date@ prior to I August 1562 were published as 20-eerie. Ordnance Corps pamphlets. AMC Circular 30i-38. 19 J2uly 1943. redesignated those ij-_hlicatioop as 706.serteo AMC pamphlets (i.e.. ODP 20-138 ws r.Itegnard AleCP 706135). All now. reprinted, or revis-i! hsz%,Ubooks are being pub3ish~d as 706-eeries AMC pamphlets. G.noral and Misc~ellaneous Subjec~ts Ballistic Lissuie series I Tu be r 21t3-D) 282 Z84(C) 786 140 Titte Weapon System Efectivonese (U) Propuilsion and piopelsnt Trajectories (U) Structure.

r" -,l or Title TO -6 Elemoents of Arm~ament XFnglnioering. Part One, Sources of Energy 107 Elements of Armiament Zagi. -earing. Part Two, Balistics 108 Moements of Armaement Engineering, Part Three. Weapon Systemts and Componts 110 Txcporimental Statistict. Section 1. Basic Concepts ad t-nalysis 3( Mt-asurerrvent Data III Exporimenial Staiistics. Section 2, Analysis &I Erurnerative and C~lsssificslory Data 11a Experimentt! 'itatisicv. Section 3. Planning and Analysis of Co patalive Experim6,t. 113 Experimental Statistics. Section i, Special Topics 114 Xk,..rirnental Statistics. Section 5. Tables 134 ALLaeanance Engineering Guide for Ordnance Design 133 hirentims. Patent@, and Rel1.Ied Maltters 136 Servomnchsisma. Section 1. Theory 137 Servornechaniase Section, at Measurement and Signal Converters 13$ Servomechanisms. Section 3. Amplific4s1tiont i ;3 Svoncsisns. Section 4. Posver Elements and System Design 170(C) Armor &WdIts Afplcation to Vehicles (U) 270 Propellant Actuated Devices Zi90(C) Warheads -- General (U) 331 Compensating Elements (Fire Control Se~les) 355 The Antomnotive Aseembl (Automotive _Ceries)
Ammtution and MMlosives Series 175 Solid Propellazke. Part Ceam 176(C) Solid Propelli~ts. Part T'rwo (U) 177 Properties c Explosives of Military Interest. Section ! 178(C) 1Froporties of Esplosivek of military Interest. Section 2 (U) 210 Ftses. General ad Mechanical 211I(C) Fasoo, Proximity, Electrical. Part Cne (U) 212(3) Fuses, Proximity. Elfictrical. Part Two (U) 213(3) Fuses. Proximity. Electrical. Part 'Ibres (U) 214 (3) %%=aa. Proximity. Ir. vctrical. Part Four (U) 715S(C) Fumns, Prim~mty, Electrical. Part Five (U) 244 Section 1. Artillery Aztxunition..GeneraL. with Takle of Coiatents. Glossary and Inde:% for Series .14(C) Section 1, Design :03 Terminal Effects (U) 244 Section 3. Design for Contral of Flight Char.

BIalistics Series Trajectories. Differential Effects. sa :"&t.L for Projectiles 160(S) Elements of Zerniinal "Udtstice. Part C. latroductio. 1WM Mechanisms. and Vulnerability CO) 161(S) ELoneats of Terminal Ballistics. Oart Two, Cellection "nd Analyst& of Data Concernins Targets (U) 16Z(S-RD) Elemnevts of Terminal Ballistics. Part Three. AppLication to Missile and Space TargetsU) Carriages and Mounts Series 4l Cradles 34Z Recoil Systems 343 Top Carriages 344 Bottom Carriages 345 Equilibrator& 346 Elivating Mechanisms 341 Traversing Mechanisms Materials H~andbooks 301 Aluminum and Alumlim Alloys 302 Copper sandCopper Alloys 303 Mwag~siun ard Magnesium Alloys 305 Titanium and Titanium Alloys 306 AdAs&Jve -107 Casket Material, (Nomnmetallic) 309 Class 309 Plastics 310 Rubber a&d Rubber-Like Mstorials 311 Cor-oelmn and Corrosion Protection od Metals Surface-to-Air Missile Series 291 Part One. System integration 292 Part Two, Weapon Contrut 293 Part Three, Computers Z94(S) Par-t Four. Missile Armament (U) .95(S) Part Five. Countermeasures (U) 296 Part S1x6 SLuctures adt Power Sources 297(s) Part Senew. Semple Problem jU)



3ecakon 4 Design for Projection (U) dectitn 5. Inspection Aspects of Artillery Ama~waitlon Lteigs lection %, Marmiatture at Mete WeaComponemas ef A&Wt,1 .a-tmua~on (U)

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30 September 1963

M.kCP 706-244., Section 1, Artillery Ammuntion--General,. forming part of the Ammunition'Series of the Army Materiel Commani Engineering Design Hand-ook, is pualished for the information and guldance of all concerned.


SELWYN D. SMITH, JR. Major General, ULA

Chief of Staff

Colonel, GS Chizi., Administrative Office



The ARTILLERY AMMUNITION SERIES is being issued as an interim publication of the Ordnance Engineering Design Handbook, a comprehensive sequence of publications planned to treat the entire field of Ordnance dcsign. When the Handbook was begun it was found to be impractical to integrate into it the series relating to Artillery Ammunition already in preparation under the direction of Picatinny Arsenal. Although they were similar, the objectives of the two projcctst were not identical. The subject beakdown adopted for the Handbook would have necessitated redistribution of the material of this series throughout several of the planned volumes of the Handbook, with consequent delay in publication of much of the material. It was therefore decided to issue this material intact as an interim public.ation to make it available as early as possible. The material appearing in this series will be gradually superseded as pertinent volumes of the Ordnance Engineering Design Handbook become available. Material for this series was prepared by the Techaical Writing Service of the McGraw-Hill Book Company, under Contract DAI-28-017501-ORD-(P)-912. Technicel supervision and much of the basic information were furnished by Picatinny ArsenaL Engineers from other Ordnance Design Centers also supplied much information, and aided in the review. In fact, so many persons have given time and energy to this project that it has been difficult to compile a complete list of acknowledgements. The following were responsible for the conception and direction of the project. ARTILLERY AMMUNITION SECTION, ARTILLERY AMMUNITION AND PACKING DEVELOPMENT LABORATORY, SAMUEL FELTMAN AMMUNITION LABORATORIES, PICATINNY ARSENAL Alfred F. Teitscheid Wilder R. Carson Roy H. Wood Chief, Artillery Ammunition Branch Chief, Artillery Ammunition Branch Chief, Artillery Ammunition Laboratory A


MAJOR CONTRIUTORS George Demitrack Lars Enequist Henry P. Hitchcock D -. Robert H. Kent Picatinny Arsenal Ballistics Research Laboratory Ballistics Research Laboratory Ballistics Research Laboratory Picatinny Arsenal Prof. of Mechanical Interior Ballistics, Propellants Lethality Criteria Exterior Baiiisticrb Exterior Ballistics Thermodiynamnics of Manufacturing


harles Lenchit, Prof. Arthur F.

Arnold 0. Pallingston

Engineering, Uni-

Physical Testing of Explosive Materials Quality Control Gen( -al Contributor and Consuitant

versity of Virginia Picatiainy Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal

Richard E. Todd Col. Herman U. Wagner, USA (Retired) Murray Weinstein

Picatinny Arsenal Ballistics Research Laboratory

Physical Testing of Exrlosive Materials Shaped Charge Theory, Blast Ordnance Specialist and Consultant

Dr. Lewis Zernow Col. Herman H. Zornig, USA

GENERAL ASSISTANCE Kenneth H. Abbott Theodor Advokat Norman Z. Beach Donald R. Beeman Watertown Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal Kinetic Energy Ammunition Specia Purpose Shell Chemical resting of Explosive Materials H*&.d Ammunition Design Branch


Willard R. Benson~ Picatinny Arsenai Warren Blittersdort Frank! ord Arsenal Lethality Theory Cartridge Case Design, Manufac turing Methods Rotating B3ands Cartridge Case


Joseph 1. Bluhm

Watertown Arsenal Frankford Arsciaal

William Byrne

E. Cape 11

Pic atinny Arsenal

Picatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal

Ammunition Design
Standards Pyrotechnics Chief Propellant Section Pyrotechnics Shaped Charge Ammurition Explosives Chemistry Laboratory AP Shell Propellant Ignition Manufacturing Insetos Special Purpose Shell Head Chemical Branrh GB Shell HEP Shrill Head Pyrotechnics Laboratory Tank Vulnerability Kinetic Energy Ammunition

Herbert N. Ccbs-n Corwin S. Davis

Abraham L. Dorfman Picatinny Arsenal Cyrus r. Dunkle Leonard H. Erlksen Harold N. Euker Patrick Falivene Al Fox Arthr P ild Leo J. Frey, Jr. Robert Frye Andrew J. Galko Thomas Hall Dr. David Hart Floyd Hill Sidney Jacobson Picatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal Frazikford Arsenal Picatinnymrsenal Frankford Arsenal icatnnyArsnal Picatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal Pireatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal 13allstics Research Laboratory Picatinny Arsenal



William Xosephs Kurt Kupferman

Picatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal

Propellants Shaped Charge Ammunition Primer Ignition Formerly in charge of Ammunition Design Branch, Picatinny Arsenal

Robert G. Leonardi William L. Lukemns

Picatinny Arsenal

Ulysses S. MacDonald James R. McKay

Picatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal

Inspection bpecial rA'pose Shell

Harold Markus Anthony Muzicka

Frankford Arsenal Watervliet Arsenal

AP Shell Rifling and Gun Chambers Inspection Asst. Chief, Chemical Test Section High Explosives Special Purpose Shell Plate Penetration Monograms Formerly in charge of Picatinny Arsenal

Jacob I. Niper

Picatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsewtl

Karl G. Ottoson

Lasrence W. Pell Ballard E. Quass Lt. Richard Rhiel

Picatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal D & P S Aberdeen Proving Grounds

Dr. William H, Rinkenbach Gilbert Z. Rogers Picatinny Arsenal

General Artillery Ammunition Design Ammunition Design HIP Shell Chief, High E.plosives section Canister Shell Foreign Ammunition

Mkax Rosenberg William M. Rowe Samuel Sage

Picatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal Picatinny Arsenal

Marvin B. SchSffer Arthur B. schiling

Picutinny Arsenal Piestin Arsnsl




Robert M. Schwartz

P-.catinny Asnl

GnrlAmnto Design

William F. Shirk
Morgan Smith Joseph V. Sperazza

Picatinny Aioanal
Ballistics Research Laboratory Ballistics Research Laboratory Ballistics Research Laboratory Picatinny Arsenal Ballistics Research Laboratory Picatinny Arsenal Pica isny Arsenal

Canister ShellI
Aircraft Vulnerability Blast Theory

Joseph Sterite Theodoie W. Stevens

Wn~ih A- Tnleh

Lethality, Fragmentation High Explosives Lethality, Fraqmentatlon High Explosives Assistant, Research and Development Section WP Shell Chief, Physical Test Section

Paul B. Tweed Robert 3. Vogel

Leo Vo'kheimer Ct.C nley Wachtell Carry Weingarten

Picatinny Arsenal

Picatinny Arsenal

HeadChemical Research Section Pyrotechnics Laboratory Irterior Ballistics

Edward Wurzell

Picatinny Arsena

,I A

This series is a compilatinn of available data on the design of atillery ammunition. It is intended to introduce the graduate engineer to the art of ammunition design and to serve as a ready reference for the practicing artillery ammunition designer. Information contained in these publications has been obtained from development reports and drawings of ammunition items, from proof firing records, and from research reports by United States and British government agencies. The information obtained from these sources was corroborated and supplemetied by means of direct interviews and coradnene with pe_,nnel of U. S. government and private research a='esign agencias. This series consists of six sections. Section I is an introduction to the general subject of ammunition and its design. It is primsrily intended to familiarize newcomers to the field with the nomenclature and classification of ammunition items. For conveAience in publication, the features applying to the entire series, such as ,able of Contents, glossary and Zidex, have been bound with Section 1. Section 2 is concerned with terminal ballistics, or the production of effect by the various types of ammunition. Section 3 deals with the control bf flight, and exterior ballistic design of both fin-stabilized and spin-stabilized ro-,qds. A3ctiun 4, on design for projection of ammunition, includes the design of propellants for desired interior ballistic characteristics, stris analysis, and the design of cartridge case, gun chamber, and rifling and rotsting bands. Section S describes the inspection aspects of artillery ammunition design. It is included to acquaint the designer with dimensioning practices and the nature of the limitations placed on design by the requirements of gaging and quality control. Section 6, an manufacturing methods, has been included to give the neophyte designer some insight into the overall problem of the manuJ


facture of metal parts of aom -'14 "ems, since methods oi mnufactuie inpose linsitations upon the design of suctite:nz. Much effort has been spent in Iocating and verifying this data. However, in spite of this, it is probable that valuable sources have been overlooked and that a certain percentage of the information is already obsolescent because of the rapid advances oeing nmgde in th field. It is hoped hat the users of the Artillery Ammunition Series will inform the Office of Ordnance Resea~rch, Box CiT, Duke Station, Durham, North Carolina, of any omissions or errors that they may notice.




table of contents




FOREWORD......................... iii PREFACE ....................... 1 ix

ARTILLERY AMMUNITION GENERAL .................. 1-1 Types and Classification of Complete Rounds ............. 1-1 1-1 to 1-12 1-13 to 1-21 1-22 to 1-28
1-29 to 1-37

Types ot Projectiles ............ 1-2 Projectile Comoonents .......... 1-3

Fuzes, boosters, and Detonatoi .. . 1-4

.plosives for Ammunition ....... 1-6 t Propelling Charges ............ 1-6 General Design Requirements ..... References and Bibliography ..... 2 1-3 1-8

1-38 to 1-41 1-42 to 1-50 1-51 to 1-54

-DESIGNFOR TERMINAL EFFECTS . 7-1 Introduction .................. 2-1 Blast Effect .................. 2-7 2-1 to 2-16 2-17 to 2-49






References and Bibliography....2-20 Characteristics of High Explosives 2-22 2-50 to 2-70 2-71 to 2-153 2-154 to 2-207

Shaped Charge Ammunition........ 2-30 Fragmentation.................. References and Bibliography ...... Kinetic Energy Ammunition for the Defeat of Armor............... 2-93 2 -113


2-208 to 2-265

Referenceb and Bibliography....2-148 Canister Ammunition............ References and Bibliography ...... High-Explosive Plastic (HEP) Shell 2-150 2-155 2-156 2-279 to 2-291 2-266 to 2-278

References and Bibliography....2-159 Special Parpose Shell............ 2-160 2 -292 to 2 -371


References and Bibliography....2-199 DESICVN FOR CONTROL 07 FLIGHT CHARACTERISTICS............ 3-1 Design for Precision............. 3-1 3-1 to 3-22

References and Bibliography....3-33 Design for Maximum Range or Minimum Time of Flight ........ 3-38 3-23 to 3-48

References and Bibliography....3-77 Projectile Geometry............. 4 3-81 3-49 to 3-64

DESIGN FOR PROJECTION.....4-1 Propeilants and Interior Ballistics Cartridge Case and Gun Chamber Design...................... References and Bibliography ......

4 -1 4-117 4-137

4-1 to 4-75 4-76 to 4-116




4-117 to 4-154

Rotating Band and Rifling Design ... 4-149

References ani Bibliography .....

4-176 4-155 to 4-177

Stress in Shell ................. 4-177 References and Bibliography ..... 5 INSPECTION ASPECTS OF ARTJLLERY AMMUNITION DESIGN..... 4-190 5-1

Quality Assurance Aspects of Ammunitlon Design ............ 5-1 References and Bibliography ..... 5-12

5-1 to 5-21

Effect of Dimensioning and Tolerancing an Inspection ......... 5-13 6 MANUFACTURE OF METALLIC COMPONENTS OF ARTILLERY AMMUNITION .................. 6-1 Introduction .................. 6-1 Forging of HE Shell ............ 6-4 Machining of HE Shell ........... 6-14 Cold Extrusion of HE Shell ....... 6-21 Compromise Method of Shell Forming .................... 6-25 Manufacture of High-Explosive Plastic Shell ................. 6-26 Manufacture of Armor-Piercing Shot and Caps ................ 6-29 The Manufacture of Hypervelocity Armor-Piercing (HVAP) Shot..... 6-35 The Manufacture of Tungsten Carbidi"Cores ................6-36 The Manufacture of Brass Cartridge Cases ..................... 6-37 The Manufacture of Drawn-Steel Cartridge Cases ............. 6-41 *

5-22 to 5-28

6-1 to 6-10 6-11 to 6-33 6-34 to 6-56 6-57 to 6-68 6-69 to 6-70 6-71 to 6-77 6-78 to 6-86 6 .87 to 6-91 6-92 to 6-95 6-96 to 6-103 6-104 to 6-122 .iI



Section 6 MANUFACTURE OF METALLIC COMPONENTS OF ARTILLERY AMMUNITION (cont) The Manufacture of TracezoidalWrapped Steel Cartridge Cases The Manufacture of Perforated Cartridge Cases...............



6-46 6-48

6-123 to 6-131 6-132 to 6-133

References and Bibliograr....... 6-49 GLOSSARY......................... INDEX............................ G-1 1-1



ABSOLUTE DEVIATION: The shortest distance between the center of the target anad the point where a projectie hits or bursts.


When necessary, it may also include instructions for handling the amminition.
AMMUUITION IDENTFICATION CODE: Code symbol (for example, P5IIBA) ass ig ned to

ABSOLUTE ERROR: Shortest distance between the entr ofimpct r th ceter f brst
ofe aengr of ru

of shoat and the pointe of imuact of aht singl .otthpin th opc

eaham itnIe ordntictnad to facilitate the supply of ammunition to

ACCURACY LIFE: The estimated average number oi rounds that a particular weapon can fire before its tube becomes so worn tha't its accuracy tolerance is exceeded. ACCURACY OF FIRE: The measurement of the precision of fire expressed as the distan.:e of the center of impart from the

the field. The first two characters refer to the pertinent ordnance catalog, and the remaining three characters to the weapon group, type and model, and packaging. In small arms ammunition the grade is indicated.


LOT NUMBER: Cole number that identifies a particular quantity u.' lmmunition from ane manufacturer. The number is assigned to each lot at amrstunition when it is imanufacturedi.

center of the target. Ars!ABATIC FLAME TEMPERATURE: The teraperature a combustible system would attairi if all the energy of combustion went into the formation of gas without energy !oss to the surroundings. AMATOL: High e~xplosive made of a mixture of
ammnonium niitrate and trinitrotoluene;

ANGLE OF DEPARTURE: Angle between the line of sight and the axis of the bore of a gun at the instant the projectile leaves the muzzle. Angle of departure is the sum of the angles of site, elevatiou, and verticia jump. ANGLE OF FALL: A'ngle between the horizontal and the tangeiit to thie trajectory at the oint at whilch a projectile falls. Ai.:GtE OF IMPACT: Acute angle between the tangent to the trajectory at the poilnt of
impact of a projectile and the plane tangent

sometime.s used a,- a bursting charge in high-explosive projectilas. AMMIONAL: High-explosive substance made of
a mixture of ammonium nitrate, trinitro4Ammonal

toluene, and flaked or powdered aluilnum. is sometimea used as r. bursting charge in high-explosive projectiles, and produces bright flashes on explosion. AMMUNITION DATA C,.RD: Identification car,* pt-epared for each individual lot * ,rnmunition manufactured, giving the type~ and composition of the ammunii , and Identifying
its components by lot number and -~nu-

to the surface o( the ground at the point of impact; aqglot at which a proj-tIlle strikes the ground or a target. ANG.LE OF INClDKE4CE: Angle at which a proiettleI strikes a vurface; wcute angle i.: tween the tangent to the Line of impact of projectile red the perpendicular to the sur'ae of the Cr~mId it tho poin: of Impact. It stile compteumen oi the igie G! impart.



ARE2A TARGET: Target for 1,unfire or bombing o m cuv 'rirlg a consiealesaesc rwnit~on'; factory, ai:port, or freight yard. agt rmapzl An ar-a tax-ne which is* i p~rticular object or structure. AtLMIN1: As applied to fuzes, the changing fxomn a. sale conditiun c a st,,te of readines for in'.tiation. Girner-ally - C..ze is caused to arm by acceleration, rotit.ja, clock mechah~srn, or a~r travel, or by comLinations of these.. APMOFLR: Protective covering~, especially metal plates i~sed on ships, tanksi, motor vehicles, etc. ARMOR PIERCING: A term applied to b'illets and projectiles detsigned to pierce 'irmor plite. RIRAOR-PIERCING CAPPED: Term applied to armor -piercing projectiles which have a steel cap in front of V~ie projectile point, to assist in defeating face-hardened armor plate. AI'JTOMATW11 (Self-Acting): Moving or actimg by itself. ALer the first round is fired, an automatic weapon (ires, extracts, eject3, and reloads without applicetion of power irom an outside source, rr.)eating the cycb; as long as the firing me,..ia iism is held in' the proper position. Autcmatic at;tiou involties repeatlrg the cycle o! operation, as distinguished from semi-automatic, which is restricted to one complete cycle at a time. AUTOMATIC FEED MECHA'NISM: Mechanism in *an automatic gun thA~ puts fresh shells into the chamber in position for firii%. L BACK-BLAST: Rearward blast of gases from tt* breech of recoilless weapons and rockets upoz. the burning of the Propellant charge. It Lui sometimes referred to as breech-blast. BALLISTIC CAP: Cap for projectile, designed to improve its ballistic efficiency, BALLLSTiC COEF FICIENT: Measure of the ability ol a mnissile to overcome air resistance. G-2 BALL;STIC CONDITIONS: Conditions' 'hirh affect the motion of a projectile in the ibore ah-d through the atmosphere, including rnuzzttr velocity, wcight of projectile, size and le shape of projectile, rotation of the eirth, density of the air, of the air and the wind. BALLISTIC CURVE. Actual path or trajt:-tory of a bullet or shell. BALLISTIC DENSITY: Computed constant air density that woteld have the same total effect on a pro~ectile during its flight as the varying densities actually encountered. FALLISTIC EFFICIENCY: Abilrty of a projectile to overcome the resistance of the air. Ballistic efficiency depends chiefly on the weight, diameter, and shape of the preti. LKLLIST11C LIMI1T: Velocity at which a given type of projectile will perforate a given thickness and type of armor plate at a specified obliquity. HALLISTIC MORTAR: In.trinent used to de-. termine the relative erer-y obtainable from explosive materials. BALLISTICS: The science of the motion of projectiles. BALLISTIC TEMPERATURE: A computed constain temper.tture that would have the same total effect o~a a projectile traveling from thne gun to the target as the varying tempeiatures actuaI~y encountercd. BALLISTIC WAVE: Audible disturbance or wave caused by the compression of air ahead of a projectile in flight. B.1iLLISTIC WIND: Assumed constant windl that would have the same total effect on a projectile traveling froim the, gun to the target as the varying winds act-aally encountered. EkLLISTITE:. Smokeless powder used as a propelling charge in smiall-arms and mortar ammunition. BALLOTING: The bounding from side to side of a projectil? in the bore of a gun.

3AS.2 ;JECTION SHELL: Typ~e of spi evil ,)urpcse shell which functiwis liv exp~i. hijier out ot 'he 1Lose off t o sho!. p i usually a-chieved by a smiall charigr c-f propellaiit, called ar expelling charge. B.SE; LINE: of k,iown lerth and direction between tw, points whosei locations; are known, used in. fiio control. BASE DLUG: Seal in base of proj(ect;le. BASE OF TRAJECTOiI1Y: Straigiit horizon~tal line fr'om the center of tie mnuzzle of a weapon to the point in the dow-iward cu'rve of tL~e path of t projectile that ii licvel wi the muzzle. BASE SPRAY: (See bPRAY.) DIOLOGICAL AGENT: Viruses, any of certain classifications of micro-organisms and toxic substances, derived froin living orgal-;ms used to produce death oe disease in maou,, animals, and growing plants. BIOLOGICAL WVARFARE: Tactics and techniques of conducting warfare by use of biological agents. BLACK PGWDIER: A sensitive, easily ignitible exiAosive mixture, which produces dense smoke;- few remaining military 'ases, such as initers, expelling and biaink-fire char-ges. Piack po'~der wi's used as a prot-ellant before the advent o~f so-callett s.T~oeless powder. BLANK AMMUNITION: Anrimuoitioii co.r.tain~ng power bit no projectile. Blank ammunition is used in ti~pining, in signeling, and iii firing salates. BLJAST: Oadd-n at) pressure created by the dischargfe L-t a grun or the explosi-on oi a charge. BLASTING CAP. Small cjlindrical case with. a thin wall in vhich is enclo~sed a sensitire explosive, sucti as mercury fulminate, used as a detonator to set oli another eyplo~sive charg~e. The explosive in W.e bkisting cz~p 1-3 fired either by a burning fuse or by eiectricity. Also called a detonator.

BLAST CUBE: Anrjlc ro fra-ne covereu I~n'oz uIdfrtsigcfci Ihes ness c.1 ulast. 13ASr TUB3E: Device used 'nr the study of shock waves, and ;or calibration of airblast gages. BLASTING MACHINE: Small generator for electrically more detonators or squibs ignite muritions or serics had-powered firin one or to Pxpiooe or of munitions.

B.O'WPACK: prescure, of a guii. defective cartridge,

Escapze, to the rear Lnd under of gases formed &.. thE firing Blowback may be caused by a breech mechanism, 2 ruptured or a faulty primer.

BOAT-TAIL: Rear end of a projectile that is tapered or cone-shaped, and nol. cylinirical, as in a projectile having a square base. BOOSTER: High-explosive element, sufficiently vensitiie to be actuated by SM21l explosive elements in a fuze, and powerful ezitiigh to cause detonation of the main explosive filling. BORE: The cylindrical, and usually rifled, portion of the ginm tube, ar barrel interior, exteriding from the forcing cone to the muzzle. Bore is used both for the inside surface of the barrei or tube of a gun, with its rifling, and for the cylindrical space enclosed by that portion of the tube. I)0RE IJWPRM0SlN: Impression of the bore of a gun tube, made with a plastic substance in order to determine the condition of tte riling. BORESAFE FUZE. Type of fitie having zr interruptor in the explosive traia that prevents a functioning until after the proj nctile has clearpd the muzzle of a ieapcn. BOUR.REV..T: Finet-, machined biand or r~ng of mietrl just bchind the ogive of a projictile, designed to vipport the front portion of the projectile by riding the larnds as the projectille trav4s through the bere of a gun. BOW WAVE: (See BALLISTIC WAVE.) G-3



rear part of the bove of a gun, e th~1 0p2:flin' that permits the Pro-

jec"!p to be inse'rted at the rear of the b(,re.

(cc L~iZl-'LA~: ACKBLAT.)as

CANISTER- (1) Metal J n~ir containlo,' -netil fragmnts w4'ch Pre zcat~ered wnen the cylinder bra;b. '2) CyX'nder containing materials for special tei-minal effie ts, such halt, etc. sraic~e, p.opagaiida leaflet, CANN1STER AMMUNITION: Shell ccataining preformed metal fr-3grrents which are dispersed by, the centriflgal force caused by the shells rotatlor. CANNELURE: (1). A ring-1.ike groove in the jacket of a bullet which provides a means of securely crirnpirAg the cartridge case to the billet* analogous to the crimping groove in r rtillery ammunition. (2) Ring-like groove or locking the jacket of an armor-piercing to the core. (3) Ring-like :roove in rotating band of a projectile, intended to lessen the rezistarce offered to the gun lings. (4) Groove around the base of the case, where the extractor takes hold. CANNON: (1) Fixed or rrobile weapon, larger than small arms, that ejects its projectile by the action of an exposive. Cannon include guns, howitzers, iond breech-loading mortars. (2) That portion of such a weapon requiredmechanism, projectfile (that is, tube, breech to fire a and firing mechanism), contrasted to that portion whiich supports the weapon and which is called thie carriage orout CANT: A leaning or tilt, to one side, of any object; mliirly, the sidewise tilting of a gn CAP: (1) Nosepiece on a projectile. (2) (See

'LO~Z:Mwvpble steel block that D2~ arli f h orpr cse th fires rm. pr ar!. ,i B' LGE WAVES~: 1.ach waves caused by the 4t'qraction of two shock wraves to form a Jai.-d tlatL bridges the volume between the original t'wk. Shtterng Efl~3ANC~ pwer

~ ghbuilet



f ropllnt) (eeLIN AtBURNPLT1,4IN BTJI'flN ~o proellnt):(Se LINAR ING RVE.)cartridge BURST: Expiorion of a projectile in the air, or when it strikes the groundl or tariet. chage BURSER:Explsiv sed o beak th coteni ofchemcal openand pred openand pred th conent of hemial prnojectiles, bombs, or mines. BURSTER TUBE: Tube that holds the burster in acheicalproectie.s BURSING CIIA~E:Quanityof eploive which breaks the casirk of a projectile to produce dermonlitiou, fragmentLticn, or a~lon. cemicl (SeeEXPLSIVE CHARGE.)
C CALIBER: (1) Diameter of the bore of a gun. in


rifled gun bores the caliber is obtaine~d by measuring between oppos.fte land4s. A caliber .45 revolver has a barrel with a land diameter 45/100 (1 an inch. (2) Diameter of a. projectile. (3) Unit of measure used toexpress the length of the bore of a weapon. The number of caliters is dete.-mined by dividing the length (f ihe bore of the weapon, from the breech face of the tube to the
muzzle, by the diameter of its bore. A gun

CARTRIDGE: Round of ammunition wherein the propellant and primer are contained in a casing and in which the pronellant, primer, and projectile are assembled, sforcd, shipped, and issued as a complete unit. CARTRIDGE BAG: Cloth bag holding the propelling charge for, some types of cannon. CARTEILjGE CASE: Container- that holds the primer and propellant, and to which the pro~ectil' may be affixed.

(480 inches) long tube wtiose bore is,40te'~t and 12 inches in diameter 'Is said to be 40 calibers long.



CAST' LOADING: Loading of HE shell by the
pouring of molten high-explosive filler into shell body. CAVITY CHARGE: (See SHAPED CHARGE.) CHROflOG' A PH: Instrument for ieasurbn anid graphically recording small intervali of time; frequently used for measuri;V velocity of pro~jectiles. CLASSIFICA77ON OF DEFECTS: 'Enumerattoi. of possible defects ol, a prrduct cla~isJied according to their ireportance. CLOSED BO0MB: Apparatus used for determininb; the thermochemical characteristics of combustibl.e materials. Also called clcaed chamber; 'iamb caiorimeter. COEFFYT"IENT OF FORM: Factor Introduzed into the ballist', coefficient of a projectile, based on its shape. COLORED MARKCER SRELL: Projectile containing a colored dye whi:!h is ejected by a burster charge; used for spotting, muarkir4, Pnd sign~aling. CC.IPLETE PENETRI.TION: (I) In the Ar my, pcnetration obtained when the projectile in the ta.-get or light tirough the target can be seen froin the rear of the target. (2) In the Navy, penetration obtained when the projectile passes througN' the target intact or a major portion of the projectile passes through.I COMPLETE ROUND: (12 A complete round of separate- loading artlller,7 ammuition consists of a primer, propellinV c~are, and (except for blank arnmunitiov) a proje-tile. (2) A complete record of iixed or semiI iked ammunition comprise's a primer, propelling charge, cartridge came and a projectile. COlMPUTED L XIIMUM PftESSUPE: For any type of gun, the theoreticalvalue! of maximum press-ire computed bi interior bilistics formulas. When a new gun of tlb- type in question is fired u0rr standard condittions, with a propelling ciarge that will give a prujectile Its rated muzzle velocity, this is the pressure which should be &~veloped. CIO1D: Straight line parallel to the ce.:erlne of the projectll- from the lead~ng edgt to the trailing edge of a fin; the length of that line.

CENTER OF BURST: Point in the air about which the bursts of several proje~ctiles, from rounds fired under like condiions, are evenly distributed. CENTER C., BURST ERROR: Distanre between the target and center' of frirst. CENTER OF DISPEzSION: Theoretical center of hits or bursts that would have been made if an unlimaited number of shots had been fired with the saire d.-ta. Actuslly it has to be considered the cento'r of lmp;.ct or bursts uf all shots already CLd. CHIAFF: Electromagnetic -wave reflectors in the forin of narrow metallic strips, used for creatirg echoes with which to confuse the enemy; also called window. CHAFF SHELL: Hollow preiectile containing a filler of chaff. (See CHAF~F.) CHAMBER: Part of a gun i wh~ich the charge is placed; in a cannon, that space between the obturator or breechlock and the forcing Nominally it is the space occupied by the cartridge case. CHAMBER CAPACITY: Space available for gas expansion when the projectile is seated in position; mezsured from the face of the closed breechblock, around the bas., of the projectile, to the rear c.1 the rotating bard (or obturator). In fixed ammurniturn, it is the volume of the cartridge case behind the projectile. CHEMICAL AGENT Solid, liquid, or gas whose chemical pronl-rties produce lethal, injurious, or irritant effects; a screenirg or colored smoke; or an incendiary agent. (War gases, smokes, and incendiaries are the three main groups.) CHOKING GAS: Casu~lty producing gas which causes irritation and iLiflammation of the bronchial tubes and lungs. Phoogent, is an example of this type of gas.



co'2 ;N . Drce of pfny ;icai rostrct-on


o! co~to do,,v ltcrial.

w avc throuj h ox-

tance correspondi ng to zhe d~lay. Such lv . s ,e eerto ftet are used to pri b'.*.ore deto.nation, or for mining cilect. DESIGN PROCEDURE: Outline of steps to follow Jn designing an item. IDETERRENT: Material diffused into the suri'ce of propellant g.-aiias to control burning. DrTONATS: Explode suddenly and violently.

i unctioning of a chanibe,-d rourd ofa-,n-iumtion, initiated by the heat off the w.


