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1.

Prove that the relation


Ans. Relations Let A and B be two non-empty sets. Then a relation R from A to B is a subset of A x B containing the ordered pairs such that some relation exists between a and b.

In other words a relation R is merely a subset of A x B. If then we say that a is R related to b and is written as a R b.

If B=A then we say that R is a relation in A. For example, let A = {2, 3, 5} B = (4, 6, 9} then A x B = {(2, 4), (2, 6), (2, 9), (3, 4), (3, 6), (3, 9), (5, 4), (5, 6), (5, 9)} Define a relation R by R= Then R= divides b}

If another relation S is defined by S= and b are relatively prime}

Then S = {(2, 9) (3, 4) (5, 4), (5, 6), (5, 9)}


2. Prove that 1+2+..n= n(n+1) 4 Ans. 3. Prove that the number of partitions of n in which no integer occurs more than twice as a part is equal to the number of partitions of n into parts not divisible by 3.

Ans.The generating function corresponding to no integer occurs more than twice is

(1+x+x2)(1+x2+x4)(1+x3+x6) (1)

The generating function corresponding to no part is divisible by 3 is

For instance, take n = 6. The partitions in which no integer occurs more than twice are 6, 5 1, 4 2, 4 1 1, 3 3, 3 2 1, 2 2 1, 1 (these are 8 in number). The partitions in which no part is divisible by 3 are 5 1, 4 2, 4 1 1, 2 2 2, 2211, 2 14, 16. Generating function for compositions Consider the unrestricted compositions of n in which n ones in a row. Since there is no restriction on the number of parts, we may or may not put a marker in any of the (n 1) spaces between the ones in order to form groups. This can be done in 2n-1 ways. If we restrict the compositions to have exactly m parts, then (m 1) markers are needed to form groups and the number of ways of placing (m 1) markers in the (n 1) spaces between the ones is .

Let us use the generating function to obtain this. Let Cm(x) be the enumeration for competitions of n with exactly m parts, where Cm(x) = and Cmn is the coefficient of xn in this series is the number of compositions of n into exactly m parts. Each part of any composition can be one, two, three or any greater number so that the factor in the enumeration must contain each of these powers of x, and so is x + x2 + x3 + x4 + . + xk + . = x(1 + x + x2 + . + xk-1 + xk + .) = x(1 x)-1. Since there are exactly m parts, the generating function is the product of m such factors Cm(x) = (x + x2 + x3 + x4 + . + xk + .)m = xm (1 x)-m

xm

. Replacing m + i by r in the summation we get Cm(x) = Therefore in this enumeration is . the . coefficient of xn =

The generating the compositions with no restriction, C(x) = in the series, we obtain C(x) = t + t2 + t3

. Take t =

The coefficient of xn in the enumeration is 2n 1.

4. Discuss about The problem of tower of Hanoi in your own words.


The object of the problem is to move all the disks over to the rightmost tower, one at a time, so that they end up in the original order on that tower. You may use the middle tower as temporary storage, but at no time during the transfer should a larger disk be on top of a smaller one.

The puzzle was invented by a Frenchman called Franois douard Anatole Lucas (1842 - 1891), although many "legends" (like the one below) are often mentioned regarding the puzzle. The puzzle appeared in 1883 under the name of M. Claus. Notice that Claus is an anagram of Lucas! Lucas' four volume work on recreational mathematics is a classic.

A bit of "history" about the puzzle can be found in the hanoi.el LISP file in the GNU Emacs distribution. Quoting verbatim from there: The puzzle is called "Towers of Hanoi" because an early popular presentation wove a fanciful legend around it. According to this myth (uttered long before the Vietnam War), there is a Buddhist monastery at Hanoi which contains a large room with three time-worn posts in it surrounded by 21 golden discs. Monks, acting out the command of an ancient prophecy, have been moving these disks, in accordance with the rules of the puzzle, once every day since the monastery was founded over a thousand years ago. They are said to believe that when the last move of the puzzle is completed, the world will end in a clap of thunder. Fortunately, they are nowhere even close to being done.

5. Prove that If L is a distributive lattice, then it is a modular lattice.

Solution: L z. We y) z) x) y) z) x). Since z, z

Assume

that

is

distributive and

lattice.

Let

x,

y,

z x

have =

that

(x (y (z (x (y (z

x we = have x that and x x

z = z, and so (x y) z) x y) z) z. This z) y) z (by absorption laws). This shows that L is a modular lattice. The converse of the above problem is not true. That is, there exist modular lattices which are not distributive. The following example is a modular lattice, but not distributive .

(y (x (y

implies

x (y (x

6. Prove that the set of real numbers is a group with respect to multiplication.

There are four requirements that need to be satisfied:

A. Closure: For any two elements of the group, a and b, the operation a*b is also a member of the group. B. Associativity: For any three members of the group, a*(b*c) = (a*b)*c C. Identity: There exists an element in the group, called the identity and denoted by i, such that a*i = i*a for all a in the group. For real numbers with multiplication, this element is 1. D. Inverse: For any member of the group, a, there exists a member of the group, b, such that a*b = b*a = 1 (the identity). b is called the inverse of a and denoted by a-1.
the real number 0 has no inverse, so (R,*) fails to be a group. however, (R*,*) where R* = R - {0} IS a group. multiplication in R is associative, so remains associative on any subset of R. the product of two non-zero real numbers is again a non-zero real number, R* is closed under multiplication. 1 functions as a multiplicative identity: for any NON-ZERO real number a, a*1 = 1*a = a. any non-zero real number a has a (unique) inverse, 1/a, with a*(1/a) = (1/a)*a = 1.