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B.Satya Gopi 03l35A0206 satyagopi_sri@yahoo.com

S.Hari Kumar 03l35A0201 sharikumar_201@yahoo.co.in.

Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering,

Vignans Institute of Information Technology,

Duvvada, Visakhapatnam 530 046


B. Satya Gopi 03L35A0206

S. Hari Kumar 03L35A0201

ABSTRACT: Performance of any electrical machine depends upon the running efficiency of that machine. This efficiency can be considerably affected by the amount of losses that occur in that machine. By reducing these losses better performance can be achieved. In a 3-phase induction motor the reduction of losses, mainly iron losses can be achieved by applying a reduced voltage to the stator by means of connecting the 3-phase winding of the stator always in star mode. But this scheme has certain limitations because of poor starting torque and reduction in running torque. This paper presents a practical method to overcome all these limitations by using a reversible star/delta starter and a simple electronic circuit. Based on the load torque on the shaft, the circuit senses the amount of load current drawn by the motor. This load is compared with the critical load which is already set in the electronic circuit. If the load is above the critical load the circuit turns the star/delta starter into delta mode to connect the stator of the motor into delta. If the load is below the critical load, the stator is again connected into star mode. This scheme is effectively used for the drives which has to run at full load for sometime and ideally for the rest of the time, for example conveyor drives when they are running under less than its 25% of full load. This scheme also improves the power factor of the current drawn by the mains and moreover, the improvement in power factor decreases the copper losses of the motor.

INTRODUCTION: Losses plays an important role in determining the performance of any electrical drive. By reducing those losses we can achieve the better efficiency and performance .Induction motors have five major components of loss; Iron loss, Copper loss, Frictional loss, Windage loss and Sound loss. All these losses add up to the total loss of the induction motor. Frictional loss, windage loss and sound loss are constant, independent of shaft load, and are typically very small. The major losses are Iron loss and Copper Loss. The iron loss is essentially constant, independent of shaft load, while the copper loss is an I2R loss which is shaft load dependent. The iron loss is voltage dependent and so will reduce with reducing voltage. . Iron losses are again sub-devided into hysteresis loss and eddy current losses. The hysteresis and eddy