CCOPF17P CR{USHER GAGE: Device used to 1rn,;viure prvossure developed in gun, thair her by measuring the dcfcirmation of a copper CylIindier. C.o'),ERI!NG: Metal foulinj left in the bore of ate r~tatng ~i'~ orthe acand weponby of wapnb retie rttn ~ rtejce Cci&-rrIE: Double-base p.-.wde. in the form ofl 'rrs, composed of guncolon, nitrTlyceri~i, and inineril jelly, used by somep forcign nations as a orenellart in riink of 3nimunition. * C0tJNTE1'7RL.COIL: Forward movement of a .7ui returning to firing position after recoil, CROSS-WIND FORCE (LIFT): Comnpornent of air resistai~ce in a direction perpendicular to the motior of the center of gravity, in tbie plane of yaw. CflYSTAL, DENSITY: Maximum density attai able for a gi-icn substance.

DETONATINGf AGI:NT: Explosive used to set off another explosive. Ful.-ninate of mercury tetryl : ra used as detonating agents to set off other len ensitive explos.,ves. DETONATiNG CHARGE: Charp e used to set off a high-e-,zpiosive ch,-rgc. DETONATINC CORD: Flexibf fabric tube conaining a'filler of high~ explosive that is set of! by a b'asting cap or by an o; ctric deto nator. It hias an extremely higii rate of expicsiori, and is usedi to 73et of.' other highThe detonat'ng cord explosive charges. currently in use is known commercially as prirnacord. DETONATING EXPLOSIVE: '"LOSIVE.) (See HIGH EX-

D D.7'CFLER0OQ1: Device for slowiing the rotation of parachute -containing pro.1ectile, tefire eje-tion of the parach~utte. DEFLAGRATION: Rapid react ici (expi nslon) with evolution of zonsiderable hoat, ,ccompanied by sonme disruptive effect I.,t less violent than a detcnation. DEGilESSIVE GRANULATION: Pro~pellant grain wh'rh turns with a continually derrcsing suriac until the grain is completely consunied. L !.AY FUZE: Fuze that has a deLay elemnent incorpotated in the fuze train, permitting tne missile to penetrate the target a disG-6

DETONArION Extremely rapid reaction with evoluLion of consideratle heat accomparied by considerable vioiently disruptiv. effect and intense shock wave. (See also DEFLAGRATION.) DETONATION FRONT: (St- WAVE FRONT.) DETONATION RATE: Velaca~y at which, the dconatio.; wave travel- through an .'xplosive material. DETONATION WAVE: (See SH-OCK W/A VE.)

DETONATOR: Scnsitivc c::plosiv2 used to'set off an explosive train, as well as the roechanism and contai-ier nonnected therewith. DEVLOPED MUZZLE tT~O!Y.The'actual muzzle vekccity prtolucet) by try gun. MOI'E-BASE POWDER: (See' DOUBLE'-BASE PROPELLANT.)




PftOP.-'LLANT: 'Proy)Itlnt
activ iito redients are ni


The riumber of



orinc !ole

noo'a the muzzle velocity and raag,,e of

rix.eliulp);e aiid nitro ;Iyc'* rin. (See PRO0DRAG: Coponent re~sta o air

proijectile. QVTO volume,FSAT:A te!mperature, and pres: *urei4PLAT qato tn LlROSICN: Wearing away of a Lore due ta co'bined effect of gas washing, sccurP%', azid iechanicai abrasion. Due to the Lin O peralures, and velocities, and cherncal ;wtico, the -bore diameter becrnmes a
EXI'ELLINC ZHARGE: Quantity uf rr:-ie 111! nt usce( in .;pecial purpose shell to tile contLnts of thie shell.


dired.ian ,Smoite to that of the motion of tne ,enter of grwr.,ty of a prnjecti.e. DRI7LL AMMUNITION: Amimunition without arn exjilos,,ve charge, used in training1 and pract.c c. D12'.IMY PRO2ECTlLE: Shell that has no explesive charge. Dummy p'-olect'les are used fa)r practice and ti aining purposes. E. C. LINK FIRE: (See E. C. SMOKELESS PO'NDFR.) E~. C. SMOKELESS POV l)ERh Orarage or pink Cju.Cpowder, rebcnioling coarse sand. It is used as a charge in small arms, in blan~k cs-t0ridges Also ('aiedt !lanrk-fire pw. ~ lnlfr.: uw, lank. fre. . - E.C. ECCENTICITY: Distance fr:hin center line to center of gravity of projectile. ELASTIC STREENGTII PRESSURE: The ccnipe'ted internal gas pressure in a gun which, at tice section urnder eonriaeratiGn, will streis the metal in-icome layer of the wall tangentially, up to the miiium elastic li~nit which is a)res_-r~ted 'or the metal irc)m *.hich the member ;s made. ELECTRIC PRIMNER: Metallic device containing a small ariount of a sensitlvf- explosive or charge of black powder which is actuated by enerz'rZ an electric circuit. K is ust d for setting off exp.losivt;r~M'li. charges.

EXPLOSIVE Substance which, when suZ]-oCed to heat, impact, fricti n, or other su ' ':!)e mnitiai iiizx, undergoes aai exploriun thit *s a veir rapid chemiceal transformnation, forming otner more stable prodiucts eiitirely or har, ely gaseouis, whose conihirivd volurmo is. much greater than th-it of the origqii.Csubstance. Zxp~qsi-;es ar- rlassfv-d as ih-explosive or low-eaplosive, accordrg to the rate of tiie transformatioa. (Su KGB EX:"'/SIVE: a.,A, LOW ZXPLOElVE.) EXPLOSIVE CHARGE:' Predetermnined quai:tity nI explosive reqit'ed to prdu: a srccific eitcct. (Soe BURSTING3 kHARGE; EXPELLING Cl:ArGZ; PROPELL1NC CHARGE.) EXPJ OSIVE D: Amnmonium picratc, a highC>xolosive charge that is not easily set of.' in

Ir~msportatiop, or in haroLing, etc. Sometimes it is used as a bursting charge in arrnr-pCrcing !jrojectile'-. EXPLOSIVE TRAIN: T!h4t portion of z fuze or fuze system consisting Of explosiV" .ornip.onents, such iLS lprimnur, d(oiotr, bcoo;;ter, etr', necec,ary to cause *furctiocin,


FLECTRIC SQUIB3: Commercial flas;h-fu~e .-

v;ce for tlectrical fir;ng4 of burraing typo munitions such as smoke ai~os. it C2i~SXTERIOR essentially of a smali tuoC scaleci; wrt suLLir, containing a small charge (,f piwd-rt comrpressel. aroind 'a fine r1 cewir:
There Are~ thrue tvoes; oper.-c.rJ. flash~-

warhead or destructor.I
BALL 1STICS: The hranch of hatlhs tic; 'which deals with the motion Wltile projectile after leaving the gun.

ventd, aij ~osc-(.-(;.FIN: EQUAL .3ECTION CHARGE: Pro;,.i&lin.; charire made up of a number of charge- equal in

Light metal portion of a mortar shell, homl), and some rr.ckcts, designed for stabilizing anid controiliing them white in flight.






FZN STAIPLIZATION: hWethod of stab

zlzn a

FUZ.; Devicc used to in:tiate a detonatlcn

under the conditions lesi.ed. G

pro:ecti ', b3mb, or mnssile r'urir. flight by th: f t,"rg of Lins. F 7>27 i YMUNlQION: Ammuxhi:io!i with primer aml;rc,ekIt nt T.owder contained in - cArtr.. ,0 ,z';e pcrmanPvntly cxilmed or Att7,.'hNd to a pro~cc ile, that is L3a&d into a, L3n a an.l F - IX"1) IGU-ND: Rcund of fixed ammunitior. ADLABATIC

6;LDhNG METAL: Copper-,-inc used for rotating bands. GRANULATION: propellant.

alloy (brass)

Size and shape of grain of


CRAVIM, TRIC rF.NSTY: Weight of the propelant (in lb p,,r in. 3 ) divided by the volume occupiec by the pronellant kincludes the air space G-SERIS i and around propellant grains).

FLASH PEDUCER: Any material *oruse with a propc~i,",g charge to reduce ils m "

WAR GASES: Group of persistent

FLAT T~TAJECTORY: Trajectory with little curvnture, produced by a projcctile with a high velocity. FLF.IHTE: C Stabilized fragment dart. pcinted nose! and fimed tail; having a

blood and nerve poisor which are highly toxic cnd p.-actically odorless. GA, GB, and GD are .nembers of the G-ver'es. GUNCITTON: I;trocellu!ose cortaining percent or more of nitrogen. 13

FC1C : A term, convenient "n interior ballis-

HANGF!rRE: Temporary failure or delay in the

tics theor,

which is defined as the product o ucharge. rtember ofi adiabatic -constant-volth so gdiabaceongtamt-vopr,'Iwolh ni. and the ume ,ime temperature.

action of a primer, igniter, or propelling

For a few seconds it cannot be distinguished from a complcte failure, or fi. .. HANGFIRE TEST: Tes* to det*.rmine uniformity and promptneEs of fire of a type of ammunition. HC MIXTTJR: Solid, nonpersistent screedng smoke that, when burning, produces a grayish white smoke haviag a sharp, acrid odor, which is toxic if -ele-.sed in sufficient q!iantities in enclosed places; used in bombs, shell, grenadesi, and smoke pots. The smoke is cool burning as contrasted with white phosphorous, and tends to cling to the earth. HEAT OF COMBU.STION: leat evolved in the complete oxidation of a substance at constant pre:-sure and 25C. The test is usually accomiplisi.n" caorimetrically by burning a gram of sample in a combustion bomb containing one cc of water under a pressure of 30 atmospheres of pure oxygen.

FORCI-C CON,S: Tapered beginning of the landr at the ori-i"i of the rifling of a g.n ube. The forc ig cone allows the rotating band cf the projectile to be gradually engaged by the riffli g thereby centering the projectAke ir. the bore. FOrM C.CrFICIENT: Factor used in form function-. to describe the ratio of burning surface to fra-ction burned. F'RM FUNCTION: reLhting burning geometry. Ma ra, natical expression o propellant grain

FRAGMENTATION: The breaking and scattering in all directions of the pieces of a projectile, bomb, or grenzde. FULMINATE OF MERCURY: (See MERCURY FULMINATE.)





.......... ....--..... . .. . -

- *



HEAT' OF EXPLOSiON: Heat evolved In borning a sample in a cont-istion bomb undcr a pressu.-e of 25 atmospheres of h~Iium, or other inert gas. (Produv%, of explosion vary with thL. oxygen balance of th,, sanV,'_.) HEATOF ORMTIO: o fomaton 4 a Hat compeund is equ~al to the sum ol the heats of fornatic,: of the products of combustion, minus the heat 01 combustion of the comnpou~nd. 'Hf (reactants) = FA f (productsi) -

HYCROGCOPICITY. The tendency oi a s'ibstaince to absorb any available moisture from Its surroundL'gs; speci~ically the absorption of water vapor from the atmosphere. HYPERVELOCITY: lrypoete tl meyore moe HYE ELCT Muzzle? velncit-t of an artil1350etprsecdr eodo e f350fe ARO-ICIG(V )

HEA" OF REACTION: Heat evolved when a sampe iisbured a ombutio bom in oneatoshee o hlirnor other inert one tmoshereof hliumail gas. (Vioducts of this rea-tion are dependent on the oxygen baance of the sample.) HEAT SHELL: (See HIGH-EXPLOSIVE ANTITANK SELL.)HYPERVELOCITY BEAT TEST: Accelerated stability test of an exp!osive material. 9PPF SHELL: (See H!GH-EXPLOSIV E PLASTIC SHELL.) ME HIG-ANLE Fie dlivre atcleaHIGHANGE FRE:Fir deiveed t eeva tions greater than the elevation of miaximum range, its range therefore decreasing as the angl ofeleatio isinc~..aed.Morars deliver high-angle fire. HIGH LXPLOSIVE: E-.plosive which undergoes an extremely chemical transformatio, tlerby ahig orer etoarodcig tion and sh~ttering effect. High explosives are u~sed as Lursting charges for bombs, projectiles, grenades, mines, and for demiolition.used HIGH-EXPLC6IVE ANTITANK (HEAT) SHELL:-t Amr..unition for defeat of armour by use of a shaped charge. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE PLASTIC (HEP) SHELL (or, SQUASH-HEAD SHELL): Shell with deformable nose, desiigned to contain a plastic explosive, for use against ar.ror; sh'ock transmitted through the armor causes the back of armor plate to spall. HIGH-EXPLOSIVE SHIELL: Projectile with a bti-sting charge of high explosivc, used gktiirst ?evsonnel and materiel,

AMMUNITION: Ammunitioq which embodies a core of hard, dense material (such as tungsten carbide) within a shell of light inaterWa, such a~s aluminrum. Its light ov(rerweight permits it to be fired safely at veyhgvloies evlctysrady vr ihvlcte.Tevlxyi ail lost, but at short ranges it is effective istamr ARMOR-PIERCIN DISCARDING SABOT (HVAPDS) AMMUNITION: Ammunition which embodies a hypervelocity, armor-piercing, subcalibier projectile within a discarding aabot. (See SABOT.) DISHYPERVELOCITY ARMOR-PIERCING CARDING SABOT FIN-STABILIZED (HVAPDF)AM ITO: muito whc icg hyevltArmnop eDSiiS) AMUION subcaliber, fin-stabilized projectile within a discarding sabot. (See SABOT.)

IGNITEfl: Device containing a ready burning compoitim usav om fbakpw der, used to amplify the ignition of a propelling charge by a primer. Also sometimes to amplify the initiation of a primer in the functioning of certain tyeso fuzes ta~s brtrca~s IGNITER TRAIN: Step-by-step arrangement of charges in pyrotechnic bombs, shel's, etc., by which the initial fire from the primer is transmitted and intensified u'itil it reaches and sets Off the main charge. An explosive bomb, projectile, etc., uses a similar seiries, Called an explosive train. IGNITIBILrff: Statemeni of the ease with which the burning 01 a substance may be initlated.

IGNITING MIXTU1RE: Explosive mixture used as a fuze in pyrotechnic signals. IGNIING P~l:iER Prier esiged o ~ iniiatd b flme romanoherprier. Someime usd insobaii~icrgun *~energy to permit d.rill or practice wi!'h the regular prlm~r. IGNITION CARTRIDGE: Igijter in cartridge form witich may be used alone or with additional propellant increments is a propelling charge for certain mort:%r ammunition. ILLUMINATIN'G SHELL: Projectile with a time fuze thdt sets of.' a parachute ilare at any desired height; -,ised for up an area. IMPACT FUZE: Fuze designed to iunctior on impact. INCENDIARY: (1) Chemical agent used priniarily for igniting combustible substances with which it is in contact by generating sufficierct heat to cause ignition. (2) Filling for incendiary munitions such as shells, bombs, grenades, and flame throwsrs. (3), Munition with f lamamable filling and mean~s of release and/or ignition. *INCREMENT: A package of propellant, forming part of the full propelling charge, which may be removed to reduce the velocity or range. (See MULTISECTION CHARGE.) INITIAL AIR SPACE: Volume of gun chamber not occupied by propelIlant, when gun is loaded for firing. INITIAL VELOCITY: LOCITY.) (See MUZZLE

ITEOR ALSTC:Sbiron hitics whirh deals with that part of the phenumena within the chamber andl bore of weapon associated with impartjir7 kinetic to miss les. (See BALLISTICS.) 1SO~iARIC AaAABATiC FLAME TEIPERATRE: Adiabatic flame temperature aitained an a cocistant pressure system. (See ADIABATIC FLAME TEIMPERATURE.) ISOCHCRIC ADIABATIC FLAME TEMPERATUP.E: Adiabatic flame temperature attained in* a constant volume system. (See AIABATIC FLiME TEMPERATURE.)

JOLT AND JUMBLE TESTS: Tests intended to simulate the s-hocks var.)us components of ammunition are su'iected to in transportation and handling. JUMP: Tht movement which the tube of the gun describes under the shock of liring, but before the piojeetle leaves the muzzle. Usually expressed asan angle. K KINETIC ENERG,_ AMMUNITION: Ammunition whose effectiveness is dedendent upon its high dcnsity (mass) and high *.elocity. L LANDS: Raised portion between grooves in the bor, of a rifled gur. LATERILL DEVIATION: Horizontal distance between the point of impact or burst and the gun-target line. LEAD AZIDE: Very sensitive high explosive useft in small quantities to initiate other less sensitive high explosives. LEAFLAET SHELL: Usually consists of standard-base ejection smoke shell, of any caliber, with smeke canisters removed and propaganda substituted theref or. LIFT1ING PLUG: Threaded eyebolt which1 fits into the fuzi- cavity, permitting, heavy shells to be handled by nneans of a winch.


IN!"11ATOR: Small quantity of very sensitive and pjwerful explosive used to start the detonation -f another less sensitive e*,plosive. Mercury !ulmina.te, lead azide, and tetryl are the principle high exolosives used as Initiators. INSTANTANEOUS FUZE: One which will 6urst the proiectiL- on the outside of a hard surface (such as a concrete emplacement) before peraetration or ricochet. This fuze will give some crater on hard ground. (See SUP ERQbICK FUZE.)



LINEAR B3URNING RATE: The distazic, normal to any burning~ surlace of the propellant grain brlrned throu,,ri in unit time. This property depends upon the chemical comnposition, and is not a function of geometry. LINER: (1) Inner tube, in a cannon, which bears the rVI'ng and which may be replaced vhn worn out. W2 Cone of material used as ani .ntegral part of shaped charge lintr. LIVE AMMUNITION: Ammounition containing explosives. This is in contrast to drill ammunition (dummy ammunition), which contalns no explosives and is used iii training. LOArtIG DENSITY: Ratio of weight of propellant (in lb per in. 3) to available chamber

MA,,Cl NUMB~.R: Ratio of the velocity dC a birdy to that of sound in the same medium. MACH WAVE: Supersonic shock wave. MGU OC:()Trenra ote plane of yaw, caused by the spin. (2) Forre aiigfo neato fa~n;gW1 adtewnsra hate1xji a~g MGU OCCNE F a~hn pon fMgumoet oet on fMgu MXMMPESR:Temxtxiivleo theMU PRESSURE erTedbhe mapr.ralue Ofs : tvse firipllng abuydr the llsr ofete onthe h frngo onthe ounod.gnduig terud MAXIMUM SKY BRIGHTNESS. Wors t possib.e



LONG-DELAY FUZE: One which will burst tleSvpodto o bsrigprtcncsg projectile after complete penetration irsto na;ualyuiomcod .,ivrst hard ground. There is a variation in the oe MPJ:Fa time element in lorg-delay luzes required for different uses. (This is a question to be MERCURY 7'ULMINATE: Sensitive explosive determined by the Urdnance Dept.) that is set c:,, by friction, iir.:,a::t, or heat, and detonates. Mereury fulminate is used LOW EXPLOSIVE: Explosive which unc'ergoes to set (if other explosives in projectiles, relatively slow chernical transfo~rmation, mines, or bombs. thereby prod~jcinkg a deflagration or an explosion, the effect ranging from that of a METAL FOULING: Deposit of metal, which collects in the bore of a gun, that comes combustion to that of a low order detonation. it is suitable for use in igniter from th,%jackets or rot.?ting bands of protrains and certain types of propellants. (See jectiles. PROPELLANT.) MISFIRE: (1) Foi!ire to fire er explode propLOW ORDER DETONATION: Incomplete detoerly. (2) FailL'ne of a primer or the propelnation of the explosive charge in a bomb, lig charge of a projectile to functilin, projectile, or other similar high #':-.plsive.. wholly or in part. M'isf ire may be contrasted (See DETONATION.) with hangfire, which is delay in any part cd a firing charge. LOWER ACCEPTABLE MEAN MAXIMUM PRESSURE: For any type gin, that value of MULTISECTION CHARGE: Propelling charge the maximum pressure which is specified in in separate-loading or semifixed ammunithe propeltant specification as the lower tion that is loaded into a number of powder limit for the average of the maximum presbags. -.ange adjustments can I*e made by sures that Pre developed by an acceptable incre Ang or reducing 'he num'er of hags smokeless propellant in propelling charges used, is contrasted with a single-section which will impart the specified muzzle yecharge, in which the size of the charge canlocity to the specified projectile. Smokeless not be changed.[ prepetit in propelling charges which in acceptance tests develops an average maximum pressure lower than this value is considered as having failed to pass the test, MUZZLE BLAST: Sudden air pressure exerted in the vicinity of the muzzle of a weapon by the rush of hat gase3 and air on firing.



MU7ZLE BRAKE (also c'dled a RECOIL BRAKE): Duvi-e attached to the nijzzle of a gun whi'-h utilizes escaping gases to reduce the effective recoil forze of the gun tube on the or mount. In some designs it eliminaies or reduces muzzleflash. VrUZZL FLASH: Undesirable luminous igni-

NONDELAY FUZE: Fuze thai fue=tions as a result of inertia of firing pin (or primer) as missile is 'retarded during pe'netration causes the firing pin of target. The ine.-fti to strike the primer (or primer the firing pin), initiating fuze action. This type of fuze is inherently slower in actin than the superquick or instantaneous fuze, since its action depends upon deceleration (retarda-

tion- of unburned prolpellant gases issuing

irom the muzzle of a gun. The gases ignite ul.on mixture with atmospheric oygen. MUZZLE VELOCITY: Speed of a projectile at the instant it leaves the muzzle .i a gun.

tion) of the missilt during penetration of

the tatrget. NORMAL CHARGE: Propelling charge employing a standard amount of propellant to fire a conditions, as compared ;,gun under ordiwith a reduced c.'arge or a supercharge used in special circumstances. NORMAL FORCE: (1) Component of air resistance perpendicular to he axis of the projectile il the plaine of yaw (exterior ballistics). (2) Any force perpendicular to a given line or su-!ace (gener:J). NORMAL IMPACT: Strikirg of a projectile against a surface Ahat is perpendicular to the line of flight of the projectile.

MUZZLE WAVE: Compression wave or rea-ztiCo of the air in front of the muvzle of a weapon imnndiately after firing. N NERVE JAS: (See G-SERIES WAR GASES.)

substance Explosive NITROCELLULOSE: formed by the nitration ot cuttor, or some other form of cellulose. Used as the base of mot U. S. propellants. Specilic grades of (see PYROCELLULOSE and 'p -itroct?'ul GUNCOTTOTN'P 4epend on the degree to which t!ie cellulo3e is nitrated. NITHiOCOTTON: (Set GUNCOTTON.) NITROGUANIDIN.- (nitrated aminometharamidine): Used as a additional base of propellant; used as a "cool propellant" because of its low flame temperature which does not erode gun bores nor produce as much luminous flash a- single base (nitrocellulose) propellants. NITROGLYCERINE: Nitrated ester of glycerol in which the OH radicals are replaced by NO 2 ; used as primary base of Brilish propellants and as gelatinizing agent of U. S. propellants, bui not used as primary base of U. S. propellants because its high flame temperature ac'eierates bore erosion. NITROGEN MUSTARD GASES: Group of blister gases similar to mustard gas with varying chemical properties and little or no odor; gases affect eyes, nose, and lungs.

NOSE SPRAY: (See SPRAY.) NLUTATION: A small periodic oscillation about the motion of precession. 0 OBTURATION: Any process' that prevents the escape of gases from the tube of a weapon during the firivg of a projectile. OBTURATOR: A device fo. making the tube of a weapon gas-tight, preventing any escape of gas until the projectile has left the muzzle. O(GIVE: The shape of the head of the projectile often a convex solid of revolution generated by an arc of a circle whose center lies on the side of the axis of revolution opposite to the arc. OPTIMUM CHARGE: Web and propellant weif;ht combination which produces maximum velocity at a specified pressure.

G- 12(I


OVERTURNING MOMENT (of a projectile in

PICRIC ACID (tr-initrophenol): High explosive,

flight): Couple about an axis through the

center of gravity, perpeadicular to the plane of yaw. OXYGEN BALANCE: Ratio of self-contained oxygen to fuel in a propcllant or explosive. P fa eidirect PARASHEET: Parachute-like device made frompieces as flat piece will mLterial, avoids a single its size of permit; or as cost of complex gore construction of parachute. PEAK PRESSURE: Instantaneous maximum pressure developed in the gjn chan. r by burning propellant; pressire immediately preceding an expanding shock wave.

more powerful than trinltrotoluene, used

widely in the form od mixtures with other nitro compounds. PIEZOELECTRIC CRYSTAL: Crystalline m,terial possessing tie property that, when it is mfcahnlcally compressed or stretched In certain directions, electrical charges in proportic-a to the mechanical train appear on the crysWl surfaces. PIH(friin)Reioalcthtwt (See TWIST.) PLANFORM: Shape of plan view of fine. PLASTIC EXPLOSIVE: Explosive which, within normal ranges of atmospheric tempernure, is capable of being molded Into desired shaves. PLUNGING WIPI: Gunfire that strikes the earth's surfae at a high angle. POINT-BLANK RANCE: Distance, to a target, that is so short that the trajectory of a bullet or projectile is practically a straight, rather than a curved, line. Point-blank range la one for which no superelevation is needed. POINT DETONATING FUZE: fuze, located In the nose of a projectile, which is initiated upon impact. POWDER: Term sometimes loosely used for propellant" or "propelling charge." POWDER TRAIN: !1) Train, usually of compressed black powder, used to obtain time action In older fuze types. (2) Train of explosives laid out for destruction by burning. PRACTICE AMMUNITION: Ammunition used for target practice, ammunition with a propelling charge, but with either an inert filler or a low-explosive filler to serve as a spotting charge. PRECISION: The quality of having small dispersion about the mean. PRECESSION: A change In the direction of the axis of a rotating body. In this handbook, precession means the slow motirn withovt nutation.



PERCUSSION COMPOSIT!ON: High-explosive powder that is ignited in some types of firearms by the blow of the firing pin against the primer cap. PERCJSSION FUZE: (See IMPACT FU=-.)

PERCUSSION PRIMER: Cap or cylinder containing a small charge of high explosive that may be set off by a blow. A percussion primer is used in all fixed and semifixed ammunition and in certain types of separace-loading ammunition to ignite the main propellr g charge.I PERFORATION: Passage of a missile completely through an object. PERMISSIBLE INDIVIDUAL MAXIMUM PRESSURE, For any type gun, that value which should not be exceeded by the maximum pressure developed by any individual round under a.y service condition. PERMISSI:3LE MEAN MXIAUM PRESSURE: For any type gun, that value which should not be exceeded by the average of the maximum pressures developed i. a series of rouwids fired under any service conditions. PHOSGENE: Colorless choking gas having an odor of new-mown hay or fresh corn; causes choking; and coughing, and injuries to the lungs.


FRESURE, CENER ' F: The point where the result~nt fozcp cauzsed 1w, air -.vetstance intersezIs t~axis W the projectile. PRIMAC01-RD: Flexible fabric tubP containing a filler og -Iigh-exlosive P7..'N (pentareythrltetetrni~rate) that ir- used to transmit a detoralion from a detonator to a boosir or bursting chairge. Priniacord is the trade narie for wthe type of detonating cord currently in use. PRIMER: Device used to initiata 'hne functioning of an. explosive or igniter t.ra:,n. It mray be actuated by friction, blow, heat, ore:ssure, or electricity.. PR.TMLR-DETrONATOR:. Assembly consisting oi %d primer and a detonator. It may also inelude a: delay itement. PRIMER SEAT: Chamber in the breech mechafim of a guv that uses separate -loading ammunition, into which the primer is set. PROBABLE ERROR: An error of such magnitude that the probability of making an e,.ror greater than it in any given observttion is just equal to the probability of making one lass than it, both probabilities being oneha If. PROCEDURE, DESIGN: Outline of steps to follow in designing an item. PROGRESSIVE GRANULATION: Propellant grain which burns with a continually increasing surface until the grain is cornpletely consumed. PROJECTILE: Object, such as a bullet or

properties suitable, to permit its use as a propelling charge. PROPELLING CHARGE: Explosivp charge that is burntA in a weapon to propel a projectile therefrom (see PROPELLANIT). Burning Gf the confined propelling -charge produces gases whosr.. pressure forc-es the projectile oUt. PROXIMITY FUZE: F'uze designcd to ?"atanate a projectile, bomb, mine,, or chirge when activated 'by an externial -nxlutiice in the close vicinity of a target. PYROCELLULOSE: Nitrocellucse 12.60 percent nitrogen. containing

PYROCOTTON: (Spe PYROCELLULOSE.) PYRO POWDER: Straight nitrocellulose powder; smokeless propelling charge consisting of a nitrocellulose that has a smaller nitrogen content than- Vuncotton; single-base propellant. PYROTECHNICS: Ammunition containing chemicals that produca a smoke or brilliant light in burnin' used fcr signalling, marking, spotting, illuminating, etc. PYROXYLIN (collodi on): Nitroceliolose containing 8-12 perceint nitrogen.

QUALITY ASSURANCE: System of assuiring that material accepted is in accordance with requirements, including inspection and test procedures,, acceptance criteria,' etc.

shell, that is propelled from a weapon by

an explosive propelling charge. PROOF' AMMUNITION: Ammunition incorpora-


change of pirsure within the close chamb-er with respect to time.

(Propellant R


Rate of

ting solid, blunt-nosed, steel or cast iron

shot of inexpensive manufacture; used in proof firing of guns; used to simulate the weight of projectile designed for the gun in adjusing chr he PROPAGANDA SHELL: SHELL.) See (Se LEAFopeLE"T LALT

RAM: (1) To push into position. (2) To seat a

projectile in the bore of a gun..

RAMMER: (1) Device .for driving a projectile into position in a gun. It may be hand- or .power-operated or a part oi the receiver mechanism. (2) Tool ':-sed to remove liveI projectiles from the bore of a gun.

PROPELLANT: Explosive material whose rate of combtstion is low enough, and its other








RATED MAXIMUM PRE URE: For any type gun, -that value of the maximum pressure which is specified in the propellant specification as the upper hmit of average pressure which may be developed by an acceptable propellant in the form of propelling . charges which will impart the specified muzzle velocity to the specified projectile. The smokeless propellant in propellig charges which, in the acceptance test, develops an average maximum pressure exceeding this value is considered as having failed to pass the test. RELATIVE FORCE: Ratio of observedi by apropellant oed develo muV prere mum test to developed by a propellant under pressure the maximum pressure developed by a standard propellant under Identical test conditios. RELATIVE QUIChNESS: Ratio of the quickness (dP/dt) of a test propeUant to the quickness of a standard propellant, measured at the same initial temperature and loadirg density in the same closed chamber. REMAINING VELOCITY: Speed of v projectile at any point along its path of (lUght. hemainS:gvelocity is usually measured in feet per .second. RICOCHET: Glancing rebound of a projectile after Impact. RIFLE: (1) Any firearm that has rifling in the bore designed to give a spin to the projectile for greater accuracy of fire and longer range (not extensively used in this manner, except for shoulder arms). (2) Cut spiral grooves (rifling) in the bore ad a gu in order to give a spin to the projectile so that it will have a greater accuracy of fire and longer range. RIFLING: Spiral grooves in the bore of a weapon designed to give a spin to the projectile for greater accuracy and carrying power. Rifling includes both the grooves and the ridges between, cailed lands. ROTATING BAND: Soft metal band around a projectile near its base. The rotating band makes the projectile fit tightly in the bore

by centerinj the projectile, thus prevnntisg escape cl gas, and giving the .rojectile its spin as It engages in the rifling. ROUND: (1) All the parts that make up the ammuitica fteessry in firing on shot (alo called COMPLETEROUND . (2)On s fired

ROUND OF AMMUrON: (See ROUND.' S SABOT: (1) Lightweight carrier in which a subcaliber projectile Is centered to permit firing the projectile in the later caliber weapon. The carrier fills the bore of the weapon from which the projectile L ilred; and its light weight permits it to be safely fired at very high velocities. It is normally discarded a shart distane from the muzzle, in which cse it is known as a discourding sabot. SAFETY WIRE: Wire set into the body of a fuse to lock all movable parts into safe pition so that the fuze will not be set alf It is plled out just before adn. SCABBUNG: Breaking off of fragm,!nts in the inside of a wall of hard material due to the impact or explosion of a projectile on the outside. SCREENING SMOKE: Chemical agent which, when burned, hydrolyzed, or atomized, produces an obscuring smoke; used to deny observation and reduce effectiveness of aimed fire. EMIFED AMMUNITICN.: Ammunition In which the cartridge case is not permanently fixed to the projectile, so that th' zoned charge within the cartridge ese can he adjusted to obtain the desired range; 'oaded into the weapon as a unit. 5EhI IXED ROUND: Round of semdit-ed ammunion. SENSITIVITY: Measire al tht response of an explosive materal to initiation by heat, friction, or impact. G-15


SEPARATED AMMUNITION: Ammunition in which the cartridge case is not fixed to the projectile, so that the zoned charge within the cartridgL case can be adjusted to obtain the tiesir2d range; loaded into the weapon as a unit. SIEPARATE-LOADING AMMUNITION. Ammunition in which the projectile, propelling charge, and primer are not held together in a shell case, as in fixed ammunition, but are loaded into a gun separately, SEPARATING BURST: Method of ejecting the contents of a projectile by means of a charge of propellant that breals the proje,-tile, into twc, approximately elual parts, along a specially designed clrcaraferential shear joint. SERVICE AMMUNITION: Ammunition intended for combat rather than for training purposes. SETBACK: Rearward jerk, caused by ine-.tia, of parts of a projectile when it is fired. SHAPED CHARGE: An explosive ,.o shaped and designed as to concentrate its explosive force in a single direction, SHELL: Hollow projectile filled with explosive, or chemical or other material, as opposed to shot, which is i solid projectile. SHELL-DESTROYLNG TRACER: Tracer with an igniter element, placed between the explosive in an antiaircraft projectile and the tracer element, that is designed to detonate the explos,ve ilter the projectile has passed the target point but is still high enough to be harmless to ground troops. SHOCK WAVE: Raped expansion of the hot gases resulting from detonation of an explosive charge. SHORT DELAY FUZE: One which will burst a projectile on ricochet, preferably abot 6 to 10 feet above ground. Some crater effect will be obtzined on hard ground. SHOT: (1) A solid projectile. (2) Pellets, small balls, or slugs used in shotgun shells, canisters, and some other types of ammunition, G- 16

SHRAPNEL: Artillery projectile which contains small lead balls that are propelled by a powder charge in the base, set off by a time fuze. Shrapnel has been replaced almost entiiely by high-explosive sh!Ls. W.un-ls called shrapnel wounds usLally are due to shell fragments rather than to shrapnel. SHRINKAGE: Contraction of propellant grain from wet (green) dimensions (as it comes from the graining dye) to the dry dimensions after solvent extraction and evaporation. SIDE SPRAY: (See SPRAY.) SIGNALiNG SMOKE: Any type of smoke, but usually colored smoke from a band or rifle grenade, or from a pyrotechnic signal, used for conveying a message. SINGLE-BASE POWDER: (See SDhGLE-BASE PROPELLANT.) SINGLE-BASE PROPELLANT: Propellant whose principle active ingredient i:' nitrocellulose. i.INGLi-SECTION CHARGE: Propelling charge in separate-loading ammunition that is loaded into a single bag. A sin;le-section charge cannot be reduced or increased for changes of range, as a multisection charge can be. SMOKE SHELL: Any projectile containing a smoke-producing chemical agent that is released on impazt or burst. Also called smoke projectile. Smoke may be white or colored. (See COLORED MARKER SHELL.) SMOKELESS POWDER: PROPELLANT.) (See SMOKELESS

SMOKELESS PROPELLANT: Propellant explosive from which there is a minimum amount of visible smoke on firing. SMOOTH-BORE: Having a bore that is smooth and without rifling; shotguns and mortars are commonly smooth-bore. SPALL: Fragments broken from either surface of an armor plate as the result of penetration, impact of a projectile, or detonation against the plate.



. S" L

SPECIFIC DENSITY: Mass S )interiorfrom loading densityisandper unit volume. In baliistics it usually distinguished gravimetric density, which see. SPIN: Angular velocity about the axis of the projectile, SPIN-DECELERATrNG MOMENT: A couple about the axis of the projectile diminishes spin. SPLN-STABILIZATIGN: Method of stabilizing a projectile during flight by cai~ng it to rotate about its own longitudinial axis. SPRAY: Fiagn-ents of a bursting shell. The nose, side, and ba3e sprays are the [ragments thrown forward, sideways, and rearward, respectively. SQUASH-HEAD SHELL: (See SIVE PLASTIC SHELL.) HIGII-EXOLO


ballistic con itions arbitrarily assume4 as standard for the computation of firing tables. STANDARD DEVIATION: The root-meansquare of the deviations from the mean. STANDARD TRAJECTORY: Path through the air that it Is calculated a prnjpctile will follow under given conditionts of weather, position, and materiel, including the particular iuze. projectile, and propelling charge that are used. Firing Labies are based on standard trajectories. STANDOFF: Distance between a shaped charge round and its target at the instant of functioning. STAR: Pyrotechnic single light. signal that burns as a

SQUIB: Small pyrotechnic device which may be used to fire the igniter in a rocket or for some similar purpose; not to be confused a detonator, wsdch explodes. (See ELECTRIC SQUIB.) STABILITY: Measure the ability of an explosive material to be atored for long periotis. dSTRIKER: STABILITY TEST: Accelerated test to determine the suiLtbility ( ai explosive material for long-term storage. STABILIZER: Material added to propellent colloid to inhibit, or reduce, decomposition in storage. STACKED CHARGE: Powder charge In which the powder grains lie end to end within the powder bag. STANDARD ATMOSPHERE: Values of ternperature and pressure determined by NACA, based on the yearly averages at 40 N latitude. At sea level T = 59F; P = 29.92 in. Hg; lapse rate a 3.66F per 1,000 ft altitude. Various other standards have been defined, but is the standard used In this handbook.

STAR GAGE: Instrument for measuring the

diameter of the bore of a gun.

p' AR SHELL: ;See ILLUMINATING SHELL.) STOWAGE: (1) Method of pla:ing cargo in t vessel to prevent damage, shifting, etc. (2) Method of .placing equipment and supplies in a vehicle to p'ovide availability 'and operating room. (3) Eqt~ipment when stowed. Part of the firing mechanism of a gun, mine, mortar, etc., that its the primer; hammer or fring pin of a gun. STRIKING VELOCITY" Speed of a projectile at the point of impact. SUBCALIBER: standard. ( a caliber smaller than

SUPERQUICK FUZZ: Fuse that functions immediately upon impact of the missile with the target. Action of this type ci fuse Is the quickest possible: the firing pin is driven into the primer immediately upon first contact of the mislle;functions at the surfaces oi the target. Also called Instantaneous fuse. SUPERSENSITIVE FUZE: Fuze that will set off a projectile when it strikes even a very light target, such as as airplane wing.


~UPPLA~~VL~ClAYIGiE: Fflhr, wt oh is norr;. ly TNT, used in deep cavitiod pro;feCtices to fill vold iLe~weer ordiiary fuze nAl bowster combi ation a--J b-irsti;,'.
SiwrLLANCI : 01,%'r'ation, Inspection, inveti';sficzi, test, 5study, a:id classification of amnt_,n4Uo, amn~rizior comfponents, and explosives in movemenZ. storage, and use wi4 epc evcbl~ odgeeo r~e o dteioraion.trajectory

observation awl aAjctt"._.t of iiSOe for incendiary pui-px- ss, ind f,.;r a,~ AMmunition containing trar.,rs znc-id .'rac' r amnunitin. TRAJECTORY:, Path of pro'ectile, mistile, : bomb in flghit.


n ofthe

CHART; Dbgram rif a side view aic ~ ~ a conditions. The elevations, wider sta-ndard chart is differout for , We:l nt guns, projectiles, and fuzes.


og~ve extended to the ;nace rnhere its gene:txgare is para-Ilt I to the center line. SYMPATHETIC ciused lay thi veariq.DETONATION: Explosion shoch df another explosion

TRAUZL TESrT: MAefl ad of determining relative energy available fr~om an explcsivp riateripl by measurement of the volune expansion of a lead test block. 716WONITE- High excplonive used as a subs~ itute f or .rini'rotolnene as a bursting charge. Trimonife is a mixture of picric acid and minitroaapbthalene. TIIINITROPHENOL: (See PICRIC ACID.) TRINITROTOLUENE (TN II: 11g-h explosive widely used as explosive filler in projectiles and by engineers; trirdtrotcluol. TRINITROTOLUC.L: (See TRINITROTOLUENE.) Propellant TRIPLE-BAfiSE PROPELLANT: whose princ.ipal active ingredients are nitroreliulase, nitroglycerin, and nitroguantidine. (See PROPELLANT.) TRIPLE POINT: hitersection of the original shoch wave, the reflected shock wave, and the Marh st'tm. TUBE: Thle inner cylinder of a built-up gun, usually extending from the inner face of the to the muzzle. TWIST: Inclination of the spiral grooves to the axis oi. the bore of a weapon.. '11--e degree of twist ks the determing factor in the speed of rotation of the projectile.

T TSInRMDNAL BALLISTICS: The branch of ballistics wh'ich deals wita the ultimate c.ffect iproduccd by a projtctile. TERMIINAL VELOCITY: Remaining speed of a projectile at thie poLt -in the downward path o(f ile piojectile wr ire the pro"ectile Is level vith the muzzle cl the gun. The speed at. the point of impact Ise ca~ed the stylking velocity. TETRYL: Sensitive explosive used especially in caps and boosters to detonate less sensitive explosives, and as the explosive filler in some types of projectiles. THERIMATE: Standard incendiary agent used as fillingr ior incendiary munitions. Mtture of therzrnte (iron* oxide and aluminum) ard other oxidizing agents; it burns at about 4,330'F.breechblock T1iRMIT: Thermite, commierical welding mixture at iron oxide and aluminum; used as an Incendiary for some mupitions. TNT: (See TRINITIIOTOLUENE.) TlCi:Elemnmi of a type c4 ammin~iion reetamning a chemical composition which burns visibly in flight. Tracer Is ased for AS1




S.c~. .....



WAVE FRONT: Surface which is the locus of I -- mLeucules having motion in identical phase in a propagating -wave. WEB; WEB SIZE; WEB THICKNESS: Alternative terms describing the minimum distance between any two specified burning

WI.E MPHORRS (WP): Yellovv, waxy solid which ignitec spontaneously when exposed to air. It Is used as a f illin for various projectiles as a. smOte-producing agent, and! has in incendiary effect. White p:hosphorts may be mixed with a xylene solution ld synthetic rubber to form plasticized white phusphorus.

WEB RANGE: Tolerance of web thickness to allow for nmanufacturing limitatiorWI~iV&HIELD: (See BALLISTIC CAP.)

Y YAW: Angle between the axis of the projectile and the tbUgeut to the trajectory.


1*A-3. 3Abel

composition, 2-157 equation of state, 4-35

redaciag, 2-1Us


Aberdeen chronograph, 2-94 Aberdeen PoigGrouds,2-5 Servic es. 2-126 Absolute tempez.tur,3, 4-35 Absorber, shock, 2-' T5 Absorption. selectlise 2-177but Accelerat: on burning rate, 4- L6 gas. 2-138 Acceptable (mccc ptance, acceptability) canes, 4-1.'7 criteria, 5-1 gage toleraw'-e. 5-24 agn, -4structures. of lot. 5-12 probabilty of (Pa), 5-2 quality level (AQL). 5-3. 8 IvI.' l eitabH81hing the (AQ14, 5-4 sampling. 5-2 of si.blot, 6-44 teat, 4-93

Waller Prr'f-sq. 2-188 Air


gage. 2-11 rcai1britio3 of, 2-11 ladat etervalnstos of relative, 2-11 IIsiglC qp~lmal. 2-107 leilarea, 2-107

angul-r. 4-179

due to gravity. 4.34 linear, 4-179

dusase evalwa~c,


by internal blast. 2-14 defeut q, 2-3

oset of blast on. 2-14

by xermal bat, 2-111


flare. 2-114 biast against. 2-13 vulnerability, 2-111 to external blast of, 2-16 studies, 2-111
deasfty, 3.4
-ny alude, nethod of calculating, 2-1in foil blad". rataling. 2-171 sectiOM polygonal, 3-14


me~Al parts, 2-164 parts deaIgn. 2-177 s ign VIP shell. 2-180
Arads, cftluded, 4-6
Acid wynh, 6-17

speed. drug coefficient, 2-1%6 Algebraic asip of streas. 4-181

Alignmest of cas nd
11b, 4-132 of prUlons, carge, 2-56

Accurtry of HEP shell, 'f

A Damage, 2-110



Alkal instal sakts, 4-3


Aapter fure, 2-175 none, 2-186 steel, 2-180 taipered, 2-118 flame temperature, 4-37, 88 Aevantage(s)
of Eurusion over Forging. 6-3 of HEP shell. 2-156

Alklines wash. 6-17 All burst, 4-39 poesim of, 4-3n squations for period after, "S4 Aflowsae (allowable) pressures. 2-118, 4-131 sh atres. 2-164
vw. 5-24 Mlays. crlteal, e-3

for increasing twist, 4-170 of wrap-up c"ss, 6-47 Aerodynamic coefficient, 3-6
of a projectile, estimation of, 3-8

All-plastic sat, 2-136 W"ef body, 2-115 AV~tLA*

eftuct onInternal blast. 2-15


4-39, 7

Aferlterig, 4-75 Age naref,pro~g 4

obidizng. 2-186

to-ie cosr carrier, 2-l


Amagesiol. 2-178-peteso. uinn

decoperig, -2 otit leees, -16


0B -3

oosLcouovrvw te-ose.cmai

amoI_ _

_ __ng __AudL2-7



Aromonium perc lorate expkloive. 2-13 Aornmu- i tin armnor icfej irg,. -1543 arror-prdfrc t (APN, 1-2 bae ejetilon. 2-5 with bitrster ciharg"., 2-5 ciuiat:4r. 1-3. 2-5, 10, 151 d-r%" 2-162. 4-123 *.iLte'r,2-153 J.ixtv, 4- 117. 4 -160 itemus, dimen loifng of, $-1, 2-3 anltank (REAT). 2 4 . 2-5 pl',hypervoiecity &rmor-piercing discarding (lViAP'rn , 1- ? kinetic ener$y, 2-4, 117 rta ilcs for crn tter, 2-150 1-3 pyrot,,chni-t-. recoilless, 2-153 semifixed, 4-117 surmifLard and, separsts-loadng, 4-180 0e "rste losding, 4-117 special ,urpose, 2-154 Amomvt of Inspection, 5-1 Amplitude of nutstio, 3-8 of orec salon, 3-8 Analysis, 2-106 beam. 4-155, 158 boiler, 4-156 combat, 2-107 co-strained shell. 4-154 evahtion of present nsethods of, 2-91 mrethods of data, 2-85 2-153. 4-178, 179 :trss, stress in shell, 4-189 method. 2-126 by statietic wean.m -yatem, 2-107 Anrle(s) of attack. 2-123. 3-11, 12 sms.1,, 3-13 cone apex, 2-53 cone of dispersion, 2-13 of derarture, 3-39 of fall, 2-93 of fire, 2-83 of impact, 2-137 Index. 2-77, 79 Mach. 3-14 of oMIquity, 2-156 sweepback, 3-11, 14 sweepforward, 3-11, 14 toleranced, 5-20 -of yaw, 3-2 Angular 4-179 acceleration, 41 velocity, 3-28 Anisotropic material, 4o149 Anisotropic plastic, 4-189 Anneal(s), annealing of, cartridge case mouth, 6-44 of com, eiect of, 2-46 mtermediate. 6-1 opetations (cartrtdge cgse manufacture), 6-39

prrcrs, 6-41 saltt (,er, 6-394-1.15. 6-40 atrcP9-re(e. Antipersonnet fr mentator. w ap-nts). 2-103, 106 Antitank protect;es. 2- ., .50 (no Oro Armor-pierc'nmL). 4-153 AP P;iot (ell) AP caps, matchin -ur saldering 6-33 AP projectiles, eWm. of Toie genmetry of, 2-138 I ifcations of ate2l for, -3-29 AP shot cA-9. AP shot dcniM, 2-1,8 AP and APC pr.1--tilce, comparative performance of, 2-142 APC she!:, 4-178 AC and AP projectiles, comparative performance of, 2-142 Appd1cation of FrMimentation Characteristics Dta to Desim of Shell. 2-98 Appro.ximating che ballistic limit, 2-126 AR. 2-85 Arc, Ogival, 3-87 Area of chamber. 4-34 fire effectiveness, 2-107 lethal, 2-3. 93, 104, 106. 154 vu.1netble. 2-101 Arhennius functlon, 2-19. Armco Iron,-soft. 4-149 Armor. 2-4. 128 British (CTA) cemented tank, 2-120 bullet p'oof (BP). 2-120 classification, 2-119 defeat of, 2-117 defeating ammunition. 2-156 design for defeat of, 2-4 face-hardened, 2-141 bullet-proof, (FHBP), 2-120 glass, 2-82 homogeneous, 2-36, 120, 138, 139 Krupp, 2-120 machinable quality (MQ), 2-120 noncemented, 2-120 parameters, effect of varying, 2-129 penetratlbe, 2-137 perforaion, 2-124, i25 plate failure, 2-119 types of, 2-120 performance of, 2-125 skirting, 2-137. 157 solid, 2-137 spaced, 2-49, 129, 1 7 spalling of (HEP), 2targets, heavy, 2-14 thickness, effect on projectile performance, 2-129 U. 3. Navy Class A, 2-120 4-120 1 Navy Class B1 U. Arm-r-piercing.(see also AP) cap(i), 2-4, 117, 123 137, 141, 144, 4-178 steel sheU, 2-4 . on. tungsten Carbide cores, effect of, 2-142 projectiles, 2-125, 139 perforzumne of. 2-126 (HVAPI. shell, hyperveloclty, 2-117 shot (AP),2-4, 117 comparison of HEP shell with, 2-156 caps, mant-acture of, 6-29





HVAP., manufactur. ot, 6-35 Army Dophysics Laboratory. 2-102 .... Arsomal Fwiklord, 242 Pictlnny, 2-82, 13 Waterto . 2-U3, 142 Artillery ammnl~on. 1-1 ammunition, desin of. compments of. 6-1 ammniltlo. mau'acturs o. primer, 4-44 shel, 6-2 Aa egtoe-flled phmmolle. 2-116 As drawn. 4-123 kapect ratio. 3-71 fine of low, 3-13 larg. 3-1 low. 3-11 WI (Average tple- wfmbr), 6 Assembly candle, 2-164. 175 of HVAP shot. 6-35 illumbant, 2-160, 3J2. 184 of projectile. 2-151 tail fin, 2-172 Asseessment tuk damage. 2-.29 types oA damag, 2-111 Aauac. qu&Ly. 5-1 Assymetry Aseymetrical effects of, m velocity drop and Jump of ftnaed prolscttles. 3-30 proJecUlA, stability of. 3-2 Atmosphert

lDam. plate. 2-17S S&P. cartride Wier. I-? Ra,s pawe. 4-85 Balance. o 4-3 velli) pinspot pfltnone~e. 6-3 proes, 4-2 p |-150 asis-icis) cap. 2-117 chmrtrtstks, uiform e-derfor. 2-111 oemalcut (C). 3-1., 39. 64 conptuig. 2-73 bctors qm which It depends. 3-30 wuaimum, 3144 compusitias, 4-34 fect t mlfmity o1, 4-0 sq*tlo.e, 4-45 hodanmeta. 4-43 s of 4-36 ivence. 4-26 alJlar. 643, 4? 3,45 fnterfor. 2-163. 4-1. 14 limit. 2-LU 127, 141, 144. 145 apprimating th.. 2-11 charts hr. 2-US i satmstiag. 2-U2, 127 matching. 2-4, 137, 111 method. 4-24 mrtar , 2-23 poteatiaL 4-2

Atmoepbnrio earba ising. 6-36

hurnxe, redwitng. I-"

problem. exterior. 3-ft ressatc laborstale, 2-36. 3.41,60.

si. %I.wt, no

0, 73,

hydrogen. 6-36 protectve, G-M4 m~oisture, 2-191 resistance to. 2-190 standard. 2-196. 3-4 Attaching band to projectile. 4-154 Attachment. s hel. 2-173 Attack angle(s) of. 2-123, 3-11. 12 Kamlkase, 2-110 obliquities of, 2-145 At.tesnaion. wavsmath. 2-13 AtrbPAte 5-14 inspection. 5-12 Auat tic, steel. for IMR powder. 2-169 Avallahle daia 6-1 Average bore diameter, 4-1&1 densities and com4pltions of explosives. 2-12 outgoing quality (AOQ, b-1 outgoflg quality limit (AOQL), 5-4 web, 4-21 Axis Axial spin. 3-29 al sewvlutilo, 3-64
momet of Inertia, 3-2

tables. 3-394-1 tdormit., -mm. 2-3,93, 156 Bailotifn. 3-0, 4-171, A e 4-173 at pro)ecUls. 4-166 BMW driving. 6-1 floff, 4-154 land. 4-15 widith,4-15 wiping of at. 4-166 Material, yield Strong of, 4-157 outsids diaeter. determination c4 4-149 -7 p radial. 4-1, 153 themotical predcts of, 4-151 to projectile, attaching. 4-1H ealcaMlm fr. 4-154 ratoML 1-3. 2-163, 4-3. 153, 171, 11. 6-1. 1?. wddM ovearlay, 2-6,4-149. 154 seat, 4-114,6-23 dimete detarmie*i positin aC 4-151 sasring oC 4-172 tamIng. 6-1
Gleain tM, 6-17 t 4-1"

al. 4-15


... ..



- J _ ll



w cZ. 4-MS rne#-,,tid i,-- roputlng, 4-150 v~lthout voves, 6- 17 Be-odAg of shell, 6-17 ba. ai1, 2-176, 178 Pare carges, 2-10. 11, 16 Bari'eulig. 4-119 zal POrNaity, 6-13 lWOO area, estimation of. (effect of drag). 3-67 of case, 4-137 contour of. 4-124 covet. 1-4 diameter, 3-88 draj, 3-70 coefficient, 3-71 stimatin of drag, 3-71 ej cUt.m. 1-3, 2-183 a-munitlon, 2-5 s~e. 2-160, 161, 4-1 smLe shell, 2-176 flange. 2-45 flat, 4-182 control of, 4-124 of IIVAP shot, 6-35 major, 3-87 plate. 2-162, 164 fastening, 6-17 removable, 2-172. plug, 2-160, 162. 164, 170 sheartinge2-169, 184 *hear stress on threads of, 2-163 shou threads, d'msign of. 2-163 pressure, 4-36 reinforcement, 4-137 round, 4-182 upturi of steel cartridge cases, 4-133 of shell. fL shing the, 6-16 sheil, square, 3-64 stress L., resulting from setback of filler, 4-i83 Basin angle dimensioning. 5-20, k3t dimension, 5-13, 23 problems of interior ballistics, 4-33 radial dimension, 5-20 Battle salvage. 6-47 Battlefield illumination. 2-162 BAT weapon, 2-81 B Damage, 2-110 Bead, inverted, 4-134 Beads, oatorating, 4-134 ;eum natiysts, 4-155, 158 Bearing-mounted. zharges, 2-82 Bearing strese of rotating band, 4-153 Before heating, Inspection of shell, 6-13 3efore splintering, 4-76 lieginning of motico of projectile, 4-34 Beglning of motion, time since, 4-47 Behavior of filler, 4-189 Bench, draw, 6-8 !Rand'ng stres3(eA), 2-124 Bect 11nm, 3-29

tunc.nelurrd, 4-153


eqution, 2-31 theorem, 2-33, 34 Beryi1um copper cones, 2-46 Biftiucation, 2-69 Bfur l'tion of jet, 2-35. 04 Big-end-up, mold, 6-29 Billet, Z-5 scale and descalig, 6-6 sep:_r tion, 8-5 limetallic cczs and nenconical shapes, 2-42 Binary mixtures. 2-190 Binder me ,, 6-36 Binding agentn, 2-186 Binomial probtility distribution, 5-3 Erkhotf, 2-64 Black powder, 2-5. 138, 4-1 charge. 4-84 ejection charge, 2-183 1nitl~tor, 2-183 loading density versus pressure curve of, 2-183 pellet, 1-6 trmin, 1-4 Blanking and cuppi of cartridge case, 6-37 Bls-t, blating, 2-1, 50, 93, 156 against aircrzft tructure3, 2-13 aircraft damage by axternal, 2-15 aircraft damage by irternal, 2-14 aircraft, effect ot, 2-11 contours,. 2-16 cube, 2-11 damage criteria, extertud, 2-16 determination of relative intensities, 2-11 effect, 2-7 on aircraft, 2-14 altitude on internal! of case on internal, 2-14 evaluation, 2-11 ex2losives for, 2-12, 4-2 external damage criteria, 2-.16 external vulnerability of an aircraft, 2-16 information to be obtained fromu later experixataLion, 2-9 measarement of, 2-10 Blast, Muzzle, 3-28, 29, 30 propagation of, 2-10 reflectedl, 2-9 shot, 6-5, 12. 1, 15 tube, 2-11 vulnerability of aircraft to external, 2-16 waves, 2-19 Blended guncotton, 4-6 Blended n/trocelluloses, 4-2 Blending radius, 4-125 Blowholes, 6-1 Blow-througba, 4-120 Blunt headed shot. 2-124 nose, 2-157 projectiles, 2-154 shot, 2-12 trailing edge, fins with a, 3-13 Boat-tail, 3-8, 64, 67, &-, 6-21 Boat-tail projectil'a, 4-160

Benzene nucleus, resonance of, 4-90 teat, 4-93

fin Interference, 3-71


J ii-g


of JIVAP shot, 6-35

ebel. 2-170

of wrapped cartriege came, 6-46 Boiler analyais. 4-1Z6 Boiler formula, 4-154 Boiling of mouth, 4-122 Bomb, closed, 4-16. 13, 33. 88 Bombs, photo-flash. 2-116 Dome penetrat ion, 2-103Baltpl.41 Boooter(s), 1-b. 2-57, 01 black powder 'ellert, I-i of Asxge, 2 -57 lead zide, 1-5 requirements, 2-10 sensitivity tost, 2-23
standord, 2-177

determination of o-Iial points In,4-178

method of NslUn muiale velcity of a sb caliber projectile. 2-1=6 actor, 4-150 WE 1 Brittle fraicture, 2-123 Brulceton, 2-M4 staircase asthd. 2-23 Budd Co., 2-31 Buffer cap, 2-164 for defeat of spaed Armoc. 2-144 Bullet proof armor. two bardesed (lIEU?). 2-19 Buwyanwy, cnte Of. 6-M5 Btuwal of Klass test, 2-22 Burn, burning candle, 2-173 chAracteristos. 2-136 constant (2), 4-40 control of. 4-2, 3 dye compoetle. 2-183 equation, 4-18 filer, 2-178 flare. 2-14. 1in of pressed compostihon. 24865 propresive. 4-24.,25 oiiaiey2-0 Burning. pmOP*eU011 4-16,233 43 :wte. 2-18?. 1St. 190, 191. 4-1# 9v 22, 33,236 aceouinof,4-16 burning rateconrol of. 4-132 effect; of VPt shoe on, 4-20 rate eqath 4-W5

tetryl, 1-5 Bor* clearance, 3-4 disuneter, average. 4-1L52 erolon, 4-1. 3 residue, 4-2. 3 safe ftze. 1-5 yaw in the. 3-28 affecta and magntude of initial yaw due to, *-26 Boundry. increment, 2-183 Bourrelet, 1-3, 3-4, 82, 6-29 clearance betw'een ad r~flig. 4-164 clearance, nl'imum 4-178 eupmdlng. 6-23

safety, -



Inear 4-16, 16, 20

rng gape. 6-24 tolerances of. 6-17

pr~ortUmi law of, 4-20 regresly. 4-25 eove-porhrMad grahm.' 4-4S imefus, 4-4 coent.4-26,26.27 cCmt'oI at, 4-MS fctut cuds, 2-M6 ~111ty of. 2-13 type. smoke aespootties aces A. 2-189 acme B. 2-1119 acms C, 2-189 Bu Drmer, strand,4-16 Burnt, burnd aer. 4- 1$ all, 4-"3 fractiom, 4-21 Burst urploxfve 1-3hetgt. moss 2-137 pocltion of, 3-33 saqarathag. 143 Borstera) qasIng, 2-M5 wdo&-shisnmsss 2-180 charge(s), 2-5. 166, 176, 178, 181 ammoikelo wWt 245 detarmlnahiaaof weightatc. 2-178 IN2 smoke charge, rafts of. 2-1L73 cobuain. 2-178

BOX gage. 2-10 tests, 2-4 Brass cases, manufacture of, 6-37 copper and alpha. 4-160 overworking. 4-125 tensile strwogh, 4-135 Break(-up) fragments, 2-109 jet. 2-32 projectile, 2-129 shell, 2-144 two-dimensional, 2-94 three-dimensional, 2-94 Breech. 4-119, 137 Breeh pressure, 2-164. 4-36. 37 Bridge waves, 2-19 Brinell hardness, 6-15 Brisance values, 2-187 Bri4sant, 2-181 Beftish Armaments Design Departmnt of the Ministry of Supply, 4-117 armor, cemented tank (CTA), 2-120 practice. design of drawn cartridge cases, 4-117

nick and.


explosive, 2-160, 2-178 tetryl, 2-17S tube, mftae, 2-160, 179 ! C-4. 2-157 -C dincage", 2-110 CrbbM e4 L. 11-se, 4-21 lon, 2-175 Cabie, sutp C.nIculation of thend reta-tion. 4-154 dieleraiion, 2-164 denaity of propellant composition. 4-89 geometric characteristics of projectile, 3-90 heat of combustion, 4-90 heat of exlosion (Q- 4-9, 90 Interior ballistic, 4-9 maximum prassure, 4-81 tables for, *&-47 muzzle veircity, tables for, 4--,'t oglive segment, 3-35 thermodynamic properties of propellants, 4-87 web, 4-14 Caliber, 3-38 Calibration of air-blast gages, 2-11 Calibration cAirt, standard, 4-40 Calorimetrtc test, 4-89 Cameru.s, Fastax high-speed, 2-94 Candle, 2-170 assembly, 2-164, 175 burning, 2-172

chot. 2-138 soft, 2-144 steel armor-piercing shell, 2-4 Carbide, 6-36 cored, 2-4 twigsteal. 2-117,137 Ca.-bon unoxidized, 4-87,89 Carburlzing atmosphere, 6-36 Cardboard wadding. 2-151 . Carnegie Institute of Technology, 2-37,45.68,72.78,80 Carrier aluminum, 2-128 discardizg, 2-152 Cartridge bags, 1-7 .arass,.6-1,37 case(s), 1-6, 4-117, 6-1,2,43.44 blanking and of, 6-37 body of, wrapped, 6-46 In chamber, clearance of,-4-122 design, 4-117,118,125,129,137 dimensioning of, 4-133 drawing ot, e-, i functIoning, theory of, 4-118. hardness requirements, 4-125,135 heading of, 6-37 head machine and stamping of, 6-39 Internal volume of, 4-126 length of, 4-121,128 mnachining operations on head and moath of, 6-44 manufacture, 4-119,133, 6-1 annealing operations, 6-39 of drawn steel, 6-41

case(s). 2-187
strnls-h of, 2-176 power, 2-167 minimum. 2-196 CanIster(s), 2-160, 163, 177 amr.imition, 2-5, 15C. 131 casualty, criteria for, 2-154 design of, 2-.153 missiles for, 2-150 opuILum, pellet size, 2-153 preiormed missiles, 2-1 e'ection, 2-165 illuminuting. 2-185

of perforated, 6-49
of trapezoidal, wrapped steel, 6-46 marking on bases, 4-126. materials for, 4-132 mouth, anneal of, 6-44 modth, dssign of, 4.-123 neck of, 4-134 perforating of, 6-49 steel, 4-133, 6-1,41,44 tapering of, 6-37.43 trend in sacificatlons for, 4-129 typical calulations for, 4-126 volume, 4-1


information, tactical requirefuent for, 2-154

plastic, 2-183 proJecUl-, phist.:, 2 -152 shot, dispersn,a of, 2-154 smoke. 2-18!b, 183, 184 Cannelure(s', 4-153, 154 Canopy-fi-st, 2-196 Cans, varnish. 2-11 Capacity, chamber, 4-9,11,156,158 Cap(s, capped action, theories, mechanism of, 2-141 armor-piercing. 2-4,117,123,137,141,144,178 ballistic, 2-117 buffer, 2-144 for defeat of sp ced armor. 2-143 effect of skirtLig armor on, 2-143 har'd, 2-144 material, optimum weight of, 2-143 monobloc shot, 6-29 radius of rpherical, 3-3

wraparound, 4-135
head space, 4-122,123 Igniter biagr, 1-7 igntion, 2-172 Case(s), eased, casing(s) acceptability of, 4-137 advantages of wrap-up, 6-47 base of. 4-137 burster, 2-180 candle, 2-187 cartridge, 1-6.4-117, 6-1.2,43,44 manufacture. 6-1 of brass, 6-37 chamber, clearance of in, 4-121 charges, 2-10.13.16 comparison of steel and brass, 4-119 design, 4-17A diameter, 4-137 different-length In same gun. 4-120 effect on Internal blast, 2-14




failures due toi, 4-120

harrdness of, 4-125

burnilng, 2-190
cartridge case designs. 4-137

moth, thicknessa of, 4-124

deep-drawing r~prationA. 6-2

recovery o,418of stop, 4-121 thin-wal~led, 6-1 trapezo~dal -wrapped, 6-47 -to-case variation, 4-126 volume of, 4-137 wrap-up. 6-47 Cstingts)

centrifugal, 6-1

versus forging of utee! shells, 6-1 high-axplosive shells, 6-1 In mold, 6-.1 plastics, 2-152 casualtyburster, criteria, 2-102 for canister ammunition, 2-154 Categories of damage, 2463 Covity(ies) charges, lined, 2-31 deep, 2-177 :orge, finish of, 6-1 obstructions within, 2-44 torn, 6-13 Cell, Kerr, 2-34 Cant~tr of buoyancy. 6-35 of gravity, 2-172, 3-10,86 location of, ' motion of. 3-,,3 position of, 3-81 ogival arc, 3-4A f pressure, A-172, 3-7,8,10,12 Ceoierless grinder, 6-29 Centerless grinding, 6-17 Central ballistic paramneter. ;-38 Centrality, 5-14 Centrality of holes, 5-22 Centrifuigal casting, 6-1 Centrifugal force, 2-167, 4-178 Chamber, 1-6, 4-117 arear of, 4-34 capacity. 4-9,11,158 effective, 4-126 estimate of, 4-126


pyrotechnics composition. 2-186 requiredi, !A187 oglve, 3-8 operating curve (OC), S-2 propellant. 4-93 rotating band, 4-151 target, 2485 uniform ballistic, 2-151 bars, 2-10,11,16 bearing-moumtsd. 2482 black powde. 444 boosterlng of, 2-57 2-4,160.176,176 ,181 cased. 2-10.1.,16 confined, 2-49 diameter of, 2-189 double-ejectla., 2-160 effect of shape of explosive, 2-18 election. 2-160,162,170,173.184 expelling, 2-5,161 fuze-eJectioo. 2-172 initiating, 2-177 length, 2-49 lined cavity, 2-31 maximu, 4-50 moving, 2-16 optimum, 4-9 preparation, 2-42 pressure curv, 4-9 pressure relationship, 4-0 propellant, 2-126,150 propeiling, 2-72, 4-9 separating. 2-175 shape, 2-50,85 single ejection, 2-ISO spotting. 2-187 squash, 2-157 static, 4-1.3 supplementary, 2-177 surface charges v@ Intarnal, 2-14 tetryl, 2-181 -to-gage dLManc*. 2-11 unrotater, 2-32

dimenrioning of, 4-133 effectl.'e length of, 4-37 expansion, elastic, 4-120 gg inspection, 6-44 length of, 4-137 pressure, 2-163,172.182, 4-93 conditions, 2-129 shape of, 4-117,124 slope, 4-137 tapers. 4-154 volume, 2-128, 4-33 Chamberlain Corporation, 2-158, 6-26 Chapmau-Jouguet condition, 2-30 Characteristic(s), 2-95

designs, characteristics of. 4-137


ve~octty relationship, 4-9 weight of, 2-1433, 4-20 zoned, 4-134 Charts for batllti limit. 2-1281 Clhase Drass awl Copper Company. 6-37 Check(*) dimensional, 6-40 a, 4-189 profile, 6-24 Chemical Corps. 2-161,172 Chemical, chemistry worunds 2488 flash redacers, 4-2 of protechnic compositIons, 2-186

curve, 4-9,10


roactions, oixothermal 2-18fo shell (WP), scaling of, 2-180' Ch'pbo ard, 2 -17 2 C -i~are tetlfs, 2-95 Choice of m~ethod of stabilization, 3-2 C" 4-7y-dass fllwer. 2-176 Ch~ord. 3-71 rot, 3-11 tip, 3-.l wing, 3-11 Chrom~e f1l'~h, 6-37 Chrograph, Aber,e 2-94 :igareite burning, 2-170. 187 U~rcle, tolorance, 5-1IS .'3 Circular nAlt. 3-69 ClrcunfereiA~ial rupture. "-2 Class B3armor, U. S. Navy, 2-10 Cl~amI' cation, 5-5 of ammunition, 1-2 fixpd, 1-1 ser~ftixed 1-1slopes, separated, 1-1,2 separate loading, 1-1 armor, 2-119 of defects, 5-1,5 of explosives, 1-6 m-ssiles, 2-1 by tffect, 2-1 blast, 2-1 deleat of personnel, 2-3 fragmentation, 2-1 incendiary, 2-1 leaflets, 2-1 light. 2-1 poizon gases, 2-1 penetration of armor (kinetic energy shot), 2-1 penetr-ation of armor by (shaped chargesi, 2-1 preformed missiles (canister), 2-1 smoke, 2-i Cleaning band seat, 6-17 ClearL-ce bore, 3-4 between 5ourrelet and rifling, 4-164 of case in chamber, 4-121,122 estimating, 4-121 initial, 4-119 minimum, 4-121 Cleat, shroud, 2-171 Clupped-delta, wing, 3-27 Closed bomb, 4-16,19,33,88 test, 4-18,40 pit test, 2-94 Closlng plug, 1-2,7 steel, 2-181 Ckud(O) colored, 2-176,178 control of colored 3molce. 2-178 duration of, 2-177 pularing of (WP). 2-1%l1 Coating(s), coated, 6-17 nitrocelltlose lacquer, 6-47 phospate, 6-17,21 protective, 4-124, 6-44

Cocked centerlines, 5-15 Coefficient(s), 3-64 aerodynamic, 3i-8 balic (C), 3-39,39,64 factors upun wh\ich (C) deperla, 3-38 maximum, 3-64. bae drag. 3-71 cross-wind force, .s-0f,12 drag (KD). 2-118,166,191,196, 3-10,38,39.64,67,68, 69.70,75 friction, 3-10 drag, 3-68,71 form, 4-21,23.24 lift, 3-10,12 moment yawing, 3-10, normal force, 3-8,9,13 overturning moment, 3 '9 partial drag, 3-71 practical drag, 3-38 skin friction drag, 3-10 lift, 3-27 wave drag, 3-7t) yaw-drag, 3-5,28,69 Coining, 4-122 Cold extrusion, 6-1,3,9 HE shell, 6-21 comparison of hot forging with., 6-24 tests of, 6-23 -forming, 6-25 pressing, 6-38 ultuta, 6-40,43 work, 6-3 hardening, 6-37 steel, 6-2.43 influence of hot work~ versus, 6-1 Collaping cone, 2-38 Colloid, 4-2.6,87 Color(ed), 2-178 cloud, 2-176,178 dye, 2-16q emision, 2-193 filters, 2-193 latenstiliers, 4-18 marker, 2-160 shell, 2-160,176,178,182 design of, 2-179 Latical requirements, 2-176 smoke, 2-178 cloud, control of, 2-178 method of producing, 2-178 screen, 2-160 shell, 2-160,182 saturation. 2-177 Column burster, 2-178 diameter, limits of propagation .versus minimum, 2-182 of exploisivp, 2-182 strength, 2-185 Combat analysis, 2-107 models, 2-107 Comb~ustion, heat of, 4-88,89 Compacts, aintered-iron, 4-161

scap, 6-41



Compactine and sinterng of Tungsten carbide, 6-36 Comparative Comparator Comparing Comparison alumimum-to-uteel closure versus steel-to-steel, 2-181 effectiveness of full-caliber versus subcaiiller steel shot, 2-138 explosives, 2-11 of HEP shell with AP shot, 2-156 of hot forging with cold extrusion shell. 6-24 magnetic. 6-45 hardness, 6-43 of peak pressure and Impulse, ' -13 performance of AP and APC projectiles, 2-142 performance of KE shot, 2-145 of properties of pyrotechnic compositions with explosives, 2-188 range firings. 3-68 of res.dts, 4-82 of epining shell with top, 3-2 stdy of shell forging methods, 6-13 of steel and brass cases, 4-119 Compatible, compatibility. 2-22,177, 4-94 quantitative definition of, 2-24 Compensation, 2-35 rotation. 2-35 spin, 2-35,36,37,71.73,75,78 Complete ogive, volume of, 3-86 round, components of, 1-1 solution for pressure-time trace, 4-76 Complex yaw. 3-3 Component(s), 3-3 of, artillery ammunition, design of, 6-1 of complete round. 1-i solids of revolution. 3-81 tolerances, 5-24 Composite rigid projectile. 2..1f7 Composition(s), 2-13 A-3. 2-157 compoeitlon B. 2-13.63,178 C-4. 2-157 of, average densities of explosives and. 2-12 brning of pressed, 2-189 delay fuze, 2-187 dye, 2-1'7,17S burnng, 2-183 first-fire. 2-172 flare. 2-IS7 illuminant, 2-175 Igniter. 2-192 igiUblity of, 2-192 photoflash, 2-187 pyrotechnic, 2-191 of standard propellant. 4-2 tracer, 2-192 Compression Conpresfive force, radial, 4-178 stress, 4-181 teat, 4-93 yield stress, 2-165 "Ye. 2-123 Compromise wethod of shell forming, 6-25 Computation Computing ballistic, 4-24 ballistic coeffilient. 3-72 of bailistic limit. 2-120 energy of HE shell. 3-76 lethl area, 2-103 moment=un of HE shell, 3-76 for ogive, 342 of vulnerability. 2-01 Concentricity. 5-13.20. 6-13.33 symbol. 5-1.14 Concept of optimum height. 2-193 Conclusions on HEP performances, 2-158 Condenser microphone gage, 2-10 Condition(s), 5-24 Chapman-Jougeet, 2-30 maximum metal. 5-20.24 Intmum metal, S-20,24 optm. 4-.6074 Conchdctive primer mixture, 1-7 Cond-ctivity, itrtrIcl. 4-2,3 Conductivity, thermal, 2-189 Cone(s) Conic(al), 3-65,69 alumnum. 2-4O angle. optinam. 2-54 angle, effect om pmnetratlu under rotation, 2-66 apex angle. 2-U beryllium copper, 246 bmetallic, 2-42 cnd uoeconical shapes, 2-42 and charge, allosment of, 2-56 collapso, 2-8 collasing, 2-MI of dispersion, 2-150 angle of, 2-153 doudle-angle. 2-43 electroformsd, 2-ns copper, 2-46 effect of anneslt a. 2-46 forcing, 4-33,121,162 frutuzms, 3-88 glas, 2-38 head. 3-68 lead, 2-41 liners. 2-31 malformed, 2-39 sharp spex, 2. steel. 2-41 tail. 2-172,175 wafi thickness, 2-3 zIac. 2-41 Conflne(d). (zunt. 2-31.7181. 4-16 nhare., 2-49 of explosion. 2-I" Consideration of linr parameters, 2-49 Consistet -m-ao velociy. 2-152 Consistent notatin. 4-16 Consolidation. daegrm of. 2-189 Cotstant ltruIng (B). 4-40 surface. 4-24.26.2? grans. 4-4S distortion (llNy-Von Mis"), 4-S,166 form faactioa, 4-T8



.1 0


llI :,


4-3-5 Gurrey, 2-". (> -':ns, of p'rmtecmimc zormrpodtlons, 2136 Coi. -sawlx, , 5-10. Conroor(a) b.ast, 2-16 of lae, 4-114 of case. tnrnx, 4-124 CeotrcIl(l ) (l i,: of colored . 2-178 L.'t'Y.:, 4-n,3 rmta,4--.J aurfzce. 4-16 of fl:ocss of base, 4-126 fr-;,.ent.tion, 2-3,I07,103,!09,ilI n.xI,'a -if, 2-158 rinT, 2-110 sczle, 6-42 web dlmens.oms, 4-13 Cook, 2-93,106 Cooling, Pir-blast, 6-4 Coordinates, tcleranced, 5-17 Copper ard alpha braqses, 4-160 cones, eiectroforn'ed, 2-41 gage pressurc, 4-40 ga-ket, 6-27 liners, 2-32,46 Copering, 4-3 Cord, 4-23 propellant, 4-24 equations for, 4-27 Cor"(s), 6-36 % high-explosive, 2-161),17S tungsten carbide, 2-123.128, 6-35 Corner form coefficient, 4-21 Corner's treatment. 4-21 Corps, Chemical, 2-161 Cost of shell mnufacturing plant, 6,24 Cover, base, 1-4 Covolume, 4-17,37,47,88 Crack(s), (ing), 2-123, 6-17 seson, 6-40 shearing, 6-5 "Cranz, law of". 2 -32 Crimp(irg, 4-33,132, 6-44 effect of method of, 1-132 groove, 4-132 design, 4-122 press-type, 4-14. rubber-die, 4-132 Criteria Criterion acceptance, 5-1 for, canister ammunition casualty. 2-154 cauaty, 2-102 damage, 2-93 external blast damage, 2-16 Hlencky-Von Mises, 4-187 homogeneity, 5-1 incapacitation, 2-104 lethal area, 2-154 lethal!ty, 2-93,101,111 protection, 2-128 sampling plan, 5-2

seloction of prope lant materials, 4-2 of shaped charge eff;vtiveness, 2-82 Sterne's, 2-102 theories, 4-185 ut.1izatior, 4-178 Critical alloys, 6-3 defects, 5-5 opening velocity, 2-!36 polnts in, body of shcl, determination for, 4-178 range, 6-27 of steel, 6-1 relative humidity, 2-191 temperatures, 6-12,14 velocity, 2-126 Cropping, 6-13 Cross, 3-3 rolls, 6-7 slide, 6-27 ind force, 3-3,5,7,10,29,30 coefficient, 3-10.12 damping factor, 3-6,10 Crusher gage, 4-94 Crush-up of nose, 2-5 Crush-up, shell. 2-157 Cryolite, 4-2
Cube, blast, 2-11

Cumulative probability, 2-154 Cup(ping), 6-1,7,8,41 of, cartridge casn, blanking and, 6-37 a-d draw, 6-37,47 e.cpanding, 4-150 glazed-board, 4-122 preparation for, 6-11 obturating, 2-173 Curve(s) Curvkture charge-pressure, 4-9 charge-velocity, 4-9.10 design, 4-10 normal error, 2-100 probability, 2-126,127 radius of longitudinal, 3-81 stress-strain, 4-118, 6-2 of trajectory, 3-11 web-velocity, 4-10 web-charge, 4-10 CutthIn off base of HEP shell, 6-27 flame, 6-5,14 Cyclotol, 2-40,178 Cylinder(s) Cylindrical, 3-69 liner, 2-69,71 right circular, 3-1 tapered, 6-46

Damage, 2-36,82,129 assessment, types of, 2-111 tank, 2-129 catclories of, 2-83 A, 2-110 B, 2-110

Fs p ALN



C. 2-110 2-83
K, 2-83.110 KK. 2-110 1.2-83

criteria, 2-16,93 external blat. 2-15 region 1. 2-16 region U1. 2-16 evaluwdioaus, 2-129 aircraft, 2-110 extarnal blast to (aircraft), 2-15
fuel. 2-111

region M1, 2-16

classificaion of. 5-1.5 critical. 5-5 major, 5-5 mior -I surface, 6-41 Deficiency, oxygn .49 Dcfinitioa of iota, 5-1 of porforation, 2-12$

to &in. 4-178 lnterral blast (aircraft), 2-14 probability of. 2-106,111 estimates, 2-88 qualitative description of shaped char'ge, 2-U4 structural IOOA, 2-1S test ranking, 2-13 tlreshold, 2- 16 Damping factor(s), 3-4.6,30 cross-wind force. 3-6.10 magnus moment, 3-6.10 spin-decelerating moment. 3-6 yawing moment, 3-6 Mqmge of iesonance between pitching period and rolling Daa period, 3-29 of too moch spin (magnus moment). 3-29
dimsionsn, S-13

Dea"ormaiin elastic, 4-150,178 during nos Ing. 6-17 permanent. 4-185.179 plastic. 4-133,172.18%. 0-43 p~rojeottile, 2-141 of ,thou. 4-?IU Degreo of cocsolicm, 2-039 ':'wre* 4f nltritios, aroper. 4-4 Degresi 'e, 4-9 degressive shapes, 4-23 Deiay fuaze. X-4 compositio'm'. 2-187 Degreasing, wk.shiu anid, 6-x7 Delia wtng. 3-27 Dematrro formuln. 2-12S,137 Density(tles), 4-87 air. 3-8 avenge compostUma of oaplosives and. 2-12 composit~ons c4 expivsh's andi average. 2-12 fragmant, 2-1006
UvlI21114. 4-1.33

Defloction dispersion. 2-IT?1


fragmentation, 2-105 hole, 5-2 of dimensioning tapers. 5-24 required io design cartridge caw., 4-120 surface, 5-14 symbol, 5-13 Dead metal, 6-42 Decartmrlzation. 6-36 surface, 6-33 Deceleration calculation of, 2-166 efficiency, 2-165 parachute, 2-166 dsagm 4 small. 2-166 Decelerotor, 2-464,165,166 Decompose in, storage (muat not), 4-2 Docompoeltiax rate, 4-2 Decoppr ring agent, 4-2 Decrese hygocapicity. 4-2 Beep-drawing operations. coaractiirldtlca, 6-2 DOWea of aircraft, 2-3 of armor. 2-117 of spaced buffor caps for. 2-144 of spaced caps for. 2-143 of fortification, 2-4 of personnel, 2-3 of shaped charge weapons, 2482 of tank. f!-129 of larget 2-93 Defects

function. 4-48 Ordaiinc Corps stword. 3-48 of propellant compoiItion. calculated, 4489 relative, 2-198 Deatue angks ot. 3-2 Dependenit !ocau"eAl symWol 5-15 Dependent !ocational toleirance(s). 5-13,17,1It Dopioyment methods, paracsie, 2-iSC.134 Depth of c are, 4-1% repth of penslovaiom. 2-72 Derivatbon of equatin. WED 6468 method, 4-42 DerIvatio, of optimx hidgft, 2-133 Derivative, time, 346 Derivtng shell strews farmla. 4-178 Descent rates, 2-171 Description of notched caulW. 2-109 of notched-wIre method, 2-10 of test methods, 2-22 accesaory parts. 2-177 AP shot, 2-128 anmmuiton, 2-142, 4-123, 6-1 of canister. 2-153 Of base Plug (optUmum). 2-162 4~ b~so plug sheer thrad, 2-163 cartridge came, 4-11L?,llB119 data required, 4-U7,120 mouth of, 4-13 of colored marke, shell. 2-179 crimping ;rame 4-122 curves, 4-10


for e4eat rf a.-mor, 2-4 vd Iles,4-7.13 of dr-iwn crriridve case, 4-117 Brtitsh practice, 44117 eje<cton ehargr, 2-16T,181 ei,!' -nmt -(nowl, 4-121 0 flase, 4-122 rair.. 4-!3 gr 4 -1 L 9,124


Detoratorfli, I-A~
etec nlc, 1-6, 2K 7 front, 2-30,31 high order, 1-5 low o~rder, 2-183 mercury fulmirate, 1-5 prema~turv', 2-1', 4-178, 6-13 rate, 2-24 velocity. hkgh, 2-157 wa ie, 2-30.8 1.192 Develomrmrnt and P-of Sorvices. Aberdeein Proving Grqurtis, 2-18l Develoment of fundamental equations, 4-34 Dev, lq'ment of IIEP shell, 6-26 Deviation froi mean, 4-137 standard, 2-127. 3-8,10. 5-12 Dlogram.s, vuin~rabiiity, 2-141 Dial indicator, 5-13,l'4 IDAmeter base, 3-88 case, 4-117 of cbaxge, 2-189 flange, 4-137 nose, 3-87 pin circle, 4-14 rifing, 4-152 swell, 3-69,81,84,87,88 Diatietral 3-83 toerance, 51,92 Dibutylpzhthalate, 4-2 design of, 4-13 ptercing, 8-7 ring, 6-7,8,9 tapered, 6-8 tungsten carbide, 6-37 Differential expansion, 2-181. Different-length cast~s in same gun. 4-120 Dicultles, extraction, 4-132,134. Difficulties, Ignition, 4-50 Dimension(s) basic, 5-13,23 5.4 radisl, 5-20 ch~amber, 4-I3. datum, 5-13 reference, 5-13 of shell forgings And shapes, 6-5 Dimensfoltal(ing) of ammniton Items, 5-13 basic ingle. 5-23 of cartridge case, 4-133 morath, 4-124 of chamber, 4-133 checks, 6-40 corntruA, 5-11 ol gra!'n,4-7 radial, 5-20 of rifling, 4-169



ot I Ilui inatirg shell1, 2-182

wAxtisp cf, fa-tors affe.4:ttnq thie, 2-162 of lkuld-filled shell burster, 2-186 mortar amm~unition, pro~lvmn Z- 172 *4flifmu. 2-93 Parninters. effect on penetration, 2-34 2-152 ;,mall deceleration, 2-14;6 pyroch-nic, 2-193 p~rallel, 5-11 pin platesi, 4-13 prz-cisIcn. 3-1 primners. standard, 4-8A procedure. 2-3 projectile, 2-2,128,1ai) for gui- already made, 3-1 1: r Q. F. gunsa, German. 4-133 rlflL;-g, 4-159 rot;tizrg band, 4-149,;5',18C ~ of shaped ch&-ge L~issile, 2-'7 of shell, application oi nwetal fragrnentation character-intics data to, 1-1-V shell metal parts, 2-162 117 .taper, propaganda shell. 2-1'1 signal smoke shell, 2-182 visibility, 2-193 for volume. 4-117 of wrb dimensions, 4-9 W? shell, 2-180 accessory parts. 2-180 wraparound. 4-135 Desirable properties of liner, 2-38 Diesired bullet pull, methods of achieving, 4-132 Detection of gun btltery, 4-3 Deterioration in penetrution. 2-78 Deterioration of prcpellant, 4-93 Detormine(atlon), (ing), 2-129 *.anrular, of band outside diameter, 4-119~ of bandi-seat diameter, 4-150 critical points in body of shlel1, 4-178 oi effec'tive width of band, 4-IS0 effect of yaw, 3-75 grain design, 4-9 internal volume of ctrrtdfge case, 4-128 initial velocitv factors, 3-72 lethpnllty, 2-166 of maximum forces acting on shell. duria: firing, 4-178 of rifling twist, 4-173 4of relative air-blast intenslties, 2-11 of weo range, 4-10 of weight of burster charge, 2-1718 12 weight of tetryl burster required, 2-178 1-12


* *for


3 jmethod

Diniltrotoluen., 4-2 Dipbanylamine, 4-2,6 Direction of ture designs. 2-170 Oedatags(s) of HEP shell. 2-156 for Increasing twist, 4-170 Dicsrdlng

Dimensonles parameter. 4-39

taperer datum method Of. 5-24 Dimesfouessfactor (KC), 2-1758ihm.30


varilasi is, 3-47

carrier, 2-152

be". 3-70 saloi.. of, 3-l' em pe.3-71 ofiln K)2-A,01519.30AM 3-9664 eof ei. 6.iS1h eibatng, 3-74 . fta-tabilized projectile. 3-70

pa.i~i 3-71



of releauing, 2-119 petal. 2-119 sabot. fin-stabilized, 2-4 sabot shot. 3-4,isB Diacumsion of fragmentation pattern, 2-130 Diaking, 2-1.22,124 Dispersion, 2-39, 4-137 of canister shot. 2-154 cowe of, 2-150 of, 2-153 deflection, 2-107 excesslve, 4-129 oi fragmcnt3, 2-137 of filler, 2-078 fuzre, 2-107 game., nonperlatont, 2-35S g ases. persistent, 2-165 missile, 2-152 radial, 2-150 range, 2-107s" of smoke signal, 2-183 Diepluement. water. 2-180 Dissociative equiibrIum, 4467


practical, 348S versu air speed. 2-196 friction, 3-M.,70 estimation of, 3-7% coeftlentt 3-71 force, 2-M3,196 formula. 2-196 skin triction. 3-10 coefflcient. 3-10 stabilize, 2-4,& wave, 3-70 sllatimiof, S-70 coeffict. estimating the, 3-76 Draw(od Draws, 4-124.132. 6-1,.4A2 beach. 4 ,f cartridge case, 6-37 deasp at, 4-117 British practice. 4-117 adcieo.64 opper lisers, 2-M8 cup ad, 6-37.4 7 w~ui of, 4-125 Pierce and. 6-7,8

&ci~t, 4-5

charge-to-gage, 2-11
standoff, 2-49

wadding. -7 Dtstortiou. (Hencky-Vou Mice.) conatant, 4-185 Distribution are method. 2-68 binomial probability, 5-3 error, 2-110 fragment weight. 2-93 hypergsomstric, 5-2 poson, 5-3 Diverging yaw. 3-4 Double angle cones. A-43bi"2-2 angle nose. 2-124god baae propelLant, 14.,4-1.93 ejection charge. 2-160 ejection system. 2-17 1 apling. 5-5 wedge profile, 3-71 wedge, symmetrical, 3-71 Drag. 2-N,. 3-5,7,10.11.38. estimAtio, of, .1-61 effect of bass area, 3-47 effect of heed curvtare, 3-U6 effect of head length, 3-65 effect of uriplat diameteir, 3-67 effect of shell length, 3-68 effect of yaw, 3-" increase in, 3-67 ixterfarence, 3-70

tapec, 4-135 Drift firtai. 3-10 Driv*n bend. 6-17 boo force - (no tiction). 4-13 face force - (wilt friction) 4-153 Drop(s) ta. 6-13 velait, 34,26,30 DrO-eap, bibricatel. d-37 Dtleft Jet, 2-62 perfora. 2-129 Do Pt, %-37,60 Duor n.of cload, 2-17? DyeWs 2-177.178 0MOaetSI. aord,2-160 S 1, 2-178 for sooke. 2-185

ac"Ire. 6-1

Gus.64 VA enfetiou, 4-121l34, 6 -1 of Zecstri, 5-13.21 loaft fores caused by, 4-178




mc*Ah, 4 -124 of prDjoctie 4-137 ra mn bqz~. 4 -178 she!!, 3-30 1emisof Ahl forging, 6-12 Edgen. 6-37 len'4tg. 3-11,13,14 tratin", 3-11,13,14wvtofbsi(ermulaf.4-5 rffoc(JO f altitute on Internal blast. 2-15 atmea~ing of cones, 2-48 armor-p.erctng caps on tungsten carbide cores, 2-142 armor *,,, nees on projectile l:erformsnce, 2-129 blast, 2-~ on Vsr -aft, 2-14 Case mninternal blast, 2-14 clasifficatOn of missiles by, !,-I cone apgle on penetration wider rotation, 2-46 desirn perameters on penetratie. 2-39 estim.ation of drag base area oti, 3-67 bead cu~rvatu~re on, 3-45 mn~plat diameter, 3-67 shell lenigth, 3-58 yaw, 3-9pwes2-171 erosion, 413pressure,

yaw, determ'ntng, 3-7'5 Effective chamber c apsecity, 4-1U6

ejection preure, 2-163 fragments, 2-107 length of chb~uer. 4-17 moass of pirojectie, 4-36 o) -5 width~ ofofiOt~mnlo Efectiveness area fire, 2.-10? comparative, full-caliber vs subcallber steel a"o, 2-138 pyrotechnic compositIon radiation. 2-193 chapiA charge, 2-45 agaiat taniks, 2-82 weawcn. 2-106 wudn.29 Efficiency, deceleration, 2-165 Effichvicy, point of optimum, 4-75 Eicheliwrger, 2-32 Ejection bae,. 2 .183 canister, 2-165 design, 2-167.181 black-powder, 2-183 2-169


of grge tolerance oqt component te.vwne, 5-24

of grain shape on bur..;ng rzte. 4-20 gun on e~dractioe, 4-1A~ Initial yaw due to bore clearance, 3-28 effftt Of liner material on penetration under rotation, 2-M8 shWpe on penetration under rotratioL, 2-f9 thickness on penetration under rotiAion. 2-67 method of crimping. 4-132 moisturo, protection against, 2-192 moisture on shelf life, 2-191 effect. XMroe. 2-UO nuee. 2-157 geometry of ATA projectiles. 2-)38 geometry of titagsten carbide cores, 2-139 on REP shell performance, 2-157 obliquity, 2-123 rucation, 2-34 on penetration, 2-46 on shaped charge jets, 2-43 P-a1e, 2-125 second order, 4-33,36 secondary, 2-156 si-sped charge, 2-18,57,59 shock wwa, 2-1 skirting armor tn zap, 2-143 skirting plate, 2-137 spaced armor on liE!- shell. I -,L57 ape~ific surface of ree~tnta, 2-1C~3 spit-back (flsah-tdacc tubes, 2-46 strndoff -_ penetration under rotatizn, 2-68 tarzared waills on pene,.xation, 2-43 thick-thin, 2-72 transport, 2-72 varying armor parameters, 2-129 varying projectile parameters, 2-137 velocity, 2-123 water t. -iys on hot forgings, 6-12

effective, 2-163
second, 2-164,166 velocity. 2-163,164 Elstic chamber expansion. 4-120 deformation, 2-9, 4-150,178 expansion of gun, 4-119 limit, 6-43 modulis of, 2-165 recovery, 4-118. 6-43 setback, 4-125 stresas sate, 4-187,188 stress waves, 2-157 Electric cowductity, 4-1,3 detonsars, t-6, 2-57 5*zze, 2-57,63 primer, 1-7 End squeeze, 6-6 Enamel ream sealer, 2-151 Electroformed cones, 2-39,41,46 Eiemeat, percussion, 4-84 Eliminating spin dcgradatiop. 2_81 Elliptic integral, 3-27 Elongation factor, 2-178 parceniage, 4-t36, 6-43 low, &-44 Emission color, 2-193 fragment. 2-l1l. Ezwcrgy available 131 powder, 2-169 balance equation, 4-33,35,36,37,43 comp iting ci HE shell, 3-76 -quation. 4-37 allowing for friction, 4-37 Inclu~dinig heat !oes, 4-37

maximeumieg of proelnt 4-47 muze -38.72 ofpoeln 4487 prpelcliit ss 2-3 .atn,2-1312 specfalii. 212 -1512,4 pnrevisure 5,45

4-33drg.3Geffict oI. 3-4 fit -stabiied projectle.. 2-7* hfeet OL 3be"s ae . 3-4 shalln ft, 3-46 1116tlc da r g. 3-71 w -ve dreg. 3-10 coeffciest 3-76 Ethyl centralft., 4-2 Bttctic, I-" vlti blast, 2-11 damage, 2-113 atrcraft, 2-119 trsmetahm uffortime (arametes" reifld). 2-43 of Present meinds of mslyule. 2-31 tampie by La Cuc system, 4481 Exampqle for otimmJooling density. 4-60 ExceiY dipesla, 4-12, Exothermael chamical reactions. 2-187,189 Expiall bourrelet. 6-23 cup. 4-150 diffria. 2-181 of gee (elstc). 4-119 pnrmaet. 4418 111pe cartridge case (rowh roling at.-3 -. 6 xeln bp EnwlmewCsi. 2-73 cas deslga facte on), 4-126 to determim peatratim. 2-102 f? 1~4-64 rwIIZIS with oitd liners, 2-73,76 shall (riag-type), 2-37 xxpiosiom confitneot of, 2-108 hea of, 4-2.3,838 proma*"*, 6-17 ..flant teog, 2-23 Inv xSplosivefU) avers demtiesa coipoution. 1-2 Inr blast, 2-12 Wsting. 4-2 borst, 1-3 !strr 2-160 C.safian of. 146 high, 146 colum' o1, 2-182 coF'jrifln at. 2-U p rotechkic Pc"oaFIItions with, :;-Us fillet. plachiug of, 2-158 fluting of, 2461 laitlation of, 2-41 blid 2-0 pellet. 2-6U plastic. 2-156 reased 2-US "-7



rifling. 4-153 rotating beuld, 4-164 Equation(s) ballistic, 4-45 solution of, 4-36 Bernoulll'q%, 2-31 bwunin. 4-13 rate. 4-.U.43 for cord propellant, 4-27 derivation of 05R!3 6468 method, 4.42 energy balm@c, 4-33.35,36,37,43 sllowing for friction, 4-37 lachlinlg beat loss, 4-37 form-fnetlon. 4-43 ll-Nlott-Pack, 2-U3 of interior ballistics, 4-22,33.36 Lame. 4-182 of motion. 4-38,3842 modified. 4-37 projectile, 4-M4 of shel, 3-4 Mot. 2-94,38 for multiperlonlimi grain, 4-28 for period after all powder burned, 4-45 for aftlge-sierforated propellant, 4-27 solution of RD38, 4-47 for spocific surface, 2-190 for strip propellant. 4-27 of state. 2-30, 4-33,34.42,43,88 Abel, 4-35 va der Wasls, 4-35 virimI, 4-34 Equilibrium, dissociative, 4487 Equipment, designing now, 4-121 Eqttivalante, ballistic, 4-26 Equivalent rotating hand geometry, 4-155 Erratic presaures, 4-11 Erosion, 4-162,163 bore, 4-1.3

causes of. 4-1l4

effects of, 4-163 methods used to control, 4-1C9 of rifling, 4-162

&2a11, 2-160 low, 14

Error distribution, 2-110 Estimates)

Establishing acceptable quality level. (AQI), 5.4 Establishing web size, 4-13 aerodynamic coefficients of projectLk,. 3-8 a..Uistic limit, 2-127 base dreg, 3-71 chamber capsiclty, 4-126 minimum, 4-125 clearance, 4-121 damage proahilty, 2-U8

ratios, 2-17# rewt w-ith. 6-17 in vaped chartes 2-59

solid, 2-63

tr*in. 2-177 primer, 1-6 typesI alu-minlun, 2-13 sm..oQtum pf..vhlorat.. 2-13rag,-3 HBX, 2-13 bModins. k-13Fa.e MC)X, 2-13 Pent.,i'ia, 2-13 RflX, 2-13,14 SIS. Ason, 2-179 T$T, 2-13due 'Torpex, 2-13 Trithrw. 2-13 rjfr~nis

deuign r.-id use. of miu~nating *hall, 2-:S2 freWdOM of extraction, 4-'1. initial velocity, 3-72 liner performan~ce, 2-36 'unous Intedatty. 2-189 pars butd dpstgn, 2-195 penetration of tubctllbe-r proJecttles, 2-137 PYrOtecu-ic Corn osiirns. 4- i37 tanme offlgh,8 hrn'or plate, 2-119,120 ,ilistic, 6-43,47 duitJle, 2-120 due to cume, 4-120 to gu causing hard extractiot., 4-V.0 the gun tube. 4-162 to pentrate, 2-123 Fall, angle of, 2-93 False ogive, 2-117 Fastax high-speed cameras, 2-k Fasteni base plate, 6-17 Felt wadding, 2-17 FFAR (shell). 2-85 Fiber, chopped-glass. 2-176 Field intcrehAngeability, 2-1b2 Figure of merit, 2-103,106 Filler(s), 2-5,150 behavior of. 4 -189 buming of, 2-178 design. 2-177

factors influencing. 4-118 groove.. 1-7 stiff. 4-119 Extractor(si)

gun, 4-1,11

probLim, 3-33 sample of. 3-73 of sabot, 2-119 External blast damage crlteria, 2-16 vuir erability of aircraa, 2-16 Extraction, 4-119, 6-40 diiffknules. 4-132,134 &u* of. 4-121,134 effect of gun, 4-11. free, 4-117

ways proj~sgat~oc, 2-7 . plastic. 4-118 balitics

of shell under stress, 4-178

propagamda shell, 2-184 dispersion of, 2-118 flechete-tyw. 2-&se liquid. 2-6,161,185
ladJLigWP'J, IOu

pockets, 4-119 Extruied-blumlan bureter Casing, 2-160 Vxtruxlon, 4-6, 6-3.21 over. advantges If for"n, a_3
cold. 6-1,3,9 to lelogth. 6-21 Process, French, 6-7

piwhb ig of e)Wi A.~I 2-138 setback (SR), 4-17U9,181.182,189 Filiets, zotation of, .1-81
Fillet, volume of partial, 3-85 Film, protective, 2-192 Fllterr, colored, 2-3

rearward, 6-8 for shell manufacture, 6-2

Fin(s) beat, 3-29 with blt trailing edge. 3-13

interference, 3-71

low aspect ratio, 3-13

rectangulaz. 3-12,71 W.jric, tenisile strength of, 2-196

Face, 6-27
hardeed ojor, -119142ahell. bullet proof (FI{1P), 2-120 Factor damping, 3-4.6.30 dimensionless (K), 2-178 elongation, 2-178 form, 3-38,39.65,66,69. 44M3 overta'rnlng coup Le. 3-2 overturning mome~nt, 3-8 righung moment, 3-3l0 shock-load, 2-198 stability, 3-2.b,6,8 Factors (affecting) ballistic coefficient, 3-38 1-16

disca-ing sebOct, 2-4


2-82.175, 3-10.28,70. 4-181 estimation of drag coefficients of, 3-70 ift of. 3-12 ensure Vtatic stability, lift of, 3-11 at subso-lic *-relocities. 3-12 sweptback, 3-13 supersonic speeds, thi.n, 3-12 supirsonic speeds, three-dimensional, 3-12 thin, pointed, short, 3-A3 wedge-type, 3-71 Final head, 6-43 Final inspection, 6-39,44,45 Finding altitudc, 3-73



_4 _


boriosta rans. 33 b"oshl.6-16 bourrelot. 6-7cavity, forge. 6-1 USP shell. 6-21 machining. 6-15 micoerface, 2-180 surface, 4-27 F"o~) angles of, 2-43bae closed-chamber, 4-40 driM. 3-10 effhctivenes area, 2-107 experimuital. 4-84 fit, 2-122 wore" during. 4-111 determInatIon of mauiuuaw foroce acting as shell, 4-178 low-temperature, 4- 129 percussion. 4-126 rmige, 3-45 tablee, 2-177 termnal ballistic, 2-43 Fireman. 2-34 Firestone Tine ard Fuabber Co., 2-36.31,68.78,81 First, 2 -3A fire(s), 2-1$2 oosepoeltlon, 2-172 nanhygroecot Ic, 2-1M flaub. 4-3 hit, 6-21 momenat abu pbmne 3-81 order theory, 2-.4 ron hit, 2-47 round probability of kill, 2-4 Fit totertsrenc, 44~21 least-square, 4-20 pres. 4-132,180 wab to gun, 44t Fixed amuItIon, 4-117.160 Five-secoad facapecltat~on. 2-102 Finamc action prImer. 146 Cutting, 6-5,14 temperature, 4-36 diabatic, 4-88 isobaric. 4-88

thme. mozzle, 4-2 lea. Propellant,1 rodlgpqbe. -. 32 recrs chemcal, 4-2 -Mo",44 Who, 2-183 Flashleeemuss, 4-2,11 Flat -S pro~stfles. 4 spts. 3-30 Flansof be,.controlat4-2 V1*imef al lamb. 4-118 FlAinbSMt(dI. 1-S. a-Igo loading of. 2-150 type Wtar.~ 2-1IN Flight stablIt ft. 4-170,6-3 timeat 3-4 misnmum, 233,64 spla, ine .3-10 Whin of Casing to. 2-185 Flow, plietic.'2-110,123,143. 4-118 FlUtes). liner. 2-36^,71,72.75,82,106,109 exerimntal results wth. 2-73.76 of *bchaslon spin compensation by. 2-12 nmethds for anaateftzing, 2-80 peniow- -A of, 240 kToesus of. 2-60 aculdeal, 2-78 a noollneer 2-00 types of. 2-16 olting, -4 31 explhetvs, 2-61 epiral, 2-M6 Fk off. band. 4-154 FI*~Ueter 2-10 FOs e!s), 4-67 at Us n shell, 4-118 ining firtng. 4-178 inmary of, 4-131 doluenatIon of maIn ium, 4-175 11hadlln, 148 ra'epolla gs pressure, 4-178.131 3-4 idyalo,



base, 2-45 design, 4-122 diameter. 4-131 stopped. 4-123 thickness, 4-123,123 ypes of, 4-122 rollar-G-46 Flare(s). 2-1C0,187 aircraft. 2-195 burning. 3-164.193 composition, 2-161 pernobute, 2-161 Flareback, 1-7 Flesh, 4-1,4.11

og1ws-wind. 3-3...1,29,30 3-10.12 oos. esinpfg factor, 3-6.10 mug.M 2-1" drivn he (no ftion), 4-153 itlvIag twce (wtth friction). 4-153 cwno loading, 4-178 inertIaL 4-175 monou 2-1 oo.otat, 3-13 propoent, 4-88 radial omapresfte 4a-176 relative, 4-16.19 solbso. 2-10.16.16. 4-118,179

2-167, 4-178

shesr. 2 -162 In sh-li wall renuling iror' rotstion (tens5ion), 4-141 stresace- in shell, reitult~ig from. 4-181 t;a1 4 -17 9 .o r-,sta1in hiru, 4- 111 at gIr- sortlon of shell, . -181 For-ir; core, 4-.,1112wt 4-123 sie0 ad, xntaes of eetraslon over, 6-2 fis ofCviy 6-1 h.,6-9 hot, 6-1,25 ipectIon of shell afer, 6-13 azNcl 6-4.6 Steel, cASUtio9 versus, 6-1 French extr aeon method, 6-9 tack-aMN-in 8-~7 us; etter' &-9 Form~. 4-21 cUcet.4-21.23.2A1


d ;ta,2-105 effect, serond~ry, 2-5 effectlyeress, rprmmeters nee,,Ied to evaluate, 2-9~3 Kirkwood-Brinkley's theory, 2-9 nature if, 2-93 patterns, 2-93 discw~ifon of, :&-100 te.*':3, 2-23,94,106 -pons. antipersonnel, 2-103.106 Fr-'nkfotld Arsenal, 2-P,2. 4-129.133,134,137,160,'.69 Franiin Institute, 4-L;7 Free body stress analysis. 4-188 extraction, 4-117,115 flight system, 2-195 run projectile, 4-164 space, initial, 4-38 Free Fliget Aerodynamics Branch of the Exterior Ballistics Laboratory, 3-65 French extrt-sLn method 3f forgig shell, 6- .,9 Friction coefflcient, 3-10 drag, 3-68,70

curne-. 4-21
faclor. 3.38.3^9,65,66,69, 4-23 tunctlon, 4-16,18,21,23,26,26 27 Oruants, 4-78 oqumtlon, 4-43 tor seven perforated prope~lant (al:-4p'itfed), 4-. 25.26 of ritrocellulosA, 4-2 Form-.tion heat of, 4-P9 Of 'xitroc-lh.0loa, .4-90 jet, 2-31,32 Forming cold, 6-,15 punch. 6-26 too)., 6-16 Formula Demarre, 2-137 drzg, 2-196 Gurney, 2-99 of interior ballis3tics, 4-39 fo- m=ximum pressure, 4-41 penetrat! .. , 2- '25 Ritter's, 1 -11%simple beam, '-154 tolids of revolution, 3-81 street (deriving), 4-178 stresi (rummary .,f). 4-184 thick-, 41nder, 4-180 two-d~mensional, Z-12 Formulaton, 4-1 F-rlification. defeat 'A. 2.4 Foulinir, metal, 4-14:' Four -wh~eeled planm~ter, 3-85 Frmc.ion burned, 4-21 of powder, 4-41 of web, A-17 Ir,.ctu-e. brittle. 2-123 Frar.-mei~ts, 2-14.35 95,i12,154 Frapvmentation. 2-1,50,93,94,156 chor actamistici., 2-94,95,97 contro!(Icd). 2-3,107,108,109,110,111

estimation of, 3-71

coefficient, 3-C8,71 projectile, 4-33 sensitivity. 2-23.187 Front eetortation, 2-30.31 shock, 2-7 Frustums, 3-81 conic, 3-88 volum, of, 4-126 Fuel dasge. 2-11 Fuel tank vulnerabIlity, 2-112 Function Arhannius, 2-192 density of loading, 4-48 form, 4-18,18,21,23,25.27 preisure. 4-48 of skirting plate. 2-137 of special purpose shell, 2-160 of stability factor, 3-31 travel, 4-48 velocity, 4-48 Functional1 Functioning parm,'hute, 2-163 premat*ure, 4-162,164 tests, 4-129,137 theory of cartridge case, 4-118 time, fuze, 2-157 udma Walistic equatioin, 4-43 t equations of ln erisr baillistics, 4-33 development of, 4-34 Furnace induction,' 6-33 reducing atm.sphere, 6-.Future designs,. direction of, 2-170 Fuze(s), 1-1,4 adapter, 2-175 black powder train, 1-4 boresafe, 1-5 delay, 1-4




dispersion, 2-107 *)ection charge. 2-111 fhantloaing time. 2-49,157 impact, 1-4 Magnetic. 2-57 noodelay. 1-4 roint-dcotcating. 1-4.5. 2-17" proximu.y (V7), 1-4, 2-117.184 for'shaped charge missiles, 2-63 apitback (flash-oack), 2-03 superqulck, 1-4 time, 1-4, 4-1 mechanical, 2-177,183,184 VTr, 1-4.2 -177,184 rulingcalculatdon of high-velocity r~inds, 2-43 of low-velocity round*, 2-63


Gefarian, 3-14 Gage, 2-10, 6-20 acceptance, 6-"4 air-blast, 2-11 calibration of, 2-11 blast tube. 2-11 boanelct rng. 6-24 box.I-DGood condewt.r microphone, 2-10 crusber. L-94 dial indica.g 5-13 -11Grabam, distnce cb%-wt-. follmeter. 2-10 GO, 5-5,24 NOT GO, 5-5.12 head thickness, "S4 icosabedron, 2-100istsoftd inspection, chauber. 6-44 mechanical, 2-10 papter blast, 2-85 meter, 2-10 peak-pressure, 2-10 piezoelectric, 2-10, 4-16,94 0 prell-o .cper-16 , , 4-403 prure, cper resistance, 2-10 snap, 6-24 thread, 6-24 varnish cans.-11 GWai twist, 4-170 Gas(e.) accelerition, 2 -138 check. 4-189 constant, 4-35 density. 4-35 evolution, 4-1 t-iternal energy of, 4-35 kinetic energy of, 4-3S muzzle. 4-3 nonprsistent, 2-186 dispersion, 2-185 obturate, .1-172

cube, 2-11

persistmed. 2-186 dispersion. 2-185 temperature, 4-4? volume, 4-47 calulvated kr ortIe ,mta 4 4-4 osi~mcainPinena a~l~dlwp~e1 wash. 4-12 Oanket Cower, -2 G3 agents, 2-186 Gelatinizing ag~ents 4-2 General form LwtacU, 4-26 Ge.-iratnr, plesectrio. 2-43 Geometric Jzeectils, 3-69 copnceof . 4-30 density of Weftdb. 4-44 Geonmetr grain, 4-3.3.26 no", 2-140 projectile. 3-4$431 German designs for Q. f. gam, 4-123 Gilding-metal, 2-152. 4-149,100 Glazedboad cup6 4-1n Glss armr, 2-82 cones, 2-36 filled pbsmolbu, 2-175 GO and NOT GO gqg. "-.12.24. 6.-20 ductility.6Goverrmeft ispect~m Intermedfals, "-44 ad namkiagt of smls, 6-24 3-12,13 Grain, 4-20 design, 4-13 determbne d.,4-9 dies, design o@1,4-7 geometry, 4-3,3,2 91en.4-7 36,48 ebsie t-7 bowaftn rate, effect of, 4-20 shrinkage of. 4-13 mineperfrated 4-23 pronglent t 4-2223 surface, 4-6 eonta-bsloC 4-48 Granulatlot, 4-1 Gravity, acceleration ike to, 4-34 Gravity, ceejAar o1.2-172.,3-10,86 Green gramns, 4-7 Gregg, 2-IG0 G'".i'dig. cadise, 6-I11 GroAMmet, 1-4 Groove(s) heanda wftbout, 41? crimping, 4-1=3 extracting. 1-? rifling. 4-153 rugs, 2-3,108 wire, 2-106 0~




burst lethal area), 2-1015 Impact. 2-177 OQu bati-ry, detection of, 4-3 cbsrz.ber design. 4-117 da, a.e to, 4-178 Adesign f, 4-119,124 a-'tracors, 4-117,122 bigh-pressurs, 4-125 oC inlInlte length, 4-80 anid mout, weight of, 3-72 optimum, 4-50 separats loaitng, 4-117 shell. recoiless, 6-4 stress limits, 4-1 tsak, 4-50 aperod-bor, 2-4,113 tube, failure of, 4-162 Guncotton. 4-2,6 blended, 4-6 Oumey, 2-93,94,106 constant. 2-98 formula", 2-98 Sarmousakis scaling formula, 2-95 Gyration, radius of, 2-165. 4-153

of cx1osion. 4-2,3,87.89 calculation of (Q), 4-89,90 for organic chemical cons tueit, 4-87 for propellant completioc, 4-87 forglng, 6-9 of formation, 4-89 of nltrocell~oser, 4-90 loss, energy equation Including, 4-37. of reaction, 2-139, 4-89 sensitivity to. 2-187,192 of pyrotechnic compositions, 2-192 specific" 4-35 teat (100' C), 2-22 test (115- C), 4-93 tre atment, 63,4,14,33,43 nore required, 6-47 sidewall, 0-43 HEAT Ahell, 2-32,58, 3-70,83 Heavy armor targets, 2-145 Height, 3-U4 of oglve, 3-65 optimum. 2-195 HE shell. 4-153 cold extrusion of; 6-21 computing energy of, 3-76 computing w omentum of, 3-76 forging of, 6-4 machining of. 6-14 HFP shell, 1-3. 2-5,136,158 accuracy r<2-.157 action, 2-1-" advantzges and d.."dvantages, 2-156 con iAs-n cf with armor piercing shot, 2-156 cutting-off base of, 6-27 development of, 6-26 theory, status of, 2-158 finishing of, 6-27 fuzing requ~rments, 2-157 hardness of.6-27 one-piece, 2-158 performance; 2-157 conclusions on, 2-158 effect of nose on, 2-157 effect of spae armor on, 2-157 theory of, 2-156 principles of, 2-157 spalling of armor, 2-1 Hexagonal planform, 3-14 High detonation velocity. 2-157 exploslve(m), 1-8. charac4iIstics of, 2-22 core,-2-60,176 she:2, 1-2, 2-3, 3-10, 6-7,17 antitank (HEAT), 1-2, 2-4 casting, e-i plastic (HEPI, 2-5,156 notch sensitivity, 4-129 obliquity, 2-124 order detonation, 1-5 pressure guns, 4-125 pressure, sporadic, 4-84 speed cameras (Fa~tax), 2-94 speed jet, 2-31 sulfur steel, 6-2 (obJe,.tions to), 6-4

h-Xt-weig'it, 2-98 Handling, forces acting ca projectiles In, 1-8 llanglires, 4-84 Hard cape, 1-144 extractioa (fallures due to gun causing), 4-120 spot, 4-125 Hardenft age, 4-149, 6-46 st-an, 6-21 work, 4-119, 6-24 c 3ld. 6-37 Hardness, 4-119 Brinell. S-15 cf cartri'go case, 4-125 requlreuents, 4-135 of HEP sh,'ll, 6-27 loses of, 6-43 test tor, 6-15 ragnetc comparator, 6-43 Harvard tables (use c), 3-85,86,87,88,89 HBX, 2-13 H-encky-Von Mines criterion, 4-187 dencky-Von Mises theory (constant distortion or), 4-A85,1 6 Head conical, 3-65 final, 6-43 machining ad stamping of cartridge case, 6-39 ogival. #-55 og 'vi-'..iilcal, 3-64 thickness, 4-133 gage, A-45 Hesdin& of cartridge case, 6-37 Heat capactlty, mean, 4-87,88 of combustion, 4-88,89 calculated, 4-90 1-20

velocity rounds, fusing of. 2-43 yild., 6-44 ll-Mott-Pack equation, 2-33 Jllrschfolder Interior ballistic system, 4-18.20.21 solution by. 4-48 Hitchcock. 3-9.10 i. first. 6-21 Hi. seod 6-21 lL 10(s) Centrality of. 5-22 dstuiaS5-20 prln'ew, 6-43 went, 4-64 Hollow jet. 2-M4 Homogeneity criteria. 5-1 PCHomogeneity of lot, 5-2 Homogeneous armor, 2-36.laO.M38139 Hoop stress. 4-179 tensional, 2-163 Hospitalizauiont of shells. 6-18 Hot -and--cold water tested, 6-29 -forged stock, 6-2 -Zorgg, 6-1,25 spraysat 6-12on on comparistm with coid extruaion of shell, 6-24


Igniter sticks, 444 Ignitibility. 2-191.192 Ignition cartridge, 2-192 Chager 147 diffculties. 440 interval. 4-64 temperature. 2-187.1311 tm--.2-192 fllumlnant "eiumbl). 2-160.182,184 *- ?6 fluminating canister. 2-185 abell. 2 .60.161.164,182,183,187.195 designi of, 2-162 sl*Unw.i5 of mot~-typs. 2-172 factors effectIng use of and, 2-162 metal parts of, 2-162 fli abatou battlefield. 2-162 Intansity. 4-3 maimum. 2-195 prgbabolity-of. 2-102 Lupect. 2-117 bn,1. ground. 2-177 resistance. 6-4 se5Ivity to, 2-37 rifle bullet. 2-23 test, 2-22 velocity, 2-4,93 Impaired jeaetration. 2-38 Implied requirement, 5-15.22 Imnortance of slow roll, 3-29 Improper hea treatment, 2-123 Impulse. 2-16.72 comparison of peak preemar, and, 2-13 positive. 2-,13,14,19

pressing, 6-3 tops, 6-29 work versus cold work on steel. Influence of. 6-1 Howitzers. obtarating p~roblem in, 4-134 HVAP shot, 2-128. 6-35,36 assembly of. 3-M5 base of, 6-35 body of, 6-35 wimihiald of, 6-56 projectilos, 4-153 KVAPDS round, 1-137 shot, ;i-118, 6-36

projctrile, 2-1,38 mjblle sel projectiles, 2-123 hothtclhU.ltatyo, 2-106 Hydoge atosbdr% 636paofl, Hydrostaticlic 4-1-1,5210 bcaHedroe g~ae, 2-100 91gtrscopotl, 2-92


powadert, -17 lacapsent(J). 1 criterion. 2-101 2-12 lB.~oa 2-102 sMb. -1 vit-scon1-221 , -1






-o~ramce. S-21 bde'~.2--??minimum. avrle,2-7V9ratio, li~.2-103,N4~, 107 loy ,,itlon. 4.-b4 of e 14Interior L-A '-- , - r, I a Avm.race, ;-33 L ,o

fit, 4-121 2-180 4-152 ZrOcomrned, 4-123 zero. 4-130 ballistics, 2-153, 4- 1,164 basic prrbleria 1f, 4-33 calcuzatitos, 4-9 equI'tions of, 4-22,1I3,35 siurmary of, 4-39.46 properties, 4-16 syeterna of, 4-18,33 Intermediate anw~als, 6-1 IntertMdiate inspection, government, 6-44 cont,.ur of case, 4-121

~Li, 4-173 m Mo-tf cf, 3-85,39 polar. 4 -179 of shlf.11 3-4 of.~ ii~ork v.'r,as cld work on steel. 6-1 lnormaton-bz~rinc loaflets, ,~.Internts ir_ -nod 2 -IS 9



contour of Molil, 2-125

4-119 cls"ne respxe, 4-38 shmo @tart pressure, uniform'. 4-149 velocity. 3-38 factor@ elormntir. 3-72 fragment, 2-1i06 r;'.6inan of. 2-98 yaw. 3-5,28. 4-164.179 magnitirce and eaccts of'. due to boret nlearance, 3-28 1r.I?4ting chargo. 2-177 In~tiation -isintered. of expiosive, pNripheral. 2-62 Initiator black rowder. 2-183 tern, 2-22 Inspection, 6-5,1.8 url.xmt of, 5-1 chamber srage, 3-44 flnrn. 6-33,44.05 government and marking of shels. 6-24 methods of, 5-1. 6-40 by attriLbutes, 5-.5.l. lot-b) -lot aanpiing. 5-1 100-percent. 6-44 by imariables, 5-12 viaual, 6-20.24 peravarel reqnlred. 6-47 in prcc.aas of narufacture, 6-13,19,23 Gi shell forgigV, 6-13 of wi ippd case, 6-48 Inouffifiet,- number of draws, 1- 125 Inie&ral, elliptic. 3-27 Intczgrntor. 4-126 baildstic. 3-85 Ixienifisrs. c-olor. 2-186 Intens ity 4 -3 Jlmiaon. luminous (candlepower), n.-:187,190,191 factora affectfag. 2-189 intensities. determination of relot~ve air-blast, 2-li interacting r.Vve front ti-eory-, 2- 157 ngenlity. field, 2- 1112 ueInterference(sb drag, 3-70 estimationi of. 3-71 body, 3-7!

energy of gas, 4-35 -nouth diamneer, 4-!.24 volume of cartridge case (eetermt), 4-126 Internal lowil heat test (75' C'), 2-22 Interpolator, trwisparent, 4-17 Interpohitlon. linear, 3-88 Interval of burning of propellant, 4-43 Interval, ignition, 4-" 4 Inverted bead, 4-134 Inverted plarcing. 6-8 1300l powdear, 4-181 4-149,181 sulfide. 6-4 rwkariC: adiabatk flaxne teinperntbm, -- 9 L3Omhortc adfabat ic flamne temperature. 4-8

Jaeger. 3-13 Jet, 2-58 bifurcation of. 2-N1 breakup, 2-:s2 density, 2-341 dactilty. 2-52 enginea, pertpharal, 2-82 fornultion, 2-31.32 high speed, 2-31 hollow, 2-64 radiographic stuies, 2-W8 3haped charge, 2-38,85 velocity. 2-63 water. 6-6 Jib, alininr, 4-132 joint press, 6-17 Joint, shear, *-160 Jomiy teats, 6-29 Jump. 3-6,28," 0 finned projectiles, assymletl' mamujement of, 3-6




K damage, 2-83,110 KK damage 2-110 Kamikaze attackc, 2-110 Kelley, 3-121 Kerr cell, 2-4


Kill. 2-110 flret-rowv' probaiflity of, 2-3,4 Kinetic energy ammunition, 2-1,4,85,117 of gas, 4 -36 of powder, 2-137 of projectile, 4.4,33.35 ashot, comparativre performance of, 2-14 5 shot, penetration of armor, 2-1 Klrkwood-Drinkicy'as tbhory, 2-9 Knurling rolleri, 6-16 Krulip armor, 2-120

KI-starch toot. 4-9

determnation, 2- 103,1C6 Of itypothetical atbell, 2-106 index. '4-103.106.107 Lieberman, 2469 Llftingi GoeffIciant, 3-IC.12 ilqpbx. 3-13,21 of fins to ensure static stabilitr, 3-11 of finnked projectile, 3-12, plug, 1-4 Light. 2-1 characrjsrlatica of pyrotechnae comapositions (factars which affect). 2-18? Limit(s) ballistc, 2-123,127.l11144.145 approximating itse, 2-126

critorla. 2-9.1101.1111

labyrinth meal, 4-134 Lageratrown, 3-12,13 LAM;a, equations bzy, 4-182 Lamellar pear!ite, 6.-29 qsl.64 Lamiac, Land(s), 3-4. 6-35 band, 4-155 Vw~dth, 4-155 flattening of. 4-078 rining, 4-155

signal color. 2-193


lergtb of shell, 3-1 pressure, 4-1.9.11 Of prOPagation vs. Ritatnum column diameer, 2-182 signal smokes (terminal effects). 2-182 tolerance,.-A1 velocity, 3-1.25 Wo, 4-1'. Linear sioceisraiion, 4-179 burning rate, 4-16,18.20 interpotallon, 3-88 -shaped charges, 2-82 LIner(s), 2-108 conical, 2-31

wear of, 4-164 3--14 Late collapse, 2-69 Law(z) of Crans, 2-32 Of Mass action, 2-1.40 Newtonj'N, *.-34 scaling, 2-9,16.65 Lead

azie. V.-5

caftonate, 4 -3 cones. n-41 Leadig edge, 3-2,2~ 4 Leaflets. 2-1 Lnoalts.oprbpaina, 2-B18 Inafoesrm aatin-bag 2-183,8 rolls, 2-184 method of rehiforcing, 2-124 Laae, 2-6 propellant gases, 2-180 Least-square fit. 4-20shp.22 Le ue y~tr-i 4-3.8.81effect

copper, 2-32,46

surrender, 2-183 warning, 2-183

drawn, 2-66 cylindrical, 2-69.71 desirable properties of. 2-38 fluted, 2-M.,69,71,72,75,82,108,109 maeialct o -8 maftes 2-8 peertodr rotation, 2-Wa selection of, 2-50 miethod of attaching, 2-55 Pit amotora cowaderation 'if, 2-4#-

performance, 2-36

factors affect:- . 2-36 measures of,,~ 34


cartridge case, 4-121,128 tolerance of, 1-12) of chamber, 4-137 extrusion to, 6-21 gun of infinite, 4-80 ogival, 3-87 arc, ;;-82 of swell diameter, 3-85 Leaso~La' and kasocIates, 2-158 Lethal area, 2-3,9.1,104.106,154 alr-bu..-at. 2-107 com~putation, 2- 1d criturta, 2-15A ground-turst, ' -106 Lethaiity, 2-4,36,71,l119,153

on penetration under totaton, shaped charge, 3-52I soft porous, 2-109 steel, 2-3M,61 thlckaciss effect on Penetration under rctatloa, 2-67 trumpet-ahaped, 2-69 LImed cavity c'i&awe, 2-31 LImo-first, 2-196 Lines, Luodor's, 6-44 Linfoot, 2-94 Liquid explotvee, 2-*2 lIfers, .,161,185 -filled shell, 2-160,185 bunater. design of. 2-186 Wailt.- 6-37


Sto-5t, 6-40



on rnoixli of cartrtIge ase, 6-4 1

Magn.flix lest, 6-33

Loaating m ax lurn, 4 -5) optimkm, 4-50 vs. pre'aaure cuirve of black p-wder, 2-183 of pr,,Tr11-t, 4-1&%i flechrtes, 2-150 geornetric d(-n'ity. 4-46 mortar shell, 4-118 too 1. 6-41 WP f1iler. 2-1 O Locjtton of center of gravity, 3-88 Local Arial ,o~erance sy-mn.ols. 5-13 I ongitudInal str'85., 4-182,,39 Lorngliuinal tensile stregs, 4-179 Long-terma aurveitlance, 2-175 Looerotating 'tands, 6-26 Loss in obturation. 4.4l63 In pcnetrg ;,,a, 2-57 in shot-start pressure, 4-163 ULot of, 5-12 definition of, F-1 homogeneity of, 5-2 -by-lot sampling inspection, 5-1 size, aamj~l_-s~ze-to-. 5-6 tolerance perrent defective (LTPD), 5-3 LOW spect ratio, 3-13 explosives, 1-6 notch toughness, 6-4 order detonation, 2-193 oxygen baance, 4-3 percentage elcingation. 6-44 -temperature !iring, 4-129 -temp~erature stresp relieving, 6-43 -velocity rounds (fuing of), 2-63 Love, 4-36 Lueder's lines, 6-.44* iLuminoum intensity (can4elepower). 2-187.190,191 fantors aII.ectirg, 2-189


'alsim-a ui nur~ Nuels, proper ties of -aluminms

Magnetic cmp~trafnr, 6-45 harns., 6-43 fues 2-5? hardn-ak ,!t, 6i-43 Mapnto~e of initial yaw dlue to bere Lleariaice, 3.-28 M anisin fat, 3-829 dmigfco,361 Main body taper. 4-121 Major base, 3-87 Major def ects, 5-5 -Malformed cones, 2-39 Malfu-ictiofls, 6-47 caused ay twisting of shroud live,. 2-166' Mandre,6-9 Mangariere sulfide, 6-4 armor-piercing shot and caps, 6-2Y artillery ammurdtion, 6-1 cartridge case, 4-119,133 annealingr operations. 64t9 brass, 6-37 perforated, A-49 steel, drawn, 6-41 trnpezoidal -wrapped, 6-46 of HEP shell, 6-26 of hypcryelocity armor-piercing shot (HVAP), A-35. inspection In process of. G-23 of ohell during closin:!, 6-t.., of nitrocellulose, CA8 progress in techniques, 6-1 of propellants, 4-6 steel shells, pierce-snd-draw procesa of. 6-2 of tungsten carbide cor-es, 6-36 Marker, colored, 2-160i Marking on bases of cartridge cases, 4-126 of sliells, 6-18 ;,vvefliffnt inspection and, 6-24 Martensite structure, 2-143 Mass


angsle, 3-12

bartern, lw,2-18 32 c2se0941 elto bten,29 4-3


numbiter, 3-4

213 ,5,87 stmp-9tresented


wamae, 2-1 i1polni, -1 NISfprelln, ide of, ough, 614 rzge,aro for4 6-4uar cadg 3-4a9 num nr 121,9,6.1 1


149 A cp, 6-49 requiredl of -nMssyedcni aeeto bateical s M tlon4-149 se, 2-1 Maxim2 2-6d,

Lahng 6-1

Lae MahnbeqaiyamrIQ, -2
.9lier 2-9,1LA~L

2 stm



oaigbns -4
prprisrqie f -4


Itt 4tfC Corffclvnt, 3-'. clar4,,. 4-50 er~er<, l-lg5din~g, re, 1-153 , iliurmnatier,, 2-13

fragmentatlon characteristics data to d.,sign shell, Lpplicatio of, 2-98


2-12. 4-149,160


hyvdroxide. 2-191 ?-191

m th,x cf, 2-J5,127 ik,. rloa.'.rg d,ms tv, 4-A9

l onditi~'s, ,5-10,.24 4- 16.1920.2b.39,40.48,94

parts access-Jry, 2-164

of illumtnating shell. 2--2 slgnl-smoki shell. dsi 2-18Z




setback of, 4-181

saboot, 2 -138

Calculate, 4-81 tables for, I-A 7 formula for, 4-4 1 psitlon -f, 4-45,47 propellant. 4-1S0,188 rated, 4-11,50 ;alio of, 4-88 time of, 4-45,4e range. 3-3,C4 finding. 3-73 shear stress, 4-185 theory, 4-185,1B7 (Tresca's rule of low). 4-165 sky brightness, 2-193 square, 6-8 ve'xity. 4-9,50 e.'missible, 4-156 muzzle. 2-128 McMillen, 2-102 Mean, 5-12 burst hclght, 2-107 oie.ration from, 4-137 dimension of ogive, 3-1' heat capacity, 4-87.88 calculated for organic chemical .onstituent, 4-88 calculated for propellant composition, 4-88 Measurements of bla-at, 2-!0 of Jump. 3-6 of liner periarmance, 2-36 piozoelectric, 4 -94 of presented area of f:agment, 2-100 of sensitivity, 4-93 of stability, 4-93 wind tunnel 3-9,71 Mechanical gage, 2-10 time fuze, 2-177,183,184 Mechanism of cap action (theoriet). 2-141 recoil, 3-72

saIts, alkal. 4-3

Metallurry, powder, 6-I Meter, paper blast, 2-10 Me'hod(s), 4-149 analys!S of data, 2-5 evaluation of oresent, 2-91 by, statistical, 2-126 of arming, 1-5 ballistic, 4-26 Bruceton stalretae, 2-23 bullet pull. of achieving desired, 4-132 of producing colored smoka, 2-178 comparative study of shell forging. 6-13 of computing air density Pt any altitude, 2-198 ballistic limits from firing data, 2-123 band width. 4-150 muzzle Yclocity of a subcLliber projcctile, Britlak, 2-138 of crimping (effect of). 4-432 of controlling fragmetitation, 2-108 of dimensioning mouth of case, 4-124 distributed ares. 2-88 ued to centrol erozion. 4-163 of forging shell, Freaeb extrusion, 6-9 of Imparting rotation, 2-119, 4-149 of inapectica, 5-1 liner, of attiching. 2-55 liners, for maudactnIzng fluted, 2-80 of .2ximum likelihood, ;.-95,127 of reinforMng leaflet rolls, 2-184 of releasing sd discarding carrir, 2-119 te3t, 4-93 description of, 2-22 of shell forming (comprovl1se). 6 25 shock velocity, j-11 of stabilization, 3-I stochastic, 2-107 up-and-down, 2-127


of spalling, 2-157
of spin compensation (by fluted liners), 2-12 Medina explosives, 2-13 Meplat (flat nose), 3-67 circular. 3-09 diameter, effect on estimation of drag-, 3-61 M-rcury fulr~dnate, 1-5 Merit, figure of, 2-103,106 Metal binder, 6-36 burster tbe, P-160,179 case, solid-draw't. 4-120 dead, 6-42 dust flashes, 2-187 fouling, 4-149

vulnerable area 2-88

of weigh, cntrol (sheui manufacture), 6-17 Methyl violet test. 4-93 Micrometer, ball point, 6-24 Microsurface flnish, 2-180 Midwest Research Labotatories, 24 2 Minimum bourrelet clear-nce, 4-178 candlepower, 2-195 chamber capacity (estlmating. 4-125 clearance, 4-121 drag, !-4 interference, 2-iSO ! metal conditions. 5-20,24 permissible yield stress, 4-156





?6," A!i'

qtrsU hr1l wa~ll 4-j5E C3 - "sc' time of r:1

, 5-.04 4,

Illuminating, dr,_qin elententii of, 2-17: oAg 4-178

special design probIerms of, ' -1 1

Mpr,-stabffiJ, 2-17t
of center of gravity, 3-4,38 energy of, 4-43 equitbon of, 3-4, 4-2-1.38,42 of nrojcct*lle, 4.-23 of spin,-i-g Thel, 3-2 atart of. 2-73. 4-43 Mott, 2-93,94.106 equation, 2-94,.r8 reliaLility of, 2-95 scaling formula-, 2-9Mouth aincal (i cartridge case, 6-44 bolIng of, 4-)22 diameter, intcrnal. 4-124 eccentricity of, 4-124 thlctmeis at. 4-133 bloving charge, 2-16 MOX explcantves, 2-13 Mullins Manufacturing Corporation, 6-21 Mu'tlche gagme, 6-24 Multipetforated grain (seven-perforatrd), 4-13,21,24 (equALIons for), 4-28 Multiple puvching, 6-49 sampling, 5-6 wall shell, 2-108.109 Multipurpose shell, 2-161 Mumk's theoretical values, 3-9 Muaroe effect. 2-110 Murphy, 3-9,10 Murray-Ohio Corporation, 6-46 Must not decompose ia storage, 4-2 Muzzle blast, 3-28.29,30 energy, 3-38,72 rotational, 4-150 flash, 4-3 reduce, 4-2 gases, 4-3 momentum- 3-38,72 pressure, 4-11 velocity, 2-118,129,153, 3-39,72, 4-26.40,48,129, 137,173,189 consistent, 2-152 of subcaliber prcjectile (British metihod of estimating), 2-138 tables for calculation of, 4-47

for rani.ot r ammlnitlon, 2-150 of. 2-1 cl&A_.nficaIi, etftct "y, 2-I design of s-'ji'd chat-e, 2-47 -152 nt *e-iP! . prcfo!,.rd. 2-1 2-4 Misecon ', r'y. 2-27 Mi:.ures, binary, 2-193 MLxture, pyrotechnic, 2-192 Mx(els, czrabat. 2-107 MsitLficatiors of Fihape of shell, 3-G4 Modified equation of motion. 4-17 Mod-alus ela-ticity, 2-1035 rigidity, 1-136 Yomj*s, 4-i18 Moisture atmospheric, 2-191 proofing ,wgets, 4-2 protection against effects, 2-192 on shelf life, effect of, 2-191 Mold, big-end-up, 6-29 Mold catng in, 6-1 Moles of gas, number of, 4-87 Nlolybdenum disulfide, 2-181 Holykote, 2-181 Moment inertia, 3-86,89 axial, 3-2 polar, 3-81,89, 4-179 of shell, 3-4 transverse, 3-2,10,28,81,90 first about plane, 3-1 Magnus,3-8,29 damping factor, 3-10 overturning. 3-2,7,10,11,29 coefficient, 3-9 factor, 3-8 righting, 3-7,10,1! factor, 3-28,30 . oin-decelerating, 3-8 ceficlent, 3-10 damping fackir, .1-6 transverse, 3-89. 4-178 yawing, 3-3,8,10 coei iclent. 3-10 damping factor, 3-6 Mo.z,3tUm of HE shell (computing), 3-76 muzzle, 3-38,72 of pk-ojectlle, 3-72 of propellant gases, 3-72 recoL. 3-72 Monobloc projectiles, 2-141 aboi, 2-117,138 capped. 6-29 Morlkawa, 4-14,27 Mortar ammunition forgings, 6 -4

National Defense Research Council, 2-37 National Pneumatic Company, 6-29 Nature of fragmentation, 2-93 Naval Ordnance Laboratory, 2-60 Naval O-chiance Teat Station, 2-37 Naty star shell, 2-173 Neck of cartridge case, 4-134 Necking case, 4-129 Newton's law, 4-34 Nick and break, G-5 Nitration, proper degree of, 4-6



.* * ". -

.. . . .. ..



. .

N ,-xolluloie. 1-6, 4-1-1.6,13

1 1 nd d. 4-2

,.niphtue ef, 3-8

sk.r'lar velocity, 3-29

yaw. 3-6 Nylon shroudsi, 2-167

f'rmi of. 4-2 a:iut of. 4- 96 heats of frr Iicque- coat' 1, V-47 Nitrogic'ertn. 4-1.2 op.1(1uits, 4-1.I,4 e l-i, 4-2 , ) prope'll.:-ts, 4-93 Nomoiya.)h, 4-17 No helit tr-Atmcnt rxluircd, 6-47

ce',nted armor, 2-120 projcctile , 2 - 137 feformata delay fuze, 1-4 hvco3copic flrst-icre, 2-132 ideai flute. 2-73 linear rutes, 2-Z40 I rstAtent gas. 2-136 'Isp.rsion. 2-195 undercut seat, 4-"A Normal error curve, 2-.00 -rce, 3-7 :officien':, 3-8,9,13 str-,sses, 4-1l Nose adapter. 2-186 blunt, 2-157 cabbage of. 6-21 charge. sing'e, 2-175 crush-'ip c., 2-5 diameter. 3-17 double-ngle. 2-124 geometry, 2-140 AP projectile 'effect of), 2-138 tungslen carbide cores (eff.ct of), 2-132 notebing, 6-17 pointed. 2-124 radius of projectile,. 3-82 trumcati.C.LiCal, 2-139 truncated ogival, 2-124 tapping, 6-16 Nosing, 6-23 deformation dur!rg, 6-17 of shell, 6-14 NOT GO gage, 5-24 NOT GO, GO-and-, 6-20 Notation, consistent, 4-16 Notch(esi, (edl, (ing), 6-41 casings, 2-106 castings (description of), 2-109 or grooved) rings, 2-103 (or grooved) wire. 2-3,108.109 nose. 6-17 Noich sensitivity, 4-129,133, 6-43 Notes on cartridge c&se des,:;is, 4-125,126 Nubbin,6-27 Number, 3-4 of draws, 4-125 of fragents. 2-93 Mach, 3-4,9,12,13,3S,65.68.71

O1icetlons to hIgh svlfur 'ontcnt 'toel. 6-4 (Objoctives In shcll forging, 6-7 e. of attack, 2-145 Ob;l' 2-125,137,l.3.141 (l;"ty, 4nCle oi, 2-15 4fet or, 2-12 higi. 2-124 () Rcur2tiCcn. target, 4-3 COhqtructtoe.q witl'n the cavity. 2-44 u'raticn, 1-7. 2-152, 4-117,134.149,150,152, 6-1. 40 bearp, 4-134 cup, 2-173 gazes. 2-172 loss in, 4-163 problem in bowt*ers. 4-134 Obturators, rubber. 2-152 Occluded acids, 4-6 C-ice of Scieatffic ResearA and ILevelopment, 2-6,

ots, f' .. OSRD W4g8metlhd, derivallo Offsets, 2-4s OKIvVl are, -87 center of. 3-84 lengt3 of, 3-'r2 radius of, 3-69 heads. 3-65 length, 3-87 radius. 3-8,67 solid of rcvolutictn, 3-87 zone, volume of, 1-86 Ogive, 1-.1, 2-49,128, 1-64.69.81 arc, radus cf, 3-42 characteristics. 3-8 computations for, -2 false, 2-11? begM of, 3-5 mean dimension of, 2 32 pointed, 3-87 radius of. 2-139 secant, 3-S4,65,81,87 seamemt, 3-85 calculation of, 3-85 shape; 2-58 shell, volume of thin, 3-86 tangent 3-65,81,87.88 volume of complete. 3-8 Ogivo-coieal head, 3-4 Olin MatMeson Chemical Corporation, 4-7 One, 6-7 -piece hEP shell. 2-15 -slet method. 6-7 -shot piercing process, &-7 -shot press. 6-7 100-percent ipection. 6-44 4-42

of moles of gas, 4-87

Reynolds, 3-68 Nvts&ion, 3-3

Opening of parachute, stgva in, 1-196

Opening velocity, critlc,., .R-195 Operating characterlsti-, curvfA (OC). 5-2




hi3Ar*-L-tiC d11T'l 14T:iWf.- C-2

Patachulo, 2-16OXl'.
de.. elaritirm. 2- ICT yment, 2-163 methods, 2-196 (lesg , 2-161 faLtor: affecting, 2-115 nyrotecrink, 2-193 flares. 2-151I
functionirng, 2-13

;n :~ihe h.c:;gof



et.~,once of,

Oot ,

a~-ur :e 'h,2-107 , Jcs!n of, 2 .112 icsr tr rr. 4 -9 ce;pn,-,e 2-'A



, 2vff'y point of, 4-75

shaped, 2-195 slages in ';p'ring of, 2-196

standard flat. 2-195 suspension system, 2-196

-- , .- >i ', :, t 2-1 95

Rtc ara 0iuminatlen, 2-195 cor,"et , f, 2-193 d-rivqion of, 2-193 of llhmi, irg sholl, 2-162 izn4tion, requit..mont for, 4-F5

types of, 2-195 Parallel axie (or plare) theorer1. 3-89 -ar-lel design, 5-lI Pat'alleliam, aymbol f',r, 5-14 Parameter(s)
central balilie, -3 dimenrionless, A-39

HIc dpr";ty, 4-50

for, ex pln~e 4-50 pel~'t si~e (cnister ammmuition), 2-15 Vtc fl ,ii.nce, Z,33,4 vi- - tv, 2-77 wm!,,A ,.,,., 2-4 10.1V web, vcWgt of :a' raterial, 2-143 Ordnanc Ammunition Command, 4-1 Board, 4-119 Committee Minutes (OCIV), 2-2 Ccrca candard dcnsity, 3-38 Department, 4-7,169 Organic chemical constituent, gas volume (n) calculated for, 4-87 riean beat c'apactity 'calculatad for. 4-88 hea. of explosion (Q) calculated for an, 4-87 relative energy in gas. calculated for, 4-88 dye, 2-178 Origin of rifling, 4-173 . Oscillatory ptojectile motion, 3-2 Oatjit, light, 2-170 Ovality, 4-122. 5-13 Overcoming deficienciet of conventional long artil-or, -84 lery primers (praposaA made Overlay bands, welded, 6-17,26 ,OverturniIng codple f~ctor, 3-2 momner.6, 3-2,7,10,11,29 coeeficient, 3-9 facwr, 3-8 Overworking brass, 4-125 OxidatIons, xot)-,nrmal, 2-187 Cxide, metnl, 2-i91 Oxidizing ,'gerts, 2-186 Oxygen bIacc,-4-3 Oxygen. deficiency, 4-4.9

Painting ef shells, 6-19 Pancke bags. 4-85 . Panel test, 2-94 Panzerfaust, 2-83 Prper blast gagee, 2-85 Paper. blant meter, 2-10 1.28

to evaluate fragmentation aefectlveness, 2-93 Parasheel, 2-195 Partial drag coetilcients. 3-71 Partial rsndonmess of sampling. 5-2 Particle size, 2-106,189 Paticle velocity, 2-7,O Parts design, accessory, 2-177 Parts design, shell metal, 2-177 Pattenms, fragmentation, 2-93 Perk, 4-20 penetration, 2-68 pressure, 2-7,9,10,11,13,14,16,19, 4-1,20,38 gage, 2-10 Impulse and comparison of, 2-13 Pearlite, lamellar, 6-29 Pearlitic structure, 2-143 P6ildt black powder, 1-5 explosive, 2-82 size, optimum (clnister ammunitlon), 2-157 Penetrate, failure, 2-123 Penetrated, thicknese of plate, 2-131 Panetration, 2-32,34,35,36,40,41,45,,16,49,53,58,80, 62,63.16,71,74,80,81,83.117,122.12,138 armor. 1!-137 kianet!c energy shot, 2-I by shapmd charges, 2-1 bone, 2-103 depth of, 2-78 deterioration in, 2-78 effect of design parameters on, 2-4S effect of rotation upon, 2-66 experiments to determine, 2-102 fall-off, 2-64 formula, 2-125 Impaired, 2-38 loss In, 2-57 peak, 2-68 pe-formance, 2-70,137 power, 2-78 rate of, 2-33 -otational, 2-68 effect of cone angle in. 2-66 effect of liner shape on, 2-69 effect of atandoff, 2-68 necded



_ _

e,- c' o.' liner thcLniso on, 2-67 sin v .r us ,ptima.n. 2-4 suic~lxjhh r I- ojvco ( H, factors limitini,. '.13J7 .Uff,elcnt ro sidia.l, 2 -P5 Ao * Plntolite. Z-! 4-13r . S 43 ,n cl,r iPerccnta, Percentage oxyj~cn deficln'v. 4-e9 P'rcuasn lmcnt, 4- .l fir 4-15 f'.g, 6process. -17 primer, i-7 icr'orate, -49 9 Perforated cartridge cases, manufacture o:, Perforation, Z-82,85 alignment oi, 6-49 ar.nir, 2-124.125 of cartridge ease, 6-49 definition of. 2-25 ductile, 2-129 probability of, 2-88 punching t)pe of, 2-129 Performance of armor plate, 2-125 of armor-plercing projectiles. 2-126 of. AP and APC pe'ojectiles, comparative, 2-112 of fluted liner3, 2-80 HEP sheU. 2-157 effect of nose, 2-157 thecry of, 2-t.5R of kino-'c energy shot, comparative, 2-145 liner. 2-36 factors affecting. 2-36 penetration, 2-70,137 shaped zharge, 2-62 of wrapped case, 6-47 Periphcral initiatlon, 2-42 Peripheral jet engines, 2-82 Permanent deformaticon, 4-178,185 Permanert expansion, 4-118 Permissible tolerance zone. 5-17 Per!xendicalarity, 5 -21 of surface, 5-15 symbol for. =-14 Persistent gas, 2-186 dispersion of, 2-185 Personnel, defeat or, '-3 Personnel needed, inspection. 6-47 Petal. discarding, 2-119 Petal, retained. 2-119 Petalling, 2-120 Phenolic asbestos-fill-A. 2-176 glass-flUed, 2-175 type plastic, 2-175 Phillips. 3-14 Phosphate coating, 6-17,21 Phosphate, zinc, 6-3 Photoflash bonbs, 2-178 Photoflash composit.on, 2-187 Phthalates. 4-6 Picatinny Arsenal. 2-82,153,176, 4-16,137,182 Picatinny test, 2-22 Pickled, 6-21 Pickled, shet-blastod, 6-3 Pickling, 6-41 Pidduck, 4-36

Pl'erce-ard-draw process of minufacturing shels. C-2,5,7,8.29 Piercing dir-, S-7 drawin4 after, 6-8 hydraulic. 6-7 inverted:. 6press, 6-7,8 primer hole, 6-43 nne-thot, 6-7 progressive, 6-9 punch, 6-7 Piezoelectric gage, 2-10, 4-16 :enerator, 2-63 measurements. 4-94 Pillarin; of WP clo.d, 2-ISI I Pin(s) circle diameter, 4-14 plate, 4-14 design of, 4-13 shear. 2-5,159,161,164,172,175.184 size, 4-13 twist, 2-161 2-158 Pinching of explosive fier, Pipe, 6-l,#,17 Pit *&,:.i, 2- .4 eawust, 2-94 water, 2-94 Piano detonation wave, 2-31 Plane of yaw, 3-7 Plarnk ii. hexagonal, 3-14 Planimeter. four-wheeled, 3-85 Plans sampLAng, continuous, S-10 Plastic a.isatropic. 4-18) canister, 2-183 projectile, 2-152 casLr,U, 2-152 deformation, 4-171,178,186, 6-43 explosives, 2-!54 extension, 4-118 flow, 2-120,123,143, 4-118 incipient, 4-186 phenolic-type, 2-175 plug, 4-122 rotating Lands, 4-151 sabot, 2-119 shell, m-.iufacture of high-explosive, 6 -29 strain, 4-118 stress state, 4-188 Plasticity f.heory, 4-150.187 Plate baffle, 2-175 base, 2-164 flat, 2-166 skirting, 2-129 pin, 4-14 vibrations, 2-123 Plug(s), 2-124 base, 2-160.162,164,170 closing, 1-2,7 lifting, 1-4 plastic, 4-122 white metal. 4-122









12 M1v'~~ 1.-zc'>. cxr'.!,or, r -4r.


of shAI f ir machling, 6-t4 of slug, 6-2 re Ie-4 mntel area of t-agm nt, measuremert of. 2-100 6-36 Colts, compiitions, burning of. 2-189 cxphlbsivcs, 2-95 fit, 2-IR0, 4-132 surface, 2-180 hot, 6-36 loaded, Z-156
one-shot, 6-7

ot n

-6.:1. ue 1-5, 2!-177 .': 4 pre:,,ure, -- 7 , -I.4



Crflcl'e'!Cvw 4-1" which -wdr All btrrd, 4-45 2-31.33 .,qc\ivktcn,

;rcple 2-9

V-0., 2-126 V-50, 2-1^,5 V-00, 2-125 2-1!3, 4-118. 6-23 Pots.,, garea, 2-1 Pot&3on dlstribution, 5-3 Potsacn's ratif. 4-155 Pc',Lr moment of inertia, 3-81,89. 4-179 Polygonal airfoil section, 3-14 Poor vrlocitv unifcrmity, 4-84 Porosity, 2-156 b*At, 6-13 Position of all burnt. 4-39 of band Psk. 4-158 nf burst, 3-39 of center of gravity, 3-8) of maximum pressure. 4-45 under head, 4-122 Pos Ive Impulse. 2-7,9,.0.11.13,14.19 Potassium si "gte. 4-2 pot -ntIal, b!Lsc. 4-2 Pod.' 's) L! burned, point at Axlch, 4-45 A.:k, 2-168, 4-1 burned. fractiao of, 4-47 eje'tin 2-171 gsi, klnet'c energy of. 2-137 [MI, 2-1,8 Iroa. 4-161 metallurgy, 6-1 procese, Pail. 4-7 smokeless, 4-1 Power, penetrating, 2-78 Practical drg efflcient, 3-38 Procession. 3-3 amplitude of, 3-8 yaw. 3-6 Precision, design for, 5-1 Procu,-, 6-41 Prediction of initial fragment velouity. 2-68 Pre-engraved rotating bczrd, 2-152, 6-27 Pre-engraved chells, 3-10 Preignition zone, 2-189 Preformed fragments, 2-108 Pref'.rmed missiles. 1-3, 2-1.150 Frcheading. 6-43 Preizrure(a). 2-183 detonation, 4-178.180. 6-13 e-iplosion, 6-17 ftctioning. 4-162,164 Preparation charge, 2-62 for cupping. 6-41 1-30

piercing, 6-7.8 type crfmplig, 4-132 Piessure, 4-47 actIrg on projectiles during firing (summary of). 4-181 allowable. 2-118, 4-13. base, 4-38 breech, 2-164. 4-36,37 center of, 2-172, 3-7,,10,12 chamber, 2-129,163,172, 4-93,182 cur-e of black powder, loading denity vs. 2-183 ejection, 2-163,169 engraving, 4-150 erratic. 4-11 force resulting from propellant gas, 4-179.,jl ftuntion, 4-48 hydrostatic, 4-186 identation. 4-152 iimitatiots, 4-1,9.11 maximum, 4-16.19.20,26,39,40,48,94 allowable. 4-188 attainable, 4-33 propellant, 4-18U,182 rated, 4-9,10 muzzle, 4-11 peak, 2-7,9,10,11,13,14,16,19, 1-1,20,38 propellant, 4-189 relative, 4-94 setback. 2-164 cn shell wall resulting from rotation of filler, 4-180,181 space average, 4-36.70 r.tagnation, 2-34 Prevailing shell steel specifications. 6-4 Prime requirement, 5-15 Primer(s), 1-1.7. 4-33 artIllery, 4-84 cortuctive mixture. 1-7 desig, standard, 4-84 electric, 1-7 .xpiovie trak, 1-6 1lame action, 1-6 hole, 4-133. 6-43 piercing. 6-43 rercussion, 1-7, 2-172 pocket. 6-43 stab action, 1-6 tube, 4-84 Principle(s) of HEP shell, 2-157 separating burst, i:-174 shearing stresses, 4-15 of similitude, 2-125 stresses of shell, 4-182,185



i'rI' .j


r' <tg~e ,3-M*


curve, 2-112,,127 tj ;++ r1:,+mm4 o,.'


I : -. + to , ?-3,4

- +

m m

orI:H'ium of. 3-72 ,oc. 2-141 Ion ,f. 4-33 be<tnn, n:; of, 4-34

q,2 kijl, "

1 rr u ,,, iL

-I C6,107


e, 2-137

i ome rid(1ue of, 3-92

ll,, -, 3-,)8 eatet Ir -j3 "4 Tr 1 Af i-nrrfor 'iall1qttos, basic, ,-33 ni rro.nollant i.ntion, 4-84 iiarnpl,,, 3-31 destin., 2-3 inspec'ion. 6-40 lest, 6-5

par.mCters, effect of varying, 2-13T perf,'rmance of &rmor-plercing, 2 .121 perforirnne., e.S!ect of armor 1ttickrs4.s ou, 2. 129 riiuremnta !or gun, 2-2 Fihal'iered. 2-123 sclid gecnetry. 3-85 sptn-stabill~ed, 3-64 aqueze-b)re. 2-4 ubciltber, 1-3. 2-4,118.137 T33 (FAP), 2-138 T33 "APT), 2-138 taivrtd back. 4-189 torque (T) applied to, 4-179 total volume behind, 4-34 travel of, <-44,4't tur'ib Lng of, 4-164 typical, 3-39 velocity of, 4-20.35,44 weight of, 4-50 weight distribution in. 4-189 y5'-v of insIle gun. 4-149 Propaganda, 2-16U disseminating sheU. 2-5,160.161.183,185 fillir dlesign. 2-:84 chell meal parts design, 2-184 loaflets, 2-184,185 Propagate. 2-178 Propagation of blast, 2-i0 detonation, 2-24 difficulties, 2-181 explosive wave. 2-7 va. minimum colun diametar, limits of, 2-182 burn, 2-189 Propagatively, 1-6. 4-1 Propellant(s). Ml, 4-1 M2, I-2 M15, 4-2 burning of, 4-t8,33 calculation of thermodynamlc properties, 4-7 gas volume (n). 4-67 heat of explosiom (Q4. 4-7 rncaa heat capecily, 4-68 relative energy, 4-8 characteristics. 4-93 char,.e, 2-138,150 composition, calculated densit y. &_ 1 9 cord, 4-4 donble base, !-6, 4-1,93 deterioration of. 4-93 ecergy of, 4-7 flashless, 1-6 force, 4-88 gases, energy of, 3-13 gs-s, leakoge of. 2-180

t I'rozepq

wime&I, 6-41 Rall po,'d, 1, 4-7 eispection In. 6-23 cf manufactu.c, onc-shot, 6-7 pierce-nd-mi-raw, 6-.,29 Prxhteing colored smoke, :ieih d of. 2-178 Profile check, 6-24 duuble wedge, 3-71 rnachined rotatin,, 1,anc', 4-154 of firih. of riflIbg, %-155,169 single . ,Yge, 3-71 Progre,1 4 in manufacturiLg tehniques, 6-1 Prqorc isive, 4-9 burning, 4-24,25 piercing, 3-9 shapes. 4-23 Atresa, 4-153 cracks, 4 - 162 Projecttle, !-1 antitank, 2-4,156 armor-piercing, 2-125,139 assembly of, 2-151 balloting of, 4- L64 blunt-nosed, 2-T.54 boat-tail, 4-160 breakup, 2-12q of geometric characl-rfetics, 3-90 calculition com eite ried, 2-117 deformation, 2-141 ces!gn, 2-2128,129 intendtd for gun already made. 3-1 ec-entricltv of, 4-137 equ.ttion of motion. 4-34 fin-stablizoed, 4-8it during firing, forces end pressares acring on (suummir, c), 4 -181 flat-bzse, 4-1 0 ree ro , 4-164 frictln. 4-33 geometric romporents of, 3-89 geometry, 3-69,8! hypervelocity, 2-123 HVAP, 4-153 HVAPDS, 2-138 HVAPDSFS, 2-128



o71 f-t


72ch'4 4r 16pLrc..og,






1! -! c


em.* 0, 4-PY4

6-7 typo of perforation, 2- 129

!t-;e of, 4r lt a cc:ta t. 4-7 - is. critor;a for seloction of, 4-2

Pyroelhulase, 4-2.6 Pyroxylin (colh4lifon), 4-2,6

n!ru!-cor ,. i-I ,R
n . mc I-6, 4-93 -6, p-eirure, 4-189 mpxlmty:-, 4-710 rvlewed at mu.izlq, unburnt, 4-76 ri.eed,:e, 4-1 sirge Nse, 1-6, 4-1,93 lo'-urn!ng, 2-175 s81okelras, 1-6 str',., 4-24 th he,-nical, characterstics of, 4-89 trfln base. 1-6, 4-2 y rotechnic cor posit'ons, 2-II characteristics o", 2-186 requIred, 2-187 chemistry of, 2-186 ccrstituents of, 2-186 wit explomives, comparison of properties, .- 188 factors affecting, 2-187 heat sencitivity of, 2-192 properties of typto-d, 2-187 rnd.ation effectiene i of, 2-193 mn.ure, 2-)V2 reaction mechanism of, 2-192 parhute design, 2-193 solid -state chemistry of, 2-190 type ammunition, 1-3 Prc.palling charge, 1-1.6, 4-9 Proper degree of nitration, 4-6 Pr.perties of aurrnum and magnesium-alumiur. fuels, 2190 interior balllstlo, 4-16 rheological, 4-189 of rotating band materials, 4-149,16.. of sintered iron, 4-161 of typical pyrotechn!c compositions, 2-187 Proportional law of burning rate, 4-20. Proposals made for overcoming doficiencles of conventional long artillery primers, 4-84 Protective atmosphere of hydrogen, A-36 coatings, 4-134, 6-44 criterion, 2-128 film, 2-192 against moisture, 2-92 Proving grouxd tests, 6-40 Proximfty fuze (VT), 1-4 Pseudo-ratio of specifPc heats, i, 4-47 P;ychological warfare, 2-183 Psychological Warfare Service, 2-14 Pugh. 2-32,34.81 Pull, bullet, 4-129 Pull- cver gage, 4-163 Qualitative desrtrtiton of shaped charge damage, 2-8, Quality assurare6o. 5-1 ivorage outgoing (AOQ). 5-3 level scceptapble, 5-8 level acceptance (AQL , 5-3 limit average ovtgotr:g (ACNL), 5-4 QuanttatIve defiiltion of compstibility, 2-24 Quench, 6-43 Quenching. 6-14 Quickmach, 2-172,183 Quickness, relative, 4-9,16,18

RDX, 2-13,14 Radial band pressure, 4-141.153 reahstttn of. 4-169 comprossive force, 4-178 dimensioning, 5-20 dispersion, 2-150 stresses, 4-182 Radiant energy, 2-187,189 Radiation effectiveness of pyrotechnic compositions, 2-193 Radi-graphs. flash, 2-69,73,93 Radiographic Jet studies, 2-68 Radltb ble ding, . 125 of gyration. 2-165, 4-153 of longitudinal curvature, 3-81 ogival, 2-139, ,j-G,67 arc, 3-69,82 of spherical cap, 3-83 toleranced, 5-20 Raisers, stress,6-41,43 RaketenpanzerbUchse, 2-83 Ramming, eccentric, 4-13 Randomness, of sampling, 5-2 Range critical, 6-27 3teei, 6-1 aispersion, 2-17 finrng horizontal, 3-73 firim', 3-65.68, 3-38,64,73 apaki1, 'j-67,70 a:d tir-.,- f flight, factors governing, 3-38 ;web, 4-, . e test, 2-13 Ranidag, d.: Rarefaction Z:'e 7 Rae(5)



2-7.14q.1,l1 ,!.4-


wexk aha.c 2-8

Rzlon :'. 2-:6 !, t"1 1~ 2 -1 ,% "I,

. , 4-2 ''1 71c':l

i - req r.,n of murf.:ces, A-35

f!lrccmjn, oag, 4-07

-tri: prn,-ra'. n, 2-21 of , , 4-S,11 n.L&un pre ikid ilat! o . as Pt. 3.7 'et-,evn vrs*,.-r to smoke rhargo, 2-178 :.zige cf -atv(e ,,.e. 2-1"3 v

-arg e-pressure, 4-9 c ch-.r -ve..clty, 4-9 m rs and presentc,-:r 2-99



x~er.orf,-.ce, 4 ,.2 of n xirvrm prcsures, 4-88 IFc .. cn's, 4-15 of qpecii'c 's, 4-88 t/d,. 2- .2"25 RD.t syst.':i solution by. 4-33,36,48 sampke gotutien 'y usa of, 4-40' React with vx-,ostve, 6-17 - oactan's, eflect of specific surface of, 2-190 .1 actin heat (. 2- 139, 4-5 9 mtechfinism of pyrotechnic uxtures, 2-192 r,t,, 2-IJ0,192 tem;"eratures, 2 -187 time Zo, 2-192 Rearward extrusi.ln, 6-8 Recessed, C-27 Recoil mecl-anism. 3-72 momentum, 3-72 system, 3-72 Recoilless ammunition, 2-153 gun shell, 6-4 rifles, 2-5,156 weapons, 2-17, 6-49 Recommended interferences, 4-123 Recovery of cL-le, 4-118 elastic. 4-118, 6-43 solvent, 4-7 Recrystallization, 1-43 temperature, 6-41 Rectaa gular fin, 3-12,71 wing, 3-13,27,71 Red shortness, 6-4 Reduce bore residue, 4-.: muzzle flash, 4-2 r&aJil band pret sure, 4-169 smoke, 4-2 velocity, 2-169, 4-48 viscosity, 4-6 Red-icing agents, 2-186 Reducing-atmosphere furnace, 6-29 Reefing, 2-196 P frence dimension, 5-13 Reflect(-on) blait, 2-9 rhock, 2-31 wave, 2-d,v strong shock (Mach Waves), 2-8

misnt ,anudarture. 4-7 coqtp of prce d czrty, 2- 113 en A,',#-A3 arA compositi-.n. 4-4 c ,', Q1,t4A for pr'eI ge:, 4-.1 cal,uated for orgaile c - -nical conatitucit, 4-88 fore, 4-16.1; i1umldity, crItIcal, 2-191 pressure, 4-14 quickneas, 4-9,16,18 EelLase wae, 2-45 Releasing and discarding carrie.'. rae ,,d of, 2-119 Re!,ability of Mott equation, 2- 5 Relief, stress. 6-44 anneal. 6-23 remirinng velocity, 3-4 of fragments. 2-99, web, 4-23 Removable oasb plate. 2-172 Repose, yaw of, 3-2,4 Representative shrinkage dat., 4-14 R( pr:,, uclbtli.y of results, 2-126 Rxlulred ch.zactecistlrs nf pyrotechnic compositions. Z-187 Rtxodirement(s) hooster, 2-10 for canister informatlon, tacticel, 2-154 eolored marker shel, tactical, 2-176 for gun projectiles, 2-2 HEP fuzirg, 2-157 Implied, 5-15,22 for optimum ignition, 4-8. prime, 5-15 secondary. 5-1Z WP shell, sealing, 2-186 Residual ve'locity. 2-126 Reqidue, bore, 4-3 Fesidue propellant, 4-1 Rcaistance to atmcjpherlc mois Aure, 2-190 gage, 2-10 im'pact, 6-4 to setback, 2-184 Resonance, 3-29 of benzene nixleus, 4-99 between pitching per id And rolling pe,-iod (dhnger of), 3-2b Results comparison of, 4-82 reprodw=:bllity cl, -IS2 zone of mixed. 2-125






4*ovm no e

4 -1

e4 s f

mtIM Of, 4-1~t4




-155 4-14,5IS far, 4-14


Pir T(2 irof'-"',

o, 4-IS4

'f~i 216 4-154f abe~l~ar o, 4 -13, 172

~~~w~ Cipzao, ~

4 -Of o- f 4-173 '.4-tl5.it6g fcrnm. 4-, (it, 4-17

v~e of, 4-172


effect of, 2-34 filler. pr. Our# on shell Wall ewilg r rlitn rm Of fil r e" I base rfsl~jt of~ stress i shell wall resUlting from, 4-183 from. 4-183 M-XI awy


-119. 4-141

w'~ vF'

~ 4-1 $ 9t


of wall, strses Moling from, 4-182 a k s In $t e ll wvi re s uting fro n., 4-18 0,18 1 Rouagh mletnf outsid, of shell, 6- 14 ouhe.


"7"Ing asd -VAM10 WrIPec curtrlde came, 6-39 surface. 6-10


-.-2r ' -q c,

zgs -ng

fragmeatatian, 2-110

baschell . 4-13,2-6 finstk bl~tze , 22,17 flV-ab~tu 2-82.1 sas uareslug. f;-# bbb r-<U* Crimping, 4-132 Robber obbaRaOrs, 2-152


gh-. spk, -eiqaAbl.2P 3-2t~h l . 2 f lR tl

'-11 J- 75


nergy 2-8.1

p a g c ircu i nf ereu ua1i 6-42 .

Ritter's formiula, 2-165

RockKtA. 3-10

croes, 6-?ptle, llos, 2-184ng &-is-li pya~ d, 6 i 4aerrvIed. 6-4 R"4 chord. 3-11 Rct thickness, 3-,1

WhU 1-13-418 meal

2-13R *c' heor. 2-1 i

JRaGoker, 2-32

Sachsth ory, 149 Watetbe, 1sals -3 Salttpetr liquks.6-3

ROtar trim, 8-42bae,84 Rotii~ng, 2-32 ~q1 airfoil blades, 2-171 bed -3, 2-165. 4-U3,153.179,189, bearing ftress of, 4-153

SKRIee, liui.4-3
10l problem,2 3,1 of wxtarfor ballistics, 3-73 ysefRD8ste.44 rmOffit Of, 5-2ys L 44

chAtucteriatics, 4-151


size to lot site. 5-6




-5 dmible 5c inwpct ion. standard tables, 6-44 mujltiple, 5-6 pla-i criteri~a. 5-2 risks, 5-2 single. 5-5 by variable*, 5-12 Samd pit. 2-94 I.'at fur liqtilds. 2-23 test tor solids, 2-23 gar io',n'akis. 2-93,94.%.p sstit :actory Ignition. index of, 4-84 Saturation. color. 2-177 Sawdust pit. 2-94 Sawing 6-5 Scale control. 6-42 and depcaling. bilet, 6-6 effect, 2-1U5 Scalinx, 2-75 fornula. Gurney-Sarmousakls. 2-96 foml.Mott. 2-956tesi laws. 2-9,16.65 Schmidt, 3-9.10 Schr-vNder, 3-132 Scoop. 2-124 Screen, colored arse~ . 2-160 Screen. velocity 2-94 Screening, 5-1i ScaI, labyrinth. 4-134 ahell. 2-190,13'1 Sealing of chemical "NWP) Sealing lip. short. 4-150 Seem sealer. enamel. 2-151 Season cracking, "-0 Seat, band, 4-155. 6-23 nonundecut, 4-154 -z-dercut, 4-154 Secant ogive, 3-U4.65.81.87 -- ct". 2-164.166addnesotofse o flash, 4-3

vOkk 4-12t.133. " in staia 2-131 mto 4176,70 Sepai loading a Separate loading gui. 4-LI? lstioa. 4- 117 Sepaftii an 8Spraing bunt, 1-3 principle, 2-174 sown. 2-160 charge. 2-175 Separation. billet. 6-5 of operations in machining of obella. 6-14 Seqam SerraWe rolls. 6Serv"g ammuiton. 1-2 bsk. 1-2 *11,. 1-2 practice, 1-2 prod., 1-2 flervice velocity, 4-0,10 Setback. 2-6,150, 176. 4- 185 *iast, 4-123 B1W4-179.1182.6 -3 rm aeratn stress in~ shell wall resultinor from, 4-193 ftee&, 2-108.109,162. 4-178.-79 of metal ' arts, 4-181 stress in ehel; wall resulting from. 4-13 presure. 2-164 resisance to. 2-134 oldie!? walls, 4-179,139 stres. 2-119 weght 2-164,175.185 setser, tire. 6-17 gri. 4-26,36AS Fevet-perforsted prllnt buing of. 4-48 farn flactious for, 4-25,26 hP ofchamber. 4-111.12A cAuge, 2-50 fcrgbqga.6 ei eapkseive charge, eklect of,.2-1Is

hit. 6-21 order effects, 4-33. 4-M4 Secondary

effect, 2-5.156 missile, 2-4 requirement. 5-15 Section of shell, tangentiri force At givem, 4-181 Segment, ogive. 3-85 Selection oi liner material. 2-560 propellant materials (criteria for), 4-2 weapon typje a&d size, 2-47 Selective absorption, 2-177 Semifixed awruxtitlea. 4-317,160 Sensiltivity, 2-23

grab, 4-7 War, 262 agive, 2-W

Paraclates, 2-196 progressive. 4-23 of shall, modifications of. 3-44 &*W rhnarge(s), 2-"5 2-1 asito. dump qusitatve desicriom of, 244 act, 2-61,59 enmexplosive. 2-18 siectivesess, 2-48: criterias of, 242 expistv, Is jet, 2-36 18or-, 2-82

i: 7Semi-anneal, 6-37

aiest tanks. 2-82 -50 effet of r 1 Ltiom upon, 2-43

of burning-type smoke ciempoeltions, 2-183

friction, 2-23,187

beat. 2-187.192Ret,22 pyrotechnic compositions, 2-192

to impact, 2-187

miie. design of. 2-4? missals. 6a"e for, 2-63

perltraticrn of arm~or by, 2-1 wftpors. iefest Mf, 2-82 Wlri~t.wave. 2-61 S~ I -a, 2 - 95 Wsrp sto con*, 2-53 Sxrp-soeed shot. 2-122 Shater. 2-1123.12,144 ga,24illuminating, Shatiered. pro ecttile, 2-123


hlgh-expisive IRiE), 1-2. 3-1(,, 4-153. $-I t7 high-eiplosive antitank (H.EAT). 1-2, 2-372,SS5 31 higo-"Plostr lasi HP'e-,2-14 S hardneas of.. 6-27 boxpttallaatlou of. 6-14 bvper-velocfty, armor-piercing CY-VAP). 2-117 incendiary, 2-1 16,6.6,A181719 Internal contour of, 2-183 lethality of hypothetical, 2-106



pins,. 2- 5.60,161.164 .172.17,1

2o- 171 stresses. 2-31, 4-181,183

allowable. 2-164

length, estimation of drag offset of, 3-68

iqwd-filled. 2-16,0,185 machining of HE, 6-14

Imt to lee.,gth of, 3-1

rotating band. 4-1153 thread.s of base plug. 2-163 'read-, 2-5. 160,164.184 design -" base plug. 2-163 Merg.2-1 "2. 6-5 bae up~v. 2-I1,184

max'nmum, 17rescals rule of flow), 4-18 IS

manufacture of HEP, 6-26 marufnecture metbodo of weight control, 6-17 manufacture, pierce-and-draw, process of, Steel, 6-2 xra=&-.cturing plaiit, cost of, 6-24 markIdng of, 61 m eno3f teta oino pnig multipurpose. 2-161 multiple-wall, 2-109 nosing of, 6-14

mnufacture, extrusion for, 6-2

of rotatint ad stres~es, principal, -8 Sh~eet, trapezoidal.' 6-39 Shelf life,. effect of moish"r on, 2-191 Shell, 2-160. 3-1. 6-1,2

APC, 2-4.,4-118 bwaning of, 6-77


base-ejection. 2-160,161, 4-1 2-176

bodyr, 2-170 all-pLatic, J-175 breakup. 2-94,144 c94pped Steel a'nor-piercing. 2-4, 4-178 casting high-e-plosive. 6-1 colored marker, 2-10O,17C.178,162 colort-d smoko,.2-1t0,182 * crish-up, 2-157 deformation of, 4-178 developmmnt of, HEP, 6-26 jdesign of colored marker, 2-179 design of Illuminating, 2-162 design of liud-filled burster, 2-156 design, WP. 9-100 during clostig (msnufactliro) inspection of, 6-10 during Iiit- determination of the maximum forces s t~ng on, 4 -178 occentric, 3-30 equations of motion of, 3-4 elosive-burst, 2-160 finsiizdf 3- 10.28.70 fiihnfHEP, 6-27 forces acting on. 4-178,181 for"ln, 6-6 economics of, 6-12 inspection of, 6-13 after, inspection of, 6-13 metbods, comparative study of, 6-13 mortar,4-4 objectives in, 6-7

palntlrWgof, 6- 1 performance. HEP, 2-157 poison Pas, 2-1 pre-emiraved, 3-10 propaganda disseminating. 2-5,160,161,183,185 metal parts design, 2-184 ring-typa (experiznsntal), 2-97 rough machining outside of, 6-14 round base, 4-182 UsparstI-ioadling, 4-175 separating bunt, 2-160 shape modifications of, 3-134 ;rtoko, 2-1,161 WIP, 2-179 special pirpose, 2-160 6mctloe of, 2-160 soin-stabIlized, 2-35, 3-39 spinning, 3-4 square bace, 3-64 sqpuash-head, 2-157 steel, military specification for, 6-5 stress in, 2-133, 4-177,184,143 resulting from forces, 4-181 coder stress. failure of, 4-178S thin-wallad, 4-154, 6-26 unsatisfactory, 6-15 velocity relative to air velocity of, 3-14 volume of thin ogive, 3-86 wall omessurv on resulting from rotation oi !Uor, 4-180,181 walls, setback of, 4-179 %,It, stress In minimum, 4-158 w~all stress in resulting from rotation of finler.

r~ler design, 2-184



wait stress in resulting fron Rhark of filler,

4-1,;3 wall stress in resultlng from setback of metal parts, 4-183 teir'ion in wall resilting from rotatio,. 4-180 weight of. 3--4 white popsphorous (WV'. 2- Mock, 2-156 absorber, 2-175 fr )nt, 2-7 -Icad factor. 2-198 rvflection, 2-31 surface, 2-3v veloci:y method. 2-I wave, 2-7,14,19,72,93,156,157,177 effect of. 2-9 reflection of strong (Mach Waves). 2-8 reflection of weak. 2-8 velocity. 2-11 Short %ealing lip, 4-150 Shortness, red. 6-4 Shot armoor-piercing (AP), 2-4,117,153 blasting, C-5,12,1.3.15 pickled. 6-3 lmt headed. 2-124 blunt-nosed. 2-122 capped. 2-138 monobloc, 6-29 discardine sabot. 2-4 hypervelocity armor-plercing (HVAP). 1-2. 2-128, 6--5.3 base of. 6-35 body of, 6-35 manfacture of. 6-35 windshiid of. 6-35 hypervelocity armor-pirrcing discarding sabot (IFVAPM. 2-118, 6-36 hyperveloc!ty armor-piercing discar4itng )bot fin-stabilized IHVAP, SFS), 1-3. 2-119 mon'bloc, 2-138. 6-29 sharp-nooed, 2-122 solid, 2-117 start pressure, ;o" in, 4-163 truncated-nosed, 2-117 Shrinkage, 4-7 date representstivo, 4-14 ef grin, 4.13 S -r1d c|... 2-171 lines, malfnctioning caused by twisting. 2-166 line, tensile strength of. 2-196 nylon. 2-167 Shuts. cold, 6-40.43

Simple beam formula. 4-134

Simpitfied form ftuatloa for seen-perforated propellant. 4-26 Simulatee, fire. 1-2 Single -base propellts, 1-8. 4-1,23 ebection chln ,. 2-160,413 -9tecti sy-Ihem, 2-171 ( ec chare. 2-175 perforated grains, 4-22.23 equations for. 4-27 sampling, 5-5 -shot probs.b!lity, 2-103,107 wedge profile, 3-71 Singleton, 2-95 Sinter-d Iron. 4-149.161 compacts, 4-161 properties of. 4-161 SintelIng. 6- 36 of tungsten carbide (compacting and), 6-38 Size particle, 2-106,189 pin. 4-13 web. 4-22 Sizing-the-slux, 6-21 Skin frtio drag, 3-10 coefficieot, 3-10 3kirtng armr., 2-137,157 on cap, effect of, 2-143 -bsnded projectiles, 2-118. 4-U4 plate, 2-1.29 effect of. 2-137 fmction o*,2-137 Sky brightness, maximum, 2-193 Sleeves. split, 2-164.166.171,175,185 Slide, cross. 6-27 Slope chamber, 4-137 -if forcing cone, 4-126 lift-coefficlent, 3-13 atart of forward, 4-137 of tangent Lines comnectng tw arcs. 3-83 Slow-burning propellant. 2-175 Clow-rol. importsnw of. 3-29 Slug, 2-31,58.150. 6-1,3.5.7 preparation of, 6-21 siting the. -21 Small angles of att-ek. 3-13 Smoke~s). 2-1,.87. 4-1,3 canister, 2-182.183.14 charge. ratio of burster chairge to. 2-173 comp3sitloee, sensitivIZy of burning type. 2-183 compoeitions, typical. 2-171

Side spray, 2-106

Sidewail heat treatment, 6-43 Sidewall stress, 2-153 Signal(s), 2-187 color lights, 2-193 smokes, 2-182 shell, miital part desigr, 2-162 tactical use., 2-182 terminal effects limitations, 2-182 Simlitude. principle of, 2-=5 SLimmo, 3-9 plosii 2c-1

dyes for, 2-186

reduce. 4-2 shell, 2-161 bae-..ject t , 2-176 colored, 2-182 signal, 2-:82 diapersloa of 2-183 sere", colored, 2-160 Smokeless prc5elUsat. 1-4. 4-1 Soapcoetad 6-41.42 sadim

ta.rae, 6-3



Sodim ortbaeillcate waib. 6-f31 &x3ium stearate soap librlcairt. 11-3 soft

davniing fatpr, 3-6 degradation~, elimintating. 2-81 flat. .1-30

4-37149 by JUo) Irao.Hrcajle) 4-7steliu So "en ru2-14-6 Bpyjce Ift"r,L bIsti

slIn, daa -5. o xt 1vs ttttra

-1 sbe l, 22-173



Soace. 1art95~
2-49,29.13 soli~d aordef2t exp- iJePs, Sp3-83 of aSpli(nt. e ec-f63-5

nigh,13 chare , -18 vrs.r aid.-4 penrrayn efc Sp-14inningo shotl fo3-4 Sprirut 2- 36 Spira1-3,apping,124-155,S6-1r ater 4-76 6-8r. -7 splug. wtes vs.rn, -25 Soft-ack c~hare -ac Squsee. e 6tique, -75 2-5


-1aeri mecansmof2-57mimumir. -8 formu 3 las!o, Spark ag, 3-7.7 32 deolnumbe'so -1117 6 shroshU itof, tr 2-160 -ate .4-3 tSpeific m fort r4sw-3 by ofsse (iealke) Soetdeorto, 4-7 alitcdtt sourfce, ftrpv ac antsg pefet of. 2-36,7 Spac e arrihv -1L,2 2 raa~niilo,2 lencs 2-q.90ddig.f

4-3,4,6 2--1359

Sablit, 1. 2-14.16111754-,185 of'-(cmlte47 alyminm.tia prjet1es632 cdtign, 2ta2 mnt163fatortb, 3-5, a-170,63 tmn gt, meoasure of,prs-re.93 -18hrg,1-,278 2p.

I~ ~

SpacA larmora, 249,137


144 f or rrdefea ef. trn In -4, aLP heloaln eforsell of, Spalerond), 1,6-12.1 5

-106 Strati, 3ie s efet2f-4tr.61 9as. stanotf, o Symnotrlca she,13l

Sqaiiato.e mehds of. -8, driag, chag4.2-5 64z-1edAhll f101 end-6SIqablliang, maeras,: STagec Ing opnigof19 rcut,2-6 Stab-ation pimr.

4, 4 23167 mecnis wang. 37.7 Spataldstriuon, fragments71,7.77 o of),22-72spi, bdeflute olers (mortamimuion 2-15rs.124 proer the lute


ofe. 1 21 hear-f mted (SInS), spra selcasen28 dangs4-3 oouc(amaomn)3-3Sirasmmetriodl

moment, -dmertin 212 Opefficieost -3 3-10

Stabilatyo, presure7.1, -2,1

of praojetie* 2-29 ftapin of: 3-t31 cmha U~dy sai, mciig n,0




specfiction fo shll 6-45.2


Stailiztion 411phroldred,6-4
3-8.~~~S 4-A46,17

seel ofsymmtrial selL3-1

mehos f.3-.

atm,,,.phere. 2-196, 3-4 . bopers, 2-17? calibration chart. 4-40 devtstlon. 2-U7, 3-8,10, 5-12 flat parachute. 2-195 primers design, 4-84 prMTllIAnts C ,npsitonI of. 4-2

rif1lnq fcrms. 4-1f9

tampLng ins.ction tables. -44 Standoff. 2-33,34,35,36,38,40.4 !,49,66,A.; optimum. 2-34Q.49 on penetxation under rotation, effect of, 2-68 stability vv.. 2-4 treofifht v,2-4 Stanfor'eeearch institute. 2- 158 Star shell, Navy. 2-173 Start of forward s1e,pe, 4-137 Start of motion, 4-43 tate of deformation. elastic, 4-178 equat'ou of, 2-30 4-33.34,42,43,88 of btreps, eLsAtic, 4-187 StatemOtt of stability condition, 3-4 S&atic charge, 4-1,3 sensitivity f . 2-187 stability, 3-" 1 lift of fins to ensure. 3-11 tests, 2-16 comFrOssioa, 2-16r yield stress, 4-185 Statistical method, Lnalysis by, 2-126 Stabs .&l HEP sheH deve'opment and th&ery. 2-158 Status of woun ballisti-s, 2-102 Ready-state suspenslon, 2-195 Steel adapt-r, 2-180 atiten~lO, 6-1 bails. 2-150 cartr'dge cases, 4-133, 8-1.4144 base rupture of. 4-133 trapeaoidal-wrapped, 4-13 cold-werked, 6-2.43 coo*s. 2-41 critical range of. 6-1 liners, 2-32.61 hig sulfur content. 6-2 objeclow to, 6-4 shell&, agAtlig vs. forging of, 6i-I OpecIal treatment (STS). 2-120 specUtltuIs. shell. 6-4 2# -to-ateel. co'pariso of suumutnum to steel closurs

harderAng. 8-21 plastic, 4-118 stret-her. 6-44 Strand burner. 4-16 Stretgrb of candle case, 2-1,6 colr .2. 2-185

)feed, .*.149, 6-2,41 Sterrs.(es), 2-153 &'9.'trscuip of. 4-181 benidwg, 2-L24 In base resulting fromt rMotaion of filler, 4-183 it base lestzlting frout setacaL c! fler, 4-183 compresiv. 4-181 failure of -befl ntmer, 4-ITS fnrmula3. de-tvtog shael, 4-179 formulas, sumurt- of. 4-184 hoop. 4-179 1IMits. gnb, 4 -1 Iongltadiaa., 4-M82.189 normal, 1-181 pr-icipal. 4-'AJ.A3 pogemve. 4-16.I63 4-182 olv, rai raisers, 6-41,4 relief. 6-44 Mteal, 4-13S, 6-23.40 low-terperture, 6-43 tape?. 6-43 setback, 2-119 shear, 2-31, 4-181,M63 maxi=mU. 4-lS in shell (analysl. o4). 2-1J3. 4-177,171.19,18.189 principle. 4-18L.183 reMting from routim. 4-182 summary al, 4-184 wall rehbltig fI= rotation of filler, 4 -183 wall resaliag from setback of filler. 4-183 wal reeultlq from setba of mewiir"ts. 4-i sidewal1, 2-153 -stran curves. 4-118. 6-2 state, elasUtic. 4-18b state, plastic, 4-1W5 tangential, 4-182 tensile, 4-181 ultimate, 2-178 yield, 2-178, 4-11-s 3tretcher stra n. , -- 4 4 9trikin velocity, 2-129,128I.137 Strip propellai, 4-34 Strip, rolled, 6-1 Steppng case from pncl. 4-121 Strotutral damage IOGA). 2-15 StrucMre, martsites.2-143 trcturs. pearlitic, 2-143 btdldi", aircraft vlaerbtlity. 2-111 Stibecalberprojectle, 1-3 3. -s1,l.28.13',1U ikulv Ulntun pe uttion of. 2-137 subcallber stee sbat. comparauve Oect/ va O2 vs 2-13 .t.*, seeWpabtlfty di each. 6.44

yin, SteilIt., 6-272-121 Stan, Maci, 2-0 Aeppoud flige, 4-U3

terna's criterton. 2-102 ticks, I g 4r, 4-44 Stiff smrc Joa, 4-119 Stochastic tuothods. 2-107 Stock. bo-fnrged, 6-2 kopae. 41,1 Stori, 1ll-Calftr must not da.tmpe is, 4-3

squatione for., -27

kte iq-)

&dtivie veloettle,

tled pmOJeetlis a&, 3-12

%tesslve draws, I.-



Sufficient residual N.-Aetratlcwi, 2-85 SM.nxnnay, of causnes of case J' i'iLre, 4-:20 Of euatica~s, in1#r~cr b.:llistics. 4-39,40 simaxry of itr'."tses sc~'rg on proj$',ctile durevg firing, 1-181 oif stress In shell. 4-184 of tsibulatorl value., 4-87 Stperqulck Auze, 1-4 &eras'ic *pet'd. thin finsa at, 3- ..? "m~ron.e ep".es three-dmeridjonal fins at,, 3-12 &iperatmlc vt ty, 3-ft FPr',9liractury charges, 2-177 8~rfz~eTack-weldod, burning, 4-6 obarges vs. internal charge.s, 2-14 datum, 5-14 decarburitratton, G-3.1 defects, "-4 f~nsh. 6-27 grain, 4 -6 perpendici~arity of, 5-15 prees-fit, 2-10' regrnio of 4-.35 of revolutlos, 3-69 roughness, 6- 16 sha2ock, 2-31 speciftc, 2-190,192Tagetl equaton for, 2-190 Surrender leflets. 2-183

T3S% projectile (iAP), 2-133 T33Jprojectle (FAI'T, 2-138 T34/85 fusian took (vubturable area.), 2-89 T/4) ratft, 2-122,125 TNT, 2-13 Table3 b&alshIqe 3-39 for calcula-tim of maxl'ria pressure, 4-47 for calculation of muzzl* velocity. 4-47 firing, 2-177 Harvard, 3-85.87.88,89 stanard sampling Inspewton, 0-44 Tabulated values, snmmathn of 4-37 5-46 Tactical r"qWirement for canister infrt.rntion 2-154 requirenants, colorm'.d marker she!1, 2-178 requiremtI WP swoko shl, 2-180 use., aigoa smoks, 2-182 Tal boat, .4-",67,68, 6-21 cone, 2-172,175 fin assembly, 2-172 Taliazl teA (1100 C). 4-94 Tnngent oglve. 3-63.81,87,88 liflu comfncazg two arcs (hlopa, of),*3-811 (Inertla.) forces, 4-178,170 &1 given sectioa of shell. 4-181


long-t-rm, 2-175

on rotating banid. 4-181

ft-meilauice last (65 C), 4-93 cral. 2-175 icieady-stitte, 2-195 oya tr n.2-170 psartebwta, 3-196 Swespback aclia, 3-11,14 9wee.ptorwazd angle, 3-11,14 Swell dIameater, 3-69,01,54,87,88 length of, 3-85 Sweptback fins, 3-13 Swivel, 2-154,166 attacmact.2-173Taper'JedL Symbol conenriit,:-,14 dA.VuM surface, 5-13 dospendent locational, 5-15 Independent, 5- 15 locational tolerance. 5-13 for parallelism, 5-14 for perspendicularit,, 5-14 -ft.mmetrical double wedge, 3-71 9yramietrical shell, stahility of, 3-11 Symmetry, 5-14 fttm double-ejtion. 2-17 1 free-flight, 2-195 cof interior ballIstics, 4-33 Le DWI, 4-80 RD38 (Hirachfelder), 4-20,330t recoil, 3-72 2-171critloal. suspensio,. 2-170 two-shock. 2-0


streses, 4-182


damage assessment, 2-129 defeat of, 2-129 gu000 4-50 Taper(s) chamber, 4-124 dtim matbod of dimensioning, 5-24 dl.Asitral, 3-83 draw, 4-135 main body, 4-121 stress relief, 6-43 adapter, 2-118 bakpreciles. 4-1824 io -bore gun, 2-4,112 cylinder, 6-46 dl,64 walls, effect on pntaino,24 Tapering. 4-124, 6-43 dI cartridge cme, 6-37,43 Tapping. nose. 6-18 Target(s) charactcriatice, 2456 defeat of. 2-93 heavy armor, 2-145 Taachengurta, 2-196' Tear drops, 0-43 Temperaur absoh*ta. 4435 6-12,14 flame. 4-35 igntion. 2-117,189

obscuration, 4-3




reaction. 2-187 tempering. 6-14 Tempering temporatures. 6-14 Torifle strength brass. 4-135 strength of fab'ic, : 196 strength of Phrid lu.e, 2*-196 stress, 4 -181

lolgitudinal. 4-179
Tensi4 in shell wilU resulting from rotation, 4-180,181 test, 4-185 hour strs, 2-163 Terminal ballistic data, sources of. 24-8 ballistic firings, 2-83 effoctj' lim.itations of sigual smokes. 2-182 velocity, 2-195 Test(s) acceptance. 4-93 ballirtic mortar, 2-23 Bergmann-Junk. 4-93 booster sensitivity, 2-23 box, 2-4 Bureav cl Mines. 2-22 calor. z. trc, 4-89 chi-equare, 2-AS closed bomb, 4-16 cloaed-pit, 2-94 of cold-extruded shell, 6-23 compressioe, 4-93 explosion temlpr,.-e 2-A3 fragmenta.tion. 2-2,.94.106 functional. 4-129,137 hzrxdsl", 6-15 Sea t (75* C International), 2-22 hea: (100' C). 2-22 heat (115- C), 4-93 hy-rosc pic Ity, 4-94 impact sensitivity. 2-22 initiator, 2-23 Jominy. 6-29

required.*etmbuhig -Mdt o. 2-171 charge. 2-UIS Tetrytol, 2-181 Theory Bernoulis, 43,U4 of cartri gcase Skei a, 4-1lUcuxstaSt diWitfor, at ROXC-Vo Utise fIrst-order, 2-N6


of HrP obvU peybrfmc, io-IS& I.tatua of EP &lU Awnvl e' t ad. 2-158
in!er ctiayv'i frft. 1-14a Kirkwod-Brfnkley, a maximum seergy. 4-184 maximum sher, 4- 18S.Za mecb4nl,-, cc ca scts. 2-141 parallel mdx (or pls", 3-89 plastclto , 4-134,37 7 Sach.', 2-9 thin-walled s" . 4-Ifl yield criteria. 4-155 zero-order., 2- t Theoret cal prediction of radial bend rressure. 4-151 Theoretical valta.. Munk's. 3-9 Thermal cldcctvty, 2-189 Tbermochemical characteritks of prop Hants, 4-99 Thermc~naumla ps roe of proenanut, cal-ulaUn of. 4-4? Thick sad thin. 6-37 Thick(mesa) of case mod, 4-124.133 cas wall, 2-63 -cylinder Sv a 4-180 flang, 4-123 of plate penetrated, 2-13? root. 3-71 -tin effoct, 2-72 -Iad-thin forgings. 6-? web. 4-1121,. Thin OM at mo~w~sic sasda, 3-12 pointed, sabot fUse, 3-13 thkksand, S-N ,

la-starch, 4-93

.... ; itension.

litmus-paper, 6-40 magnaflux, 6-33 magnetic hardness, 4.-43 methods, 2-22, 4-93 methyl violet, 4-91 sand for liquids, 2-23 sand for soLidi, 2-23 static, 2-16 Iurveillance (65 C), s compression. 2-10 4-93 Tllani (I1193 C), 4-94 4 -185 Trmuzl. 2-24 total %catlles.4-94 panel. 2-94 Picstinny. 2-22 test procedures. 6-6 proving gromd, 6-40

-walled ewe, 6-t

wall sheU, t-154, 6-26 -wailed theory. 4-15 Thompson. 2-125 Thread(s) pga, 6-24 aer.6-, Three.-dmeulood breakup of saell. 2-94 Three-dimmkd fins at supereonc sp ds. 3-12 Threshold, damage. 2-16 Trsod.vcbliy -2 Throner, 37 Time since begboing of motiom. 4-47 InilI? derivative. 2-4 of fligh. 3-4 faetors gowvila. 3-=S miniaur. 3-M.64

up-and-down. 2-l6


vacum stability. 2-22. 4-94 velocity measurent. 2-94 Tetryl. 1-5, 2-178,181 burster. 2-&ir1


basa. 1-4,4-1 ftsct!or ta. 2-49.15? .-t o-ir ,-l1 09 max-mnAa peremre. 4-45.48


%o-roactlrjn, 2-192 Tin. 4-2 Tip chord. 3-It Tire-setter, 4-154. 6-17 TM_~1to ot press. 6-17 Tolrimce(m). 2-39 a~pa~eg~.5-34 of bnurr*let. 6-17 circle, 5-10.;J 4dt~ nt locationsi, 5-13.17,19 diam~etral. 5-12.19.20 gprn. 5-24 effect of CAcomponent. 5-24 of fluted Iloers, 2-80 ~twAtloa. 5-13.21 Ipen' of lew~th of case. 4-121 po:,-c1t defective lot (LTPD). 5-3 weig3ht, 2-15S2 work gage. 5-24 zone. 5-24,V% T,1eranced angle, 1-20 coordinates. 5-17 radius. 5-20 Tolcrancing, 5-13 'kooi formiag. 6-14 Woading. "-4 waving 6-16 Torn cayfUes, 6-13 Torpex. 2-13

Trunicated corscl nose, 2-139 -ww~od shot, 2-111 oglval nose. 2-124 Tuhe, 4-23 hlast. 2-11 fins.i, 2-183 metal orster, 2-1W( primer, 4-4 effect o~f, 2-46

split steel, 2-5 Tuck, 2-64I

Tu&mbling (veloc.U retardation). 2-166 TurbiJIIq of projectil~e. 4- 164 Twigtencarblde. 2-117.137 c.~ampsctlng and strlnring of. 6-36 ellect of armnor-piercint. cape on, 2-142 effeet nf node geometry of, 2- 139 manufnte of, G-36 dies. 6-37 Turning. bend, 6-17 Turning. rough, &-12 Twist, 2-373 ruin. 4-170 Increasing. 4-172 pin. 2-16t riCing. 4-169,170,179,189 un1Lirs, 4-170 sero. 4-172 Twisting of shroludies, maltmetloeing caused by. 2-166


applied VI'projectile. 4-179


Tota radial stress. 4-132 voLatiles test, 4-94 volume behind projectile, 4-34 ToughnRss, low notch, S-4 Traers). 1-4. 2-187 eonwposltions, 2-19-2 Trailing odge, 3-11.13,14

-dimenalonal breakup of shell, 2 -94 -dimensional fragment breakup, 2- 106 -dimensional formula, 3-12 -soc sytm 2-9

of armor plate fiailur, 2 -120 of damage assessment. 2-111 of flangs, 4-122

Traax. exploeive. 2-077

Trajectory, carvature, of. 3-1l Transparent interpolator. 4-17 Transport effect, 2-72 Tranverse moment, 3-69. 4-178 of Inertia. 3-2.10,28A.81.0

wave. 2-113 weakness. 6-4 TrapezoidasbeJ 6-3.9 Troperolda.l-wrsp cases, 4-135. 6-47 Tranil test. 2-24 Travel fwvctlon, 4-0S Travel or projectile, 4-44.47
Treatment, heat, 6-3,4,14,3J,43

al projectiles, 1-2 1pa calculations for cartridge c-Ae, 4-12C smoke composItione, 2-179 projectiles, 3-39 of rifling twist, 4-172

of Inapsacitation, 2-102 A. 2-102 B. Z*1 K,. 2-102 of paracltes. 2-195 of perforatio. punching, 2-129

of flutes. 2-76

Troacas rule of now (maximum show*l. 4-185 rrimeuin, 4-2 lYrm, rotary. 6-42 TVl-mmtng. 4-42 Triple bass propellant. 1-4i 4-2 Triple point, 2-9 Trttnal, 2-13 Trounpet-shaped Iners. 2-49

Improper, 2-123I

Umate strength, 6-41 Ultimate stress, 2-178 Unbuat nropeliant released at muzzle. 4-76

Unburne splinters, 4-26

Unailuird band, 4-153

Uaderci sea, 4-154 Undler bend posilo.4-122.125 UnAform


ballistic charwciics, 2-151, 4-1.20 initial (abot staxrL) preaotvv, 4-A49 twist rifling. 4-153.170 U. &. Naval ordnance LAborstory. 2-9a U. S. Navy "Clams A" armor. 2-140 U. &. standard ale"., 2-190

Unoxidlat'd cgrto4i. 4-97.89 Ur~-tsiAbd charges, 2-32

strIkint, 2-12S.126 saqpers',nic. 3-9 term tL it 2-196 ndormity (poowi 4-" Vent bole. 4-84 Vibraloam, plate. 2-12S'

Unsatisfactory shells. 6-15 '%%yawed symnietrlcal wings. 3-14 UP-a.! !own method, 2-127 Up-and-aovn testing. 2-126 Upsafter forging, 4-7,9 Use '1 Harvard tablec, 3486 Usoe f watrix, 2-150 Util~zaiou of yield crItseA, 4-178

Virla equatioe, 4-34 Viscosity redutloin. 4-4

Visibility deig for -9 optimum. 2-1r, thrcshholda. 2-193 Visual inspection. 6-20.24 Volume cartridge case. 4-1,1,n chamber. 2-128.,U3 ef complete ogive. 345S doignpsd for. 4-117 gas, 4-87

V-0 print, 2-126 V,50 point. 2-126

V-100 point, 2-126

of fruetam, 4-126 of ogtval zczne. 3-88

specific. 4-37 '

Vacuma stability test. 2-22.,4-94 Vahka color. 2-18T Valnee, brLsancv, 2-187 Vst der Wall& equation, 4-35 Vskriablem, esmling by. 5-12 Variation. case-to-case, 4-126 VariatUon In drag, 3-67 Varateb can&, 2-11 Vector yaw. 3-2 Velocity. 3-6. 4-47 angulse, 3-21% critical, 2-126 -. opwng. 2-196 drpadjm finned projectiles (asymmetry effect of, 2-123 ejection, 2-1653.16 Isuction, 4-48 traginent, 2-93,99,111 hllh detonation. 2-157 of'limpect. 2-5.93 Initial, 3-M8 jet, 2-63 Uimit. 2-125 maitmum. 4-9,50 pe,-mLosible. 4-156 messurem"~ test. 2-k4 method, shock, 2-11 muzzle. 2-118,129,103, 3-S9.72, 4-26,40,48,129. M.7173.189 ma.Jmum, 2-128 -ardlum consistent, 2-152 wAtional angular. 3-23 Particle. 2-7,30 projetfle, 4-20,3.44

of partial filet, 3-U5

solid ofreohalon. 3481


of thin ogive a6hell, 3-84 Von iss@. yield. conditloe. etahematlealstemn of. 4-116,117 VT fuse, 2-177,184 Vuz~erab~ity, 2-14.11:0 aircraft, 2-lt to wernal blast. 2-16 area, 2-101 method.24 computation of. 2-91 ttagrams, 2-141 feltk.212 Wadding cardboard, 2-151 dietanice. 1-7 felt. 2-172 Walls, 3-12 setback of, 4-189 multiple, 2-106 Warfare, psychological2-U83 Warhd size, optimum. 2-14 Warnlnq tles, 2-183 Wash,.acid. 6-17 alkaline, 6-17 Via, 4-120) o't'-elicals, 6-21 Washing ax'd degreastag, 6-17 Wator dZap9aeemeat, 2-IN jets. proofing agents, 2-184 Watertown Arqesal. 2-13.142.152, 4-150,151 Wave(s), 2-23 blast. 2-19 bridgs. 2-10 compression. 2-123, detonaIon, 2-30.81,182 1-43

re&t~on. 2-169, 4-48

raIning. 3-4 resdal. 2-126 retardstic. (ubling) 2-166 screen. 2-94 service, 4-3.10 al sheli relatve to air. 3-10 shock-wave, 2-11

Pat. 2-94


plane. 2-31 dris, 2-70 asttsti*m- of. 3-70 o"Mc.ks(, 3-70 *stMAtinl,". 3-76 elastic stress. 2-157 fr('r* *i'c ry, Lracting. 2-1M7 tncidet. 2-.-9 Mach, prM:otlt , eloulve, 2-7 refacetion, 2-7

refected, 2-8,9

of strong shock ' .ch Waves), 2-8 of.wak shoc k,. release. 2-45 tharing, 1-61.70 shock, 2-7,34,19.72,93,1A.157,177 effect. of. 2-9 trans-eorre, 2-123 Wavelengt attenuation, 2-193 Waving tool. 6-16 Weakness, transverse. 6-4 We pon(s) antipersonnel fragmetatlon, 2-103,106 BAT. 2--b effectlveress, 2-106 recoilless, 2-157, 6-49 system satlysis. 2-107 type and size, selection of, 2-47 War , allowance, 5-24 factor. British. 4-150 of lands, 4-164 of rifling. 4-149 of rotating band, 4-150 Web, 4-7,9,20,14,3e,43 average, 4-21 c=&'ulatlons, 4-9,14 -charge curve, 4-10 dlmstslons. control 3f, 4-13 dimensions, de4ign of, 4-9 to gun. fitting. 4-9 ,Umil, 4-11 optimum, 4-10,1 t rage, 4-9,11 ditertninat/nn of. 4-10 Mrmining. 4-23

Weits. 2-93 Welded overlay rotating bands, 2-, 4-149,154, 6-17, 28 Welded. tack, 6-48 WbIpphig of casing in fllgti, 2-1'5 White metal plug, 4-122 WP shell (white phosphorous). 2-160,161.179.186 cloud, pulring of, 2-181 shell s-.19 demign, 2-180 accessory parts design, 2-10 sewling requirements, 2-186 tactical requirements, 2-180 fillor loading, 2-180 WII, of rotatig band, 4-124.5S Wishlald, 2-117, 3-86, 4-.78 slumInum, 6-35 of HVAP shot, 6-35 Wind tunel neaaurements, 3-9,71 Wlng(sN, 3-13 cbord. 3-11 clippod-delta, 3-27 dilte, 3-27 rcct-a-ngnlar, 3-13,27,71 u'tyawed symmetrical, 3-14 Wiping cff of band land , 4-164 Wrs. notchM,4 2-3,108 Withdrawal easy, 6-1 Wood. 3-9 Work cold, 6-3 gage tolerances, 5-24 -hardening, 4-119. 6-2A Worn rifling, 4-162 Wound ballistcs. 2-3,93,154 status of, 2-102 Wounding effectiveness, 2-98 Wrapped cartridge case(s), 4-135, 6-47 body of. 6-46 design, 4-135 rough rolling and o'pandlng, 6-39 Inspection of. 6-48 perfcrmance of. 6-47 spiral. 4-135. 6-1 trapezoidal, 4-136 ft47 steel, mnnufacturm of, 6-46 Wrinkles, 6-43

size, 4-2
establ hng, 4-13 thicknes, .4-11,21,24 -veoclt- curve, 4-10 Wedge, sy etrical double, 3-71 Wedge-typ fins, 3-71 Weight I of burste charge..-terminatlon of, 2-178,182 of tetryl burster requi-red, determining. 2-178 charge. 2-138.4-20 weight cotrol, methods of (shell manufacture), 6-17 distribution In projectile, 4-189 of gun and motmt, 3-72 matchLng. 2-180 of projectile, 4-50 setback. 2-264.175,185 of shell, 3-04 tolerances, 2-152 1-44 Yaw, 5-7,8,12,69 angle of, 3-2 in bore, 3-28, 4-149 complex. 3-3 determining effect of, 3-75 diverging. 3-4 -drag croflcient, 3-5,28,69 InitIal. 3-5.28, 4-164.178 nutatlonal, 3-6 plane of, 3-7 precessional, 3-6 of repose, 3-2,4 vector, 3-2 Yawing moment. 3-3,8,10 coefficient, 3-10 dampine factor, 3-6




rate of, 3-a.10 Yield

co.dition, mathemstical 4-187 crlter!.A, &-1,195 statement of Von Mines,

Zero interference, 4-169

order. 2-32 aweory, 2-31 wlst. 4-172

theories. 4-185
uti1itation of, 4-1S8 function, Vcn M!ies, 4-186

alloy, ZAmwac f, 2-37 eone4, 2-41

high, 6-44
point, 2-153. 4-116, 8-23 Itrengch. 4-134.149, 6-2,41 strei,. 2-175, 4-119 of tond nrstera,.4-157 crtnpreeslve. 2-1.85 minimum per issible, 4 -154 eLide, 4-185 Young's mohIlua, 4-118

IpK)Ephste: 0-3
Lobel, 3-10 Zone A il rntng), 2-18S 1 (burnLI4), 2-180 C (1'.lno, 2. 183 charges, 4-134 flring, 1-2,7 mized. 2-127

of mixed rwzlta, 2-125

Zamw 5 (zinc alloy), 2-37 tolerajce, 5-24.25 perraiselble, 6-17

Ii, ... .

.4 '




tA pV

1-.Complte' Roundis. The terw "artillery ammuaition" re' ers to =munition, Pceptirog rockets and &liotgun siiels, used to weapons tai to fucibate daeere tme tan 0c.0 c"W

Inh wAp, complete round artillery am-of ntion res anll as thed mpnent neesear-

o.m wng oc seaatd Figure the proje-I trael funamction and theirsrdtmeadpae t ee pe ngnrl h rjc compecoosnt atsae



rizar. evasn pressure devthe "dobyptor . pelling charge heether O o terks ued m prni etioe, knwnasfiesei are and "sho."

o-1 Fuze. lAvg orusepsatmechanicale el~ical-, daes hese timesoam unirtioncandstheir cocoaWrte parts.

Complete wihtepoeln


mruiio ew roan- I s li h hepo ae

PpeinChtpThprelighage1-3. Compnedt



cossilec a~.&it proell he Inh efcrwhc'~ ejuctede ftom ist t~roidgcasebly uo repo by Prie a pre sue devtw by the ~~~burning of a~w poelling chr It csed

iet hreI wtheelse amm.....n As.u...dsgmd plh~cageI os nt, atig

expltorv ad ab thae n

no rtlack ir.ttne


-1. Am ,t uitoe rme s cc-




to a

bae Inside the cartdge cwa. For cartan cr~libers, rounds of fixed ammunition are ermed "cartridges." which may be

1-10, L &Mrmunition is provided in small and medium calbers for saluting rnd simulated fire. This ammunition has no projectile. 1-11. Drl AmmirnigA is used for trning in handling and loaing. It is completely Inert. 1-12. Proof used for tesg The projectile steel shot of

an sccessible propelling cha.e.d,

an4 acessible propellin

adjusted for zone firing. Like fixed ammunition, It Is loaded Into the weapon as a unit. The cartridgr case Is a free fit over the projectile. The pr-selling -bargs is divitied into bagged

ichracterhieh ma b


_m,.mltton. Proof ammunition to of guns and propellant chare. is ordinarily a blunt-nosed solid the same weight a the high-


sectirns, each containing a definite quantity of

c t, h nt ty


1-5. In Separste -Loadn Ammurdtion the separate components - ,irojectile, propelling charge, and primer - axd loaded into the weapon separately, bIceso the ammun:tion is too hecvy and bulky to ba handled as a unit Ammu2Pt3n larger than 105-mm caliber fals Into this cateprry. 1-6. Separated Ammurition ischaracteri-edby the arrangement of te propelling barge and the projectii fur loading tito the gun. The Fropelling charra, contained in a primed cartridge case tbat is sealed with a closing plug, ar the prtectile, are loaded into the gun in one opestion. Separaied ammunition is used when the ammunition is too large to handle s a fixed unit. I-7. Classification .f Ammunition. Ammunition may be classified according to use as service, practice, blank, or drill. In addition, it inay be c.asifted according to type of filler as explosive, chemical, or inert. 1-8. 5_trv!ce.Amuition is used In combst. Dependeat upon the t3ye of projectile, it mo.' be high-explosive (HE),, high-expiosive antitank (%EAT), armor-pieri:tng (AP), armor-plercing capped (APC, with or without -explosive MUer), hylervelocity armor-ierciag (HVAP, EVAPDS. or HVAPD6F,9), hig-t-.plosive plastic (REP), ncendiary, illuminsting, marking, propaendma, chaff, or llquid-filled 3hell. 1-9. Pr cj q...MWiiL is fired for effect in simulated cembrt, and is air'o used in trainIng in marksmanship. The projectiic in this type of ammunition may have a small quantity of low-explosive filler to serve as & sottng htrge, or the filler mzy be i.ert. The pr.oJvetll may be an emy' cat-iron shell.

explosive projectile which is to be fired from the gun. The propellant charge weight is adjusted to give the pressure desired for the test that the round Is dmiped for. TYPES OF PROECTILIS 1-13. High-Explos've (HE) Shell have projectiles of forged steel, comparatively thin waills, and a large bursttn charge of high explosive. R1 shell are used against personnel and materiel targets, producing blast effect and frigmentation at the target HE shell -mayhave a time-, Impact-, inrrtta-, or prox.mlty-tp. fuse, according to ihe action desired. 1-14. Hich-Explosive Antitank .(HAT) Shell. This is a special shell used against armored targets. Its effect is dependent upon the formation of an ultra-high-velocity jot of metal caused by the action of th. hollow charge on the metal liner. 1-15. Armor-Piercing (AP) Ammur/ti.n. The armor-piercing projectile has a r oos . forged hio-ccrbon nickel-chrome steel, and is intended to penetrate the armor of a tank by the enirgy of impact. The none ay be ogival, or blunt truncated, and must be hard enough to, penetrate armor, yet tough enough to withstand cracking or shaerntg upon impact; It may have an aluminum windshield to provide better ballistic characteristics. The body of an AP shot must be capable of withstanding bending etresses, and alqo the gouging action of lhe edges of the hole. The base must have enough stre;,th to smash through the plate if caught by the side of the hole, or should be so designed that it will break off from the body without Injuring the forward part. 1-15. Aypervoloeitv Armor-Ptercing (HVAP") h is lighter than the other armor-piercing projectil, of the same caliber, and It is fired





--- H--4


at higher velocities. The H% 0 shot has a pointed cylindrical core of tngsten carbide. Tioe core has great density and nardness.

1-20. Cani tr. Ammunition consists of salug (small cylinders from bar stock), steel balls, or fiechettes (stabilized fragmer.ts with pointed nose and finned tall), contained by various methods within the shell. The canister projectile coosists of a aeavy steel base, designed to wiUatand the firing stresses, ad a thin steel tube packee with preformed mi.lles. As the canister projectile leaves the weapn, tho steel cs .na'n h islsL pi s the missile ope- b centing te mse in a rand are distriu is elt sa are diritda Is missiles inflict damage, stre a velocit impartd to them by a propellant charge. A complete description of canister pAcking nmore 1 Pyrotechnic-Typ_ Ammunlon comprise a gruup of shells which perform vartd functi , but possess certain design sm -a Ilarities. Thes she-'s, which are firod fromu mortars, howitzers. or guns, are made to function by bae ej*flon, sepatin urst, or explosi"s burst. In general, they are modlficatlos of the HE shell of the same caliber. Pyrotechnic-t-pe ammunition, grouped together by design wimiarity, Include: Illuminating sell, propaganda shell, colored smoke elhell, and chaff shell; WP shell, and liquid-filled shell; and colored marker shell The completU description and design a these shell& is gt':en in Section 2. PRO;ECTIL) COMPONEVrT 1-22. Th C ve ta the curved portion of the projectile from the point to %bt bourrelet. The curve of the oglve is usually the arc od a circle whose center is located in a IM& perpendicular to the axis of the projectile, and who dius generally is 6 to 11 calibers in lenk 1-23. The Bourrelet is an acc-rately m;,chined cylindrical surface, of diameter slig'yl irp-or thin the body, that bears on the lands of the b-,re. The bourre!et centers !he projectile I.. the bore and guides it !a its travel throulM the bore. 1-24. T"le Rotatir% Ba is a cylin,rlcal ring of comparatively rft material, usua%:I copeer, gilding metal, or soft iron, preseo; into a knurled or roughened groove nea. the bAse of the projecUle. When t.. gun tk; fired, the

This type it projectile is obsolescent and is being replaced by more modern types, such as HVAPDS. 1-17. Kyrerw, In,cty Armir-PhdritnI Dticar1-

Ing Sabot (HVAP)S._Ammunition. This type of ammunition consits ol a sub4Laliber projectile, comprisirg a carbide co'e in a light alloy or steel sheath. The suocaliber projectile Is placed Whside a full-caliber carrier (called a "sabot") dpsignzd to Impart velocity and spin to the prjectile. As it leaves the gun, the sabot force, is discarded by the action of centrifugal air resistance, or both, allowing the projectile to proceed toward the target unimpeded. Generally made of aluminum, magnesium-zirconium alloy, or plastic, sabots are .f three types: pot type, petal type, and latch type. (Ste Section 2.) 1-13. Hypervelocity Armor-Piercing Discarding Sabot Fin -Stabilized (HVAPDSFSho.The rVAPDSFS shot is a fin-stabilized kinetic energy projectile desigred for extremely high muzzle velocities. It is characterized by an extremely high length-over-diameter ratio. Its lorg thin appearance has led Li its being referred to as the "arrow" pro'-ctl,;e. It may be fired from either ril!ci or unrifled barrels by means of a z -ot. It is currently in the itieiopgnent stage and has given some very promising results. 1-19. High-E plosive Plastic (HEP) Shell are unique in antitank warfare, as they 2ttempt to defeat taJnks without penetrating the armor. The explosive is made it. a mnlded plastic form and flattens out when "e projectile stzikes the target. The detonation of the explosive on the face of the armor causes a rupture on the oppovlte side. This ruptured portion is known as a spall, which causes damage Inside the tank, dependent on the velocity and mass of the spall. The mass Ind velocity of the spall depends on the quality and thickness of the armor, and the mass, type, and shage of the explosive filler. This shell has not yet oeen fully developea, and little of the theory is known. A moie complete description of available theory and design is given in Section 2.


_i __


1-30. Time ru- usually contain a graeoated time element to the fotin of a compressed blick powder traia, or a *mecbsi.zn with a gear train like a clock, ~c mayr bN set to function* at a predetermined time after firing.
1-31, Impact Fuzes are classilled accairding to the quickne. s o action aftp~r impact As super qu-tk, ixnndelay, or delay.'uye 1-2 for actitn 6f am~sunition atthe target according to the -,oickness of atir.Spru ue produce a burst Immediately uyron. !mpact, before any penetraticn- occairs, thus 'giving maximunt surface efect lNorde'ay (uzes are inertia- operative, and burst the wsrajcctile on a hard surface before complete penetration or ricochet relay fuzes allow penet-ation of material targets before bursting, or allow n_r bursts in ricochet fire. The time of action of impact fuzes is measured from the Instant of Its impact on a target, whereas the time of actioni of time fuzes is measured from the Instant the weapon is fired. An* Impact fuse light m~terial target, such as an airplane onoiie
132 L____j~_____ _____. I

roftati band is er ,ravm by the ifurvni nd mpart. :5pin 6o the p.rop'ctlL'. The band may e' ;o b*! wdded to the projectile by the "welded ,w,,!r i' m'th,#& 1-25, fla, o Cover,'R hell con~ainlng hij~h ex.plos i Nrs usuaOly are provided with a base cover to prevt it the ho'. gaseg of t~e proj.1~~ch., rge from coning in erintact with Ow-vxl~i~ filler of the projectile through posstbeQ flaw.3 in t~e. metal of the base. 1-26. PodT. The main portion of the proJectile ordiriari',v 1, called the body. The term 'txxdy diam ter, however, Is used to 1z'stgytate tl~e dimension of the cylindrical portion o! !to projectile between the bourrelet and the roa~band In order to prevent con-tict with the bore, the body diameter is sina ier than ft, diameter of the bourrelet or Wte rotating bam2. 1-27. Tracer. For o('ser1 atlon of fire, somi.;

Ina-eantiaircraft glin projectiles, th~e tracer number~t seons thea exploavere of*c
filer, hefuz houd filtoWraeagins



"sheli destroying" (SD). 1-28. Lil~t ng ]Plug and Grommnet. pig adgomet '"he !ift!ng in the

Without "setting" or, adjustnedt, they detonate the target. Artillery VT fuzes are essentially combination-slpoedrai anmtW

dontplay any p .r



sTeel clveting plais anoee

thraioe ware

Wen cotiInteratn


be hpndbtd jy means of a winch. The groramei the rotat~ng band to protect it from damaage resulting fro'n rough handling. Both are removed before the projectile is used.

water to te nm, Ing missile, interact with the transmitted and reflected waves, which results in ripples or be'ats, reaches a predetermined 0tensity, it trips an electronic switch. The s~tch then perinits an electric charge that is stcwed in the firing capacitor to flow throught 2a Oa'ctric fir'ng squib. The VT fuzes can be used 'vdy In 'm'p-cavity, shell. 1-31. Ceneral Dscritionif Fuzes. In genaral, modern 'uss msist nf a connected serie3 (train) 4f mall ewplosive charges, togetherwith a striker cr lIrftn-pin derice for lsitattng the C action of t1v first charge in the train. IThe mechanism aid explosive elements rare held in a body or bouileg. la modern point-detonating

FUZES, BCOSTER5, AND DETONATORS 1-29. Introduction. A fuse is a device used with ammunition to cause It to function at the time idesireJ, a-4 under the circizmstances desL-ed. Artillery fuzes are classified ac cording to ftheir locition or. the projectile as base detjaatw, or point detonating. They also are classi'eNd according to their method of fw'ctioninC, as time, ipact, or proximity. (VT), or may be a combinatiop Gf these. 1-4


ts.q 00

burns slowly, the rate of cLmbuxtiof decroas In stedensity Increzoes. 1A the funtionig of a fuz~e, each charge h! Its ctkw initiates the next chargelin %9 raliL The final zharge In the fuze causes the detonatl~w ad the boost-r,

of the shell. 1- 34. Bore Siafety. To prevent accidentni armsuch as a safety wire nt a cotter pin, are used when required. In certaft types of fuzes, the are said to be 'boresafe" (detonator-safe). baresafe fuze Is ane in which the explosive tit Is interrupted so that, while the po mature Is still In the bore olthe weapon, peaction of the bursting charge Ia pre(primer or denoator) function.,
during handiling and
skippirg, vale~y



bursiting charge


1 A.tW


~/im e~ZA


#ovum &A~ow



etedif any of the more sensitive eletwents


1-35. Methods of Arming . A fuze Is said to he armed when it Is ready to detcaate the shell, that is, wben all purt are In, or are free to

04 Clir

move :a, their prowe positions in order that

* '~a-in~ta






RA~ 41 PP

the faze mvay operate In its intended minner. The principal forces used in armbg fuzes are and centifual force. In some fuses, both of these forces are. used to actvate safety devices; is others, owly ame Is used. Centrifugal force ownur Iaapinnlngprc4ectilms This force may bs utllls'd to actuatu gear b-ainq and to move safety devices Ito~ mei proper postions Is fuses and ioosters. 1-38. Boosters. Sinw the bursting charges of high-exploisive shell are relatively tIwsentive to shock, a comptively large denonatin charge Is ueressar to ensure a high order detonation of the oursting cts~zge. MW use ad more aenaitiver expiosties, such as me-rcury fulmilnalle orIs lat d In thE quantities requiredc for the purpose would create ezcessive explosilres are used only IA small amounts as initlatitg and htamediate detoauting charges. A aeperate charge of momewhat less seiitivit, usually tatr 7 1 Is provied for detoating the high-cxploslvc brge at tMe shell. Because Its Zncticn Is to Iscriase or "bmwst" the cffteems of the Mlave trwlz, thi3 cbarge Iti known as a boo*:r. bArge- Mwe booster charjre ukay be iwnc=ed& the fuze Itself, in or may be encased Is hbia metal or plastizwhich is ucr"ed permonmatly to the foss ad handlied an a uait 'with the fuse.

^~we 1-Z. Action of ammoao al t tame (PD) fuzes, the how~ing is shaped for best ballistics. In impact fuzes now In usO, the explopive tain usually cnitata small but highly sensitive explosive 4iharge, such as lead azide, iA turn followed by a still uarger i * as tetryl. Such charges fuinction by successive detonatItm -hence the ierm detontin fusea.

When delay action 1A desired by Mes use of a black ynwder pellet, the Initial charge is a primer mixture, which passes r' flame to the black powder and, In turn, to a 1eWonator. Black powder In~ used exclusively IA the time train of pcvw'er-traln time fuzes, and for the mnagaslne charge o( both powder -train and 4mechai'ical types of time fuses. Blact powder that has been compressed to preat density



1-37. f'Tor.!q~at(rs A dttonator is used In the axplosive train to creatob or transmit a detonation wave to the booster charge. boos~ter lead, or burster. Three types of d-'tonators are' v?.*d. One contains a prlmer mixture as th, upper layer, for IrIttaf1cr. by atab actInn of a fixing pin. Anothtr lead a-,id. as the upper layer, for Iitlatcon either by flame actI.,n from a separate primer, delay pellet, time -train ring, or by detonation of a separate detonator, The third type contains a lhne wire or other hlgh-res 'stance electric circuit In contact with a heat-,,ensitive primer nixture. SPassage of an electric cur-ent through the redetonation in the primer mixture. Most de,.ornator cups and disks are made of alun:Anum. SXPLCGSIVES FOR AMMUNITION 1-38 oGe~r~1. te pojetil atthe dl~vr taretandto Itto uncionpruer yon aus targea, ri i necessary to empltoy differe n krids, of eIlsiveesach o whiphhosy spleekind ofexposieseac o. whch ~s spcific aroud o ammviton.The uncionIn chrceitc ftevrstpsof explosives are gie n Section 2. The arrangemnent of a series of explosives, begloming wi~ smaU amoun' 3f sensitive explosi to and ending wittai ofah largre copravl amountanc insensitiv witha lrgalled anoexmposiv trainestv *xplogive, iscle nepoietan 1-39. Classification of Explosives. Exploolves are divided Into two basic groups - propelants (low explosives) and high explosives. The propelLbnt reacts by burning, at a rate which depends upon such factors as pressure, grain e*plosive is used for Its detonating Properttes, which result from the motion of a detonation wave trzveling through the highi - explosive charge at an extreely high velocity, tEopeila.1te, are used to eject the projevtile from the weapon at a prescribed velocity. Those currently used 'ave a nitrocellulose and/or nitroguanidine ba.'e. These propellants are distinguiriheci by such terms as single base (those with nttrocellulose', double base (with 14Q(.

1-41- lhsi-v~s eas of their rxtremely rapid rate of detonatinn, have i pr.wcq-. ful disruptive action. Uhe high exploives OWt are most sensitive to Impact urE us4,d asi~ttltators In primers or detonators. wbereas tho hIgh expiosives les. sensitive to impact art! used as bursting charges In shell. PROPELLING~ CHARGES

1-42. General. Propelling c~arges consist r1 the propellant (essentially nitrocellulose plus other Ingredients) with an igniter of black powder, assembled in a suitabitt container. rounds, the fill igniter charge is present In a tube attached to the percussion element of the primer. In certain cases, however, such as ammunition for the 75-mm rifle, a suppiems-ntary igniter c~harge Is located In the forward end of the cartridge case. In separate -load ing rounds, the igilter charge is assembled in a bag sewed to the base end of the propellingcharge bag, and in some cases includis 1,core runtning through the center of the propellingcharge bag. See figure 1-1 for representative s. of p;ropelling cha.ges. ocnro uti h h eie unngo efrrac rplan odrt naprlua J

weaon, the pcwder Is manufactured in several types of grains. For a complete descriptlou of the various propellants, their grain types and their characteristics, refar tu Section 4. 1-43. Flashless and Smokeless Characteristics. Whether the ammunition upon firIrg Uas flashless or smokeless characteristics, or both, of the propellant, the design of the ignition system, and the chaacteristics of the weapon in which the amimunitioni is fired. Variablefactors fttmust be allowed for in the orignal are firig temperature, degree of wear ot vveapon, and weather conditions. W4 s 1-44. A Cart-Idte Case- made of drawn brass or stee), serves as the container for the propelling charge in the instaunce of fixed and semi-

nitrocellulose rrui nttrtoglyceria), or triple base

(nitrocellulose, nitrogtYcerti, and nitroguanidine). Propellants may be caile. flashless and/or smokeless, but these terms are relative, not absolute.

profile and des'gn to conform to the cliamber of the weapon !or whlrh the case is intended. The head of J4.- ease is relatirely thick and has a flange to permit mechianical extraction and to

Mien artillery ammu'triton.

The cape has aI



seat the round in the gVin. Theme rounds used 1 -49. Cartl~egs~ form a suitable sid convenienft means of con*.Aaning: the smokeless

in automatic guns usually have cartridge cases with extracting grooves instead of flanges or rims. The cartridge case holds the primer, the propelling chargo, and the projectile (oxcept for separated types), so that the assemby can be Inserted Into the weapon in one operation, A beccndary function is to prtzvide for obtura tin. The case Is sufficiently thin to be ?xpairded by the pressure of the burning gases to a tight fit against the side of the weapor chamber, thereby preventing the escape of gas to the re-tr. 1-45. 1theP qpeiirg Charge in a Rcund of Fixed Ammunition Is usually loose powder in the cartridge case. In some instaxices, where the charge is not large enough to fill the case wading c~npctey, adisam usallya crdbo-ird disk and cylinder )r felt pads, is inserted in Whe neck of the cartridge case, between the powder charge and the baie of the projectile.i In sonme 'Astances, the sam~e futictlon'may be served !s*y coclosing the cbarge in a cloth bag
inside tho' case. insufficient for Where the primer charge is sat;sfactory ignition of the

powder ct.Arge In separate-lorading ammunition. Cartridge-bag cloth normally is made of silk; bags made of rayon sometimes are ut'.d to replact- silk. Only certain aph-free grades of this fabric are suitable, Obner grades might leave smold-tring fragments In the bore of tl'e cannon after firir4g. The products of comtbition of smokeless powder are inflammaixf when mixed w~4ith the requisite 'vmount of air. A reignition of gases known as a 'flareb~ack" could occur in the presence of tie~e sir.lderibg 0tes Cartridge igniter bags are made of silk, andtlht, cloth !s similar to cartridge-bag cloth, except reropevt htiismrcoelwoni the black ignition powder from sifting through. To date w, suitable substitutes for silk have~ been fon. For a further discussion of the propelling charges, and a description of Fropell rag rharges hanbook. 1-50. Primers and Igrution Charges. A primer is used in a propelling-charge explosive trAin as the component that Initiates t4rning of the propelling charge by a flame. Such primers vary in size and complexity, depending upon their type and tWe quantity of prope'lng charge
to be

for particiular guns, refer to Section U1,chapter 3, of reference 3, and also Sectlcmn 4 of this

) ii~tionL

pu'opelling charge, a si'pplem' ntary Igniter charge of black po*.ter may be attached to the diotance waddiing to supplement the primer 1-46. The Propelling Chvtr e In a Round of S-niifixed Ammunit-zn is ii, cartridge L~ags in the cartridge case. Since Mie cartridge case is loosely fitted to the pro~ectte, some of the bags of powder may be removed piror to firing to pirrwode for zone firing.
1-4?. The P-opelltng Chirge in Sepai aied Anmunition. In "separated" ammn~unition,"Jhe separately loaded propelling charge is Inosely contained in a nartr~dge c.ase, which is ciosed by a "closing plug" made of palmetto p0-s, or r-ork. An igniter may be plact4 around the primer to ensure proper ignition. Mortar Propelling Charges are made up of :several removabfe parts or "iw~rementh" f63 provide for zone firing. Each increment consists of a charge of smokeless propellant encased In a cotton bag. The bag has a i'uttonhole U0eacb erd to enable it to be fasteneod to the cartridge aousing of the mortar round. The round, ae rec:eived in ifie field, has the rnaminumber of incro-ments fastened 03 it. The gunner adjuists for zone firing by removin* the increments that are not desire It.


For eximple, the propelling



charge of 21)-mm rounds 13 so small, relatively, that the primer 13 merely a sensitive element assembly that is Inserted directiv into the prinwer pocket of the cartridge ca'le. In larger e iliber rounds, the primer contains a wsstive element of primer mixture or other explosive, pius a primer charge of black powder to ensure proper ignition of the larger propeW- charges. Where sufficient black powder cannot be loaded lieu the primer body to ensure proper Ign~tics, a separate bag of black powdler, called an Igniter charge assembly, Is& placed witb the propellant. Primers may be 0assfied by rzutUbod of ignition as percessin, initiated by a sharp blow from a firing pi In the weapui1; mr electrip, initiated by sendling a small, electric current through a resistanci wire emb ddedIn an ex;!isive, or through a conductive primer mixture.




GENERAL O1!S1GN 11EQUIT1EMFNTS l-ni. o ntonirng. The unique f unction ot amnmun'tio'n must b~e considered in the design of eo'lte rounds an4 their components. Practicalll-' all am munition iterrs are required to functior only once. This onc Lime, they must funiction as intended, a very high degree V, certainty. Usually, they are used without arny pirevioun prepiration or adjustment, after eabbiection to handling and storajge that may have gone on for periods of years, sometimes under v'ery adverse conditions. This peculiarity of itnction imposes cert ii, design requirements of a restrictive i~ature, such as: 1. Ruggedness5.Ceia 2. Corros'on prevention 3. Prevention of det3rioration of materials. On the cther hand, this peculiarity makes it possible to neglect certain other factors that ordinarily must Le given consideration, su.h as: 2. Waiea sa F.Pratientdfraino etip 2.3.oPeralentndeormatio of cesfutaoin g.a a r~rmajconequece itsfuntionng, 1-!i2. Quantity Production Requirements. Another general characteristic of nearly all ammunition components is that they are made in lrequantita. Quantity production makes it economleal to provide special tools, automatic or seml-autornatic machines, and otier spicial mass prnductinn en1'rftment fnr their manufzcture, loading, aSsemoly, inspectior, festiP4, and the like. In tho tiesign of ammunit~on crnponents, their forms, dimensions, and toleranices must be kept in mind for mass production

1-53. Forces Actiwg on PrnjectflesinHandlinz. Normally, projectiles are subject to rough handling. They may be dropped, or they may roll and tumt!. against each. other. both In shipment and in une. Somr of the areas of the projectile that, may be subject to damage as a result of this handling x.e listced below, together with the nature of the damage that m~ight be expected. 1. Rotating bands - indentations or &cars. 2. Fins-breaking or bending, 3. Setback arming devices becoming armed. 4. E~xplosive elements -primers and detonatars are liable to detonation if subjected oe tomeveesok eomto.o eaae 5.Cemia fleh -ekg. ilr Such damage can be minimized by proper choice of materials, by the avoidance of sharp corners or edges subject to breakage, and by proper packing.

~ D.~i osdrtosFo trg e crirements- Since ammunition may be stored for long periods of time, uader adverse conditions of temperature and humidity, the following factors mest be considered. 1. Malfunctioning or loss of accuracy caused by extremes of temperature. 2. Maifunctioning or loss' of ac~curacy resutn rmexposure to or sand. 3, Malfunectioning or loss of accuracy resuiting from exposure to rain or snow, and immersion in water. 4. Stability of eixplosives and other chemically reactive material. 5. Resistance of metal parts to corrosion. 6. Retistance of nonmetallic materials to


BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Hayei, 1'. ., "Elements of O;'-dnance, "John Wiley andSorg, New York, 1938. 2. Ammunition, Gene :al, TM 9-1600, War, !)epartment Technical Manual, June 1945. 3. Artillery Ammunition, TM 9-1901, Department of the Army Technical Itanuall, Septem~ber 1950.

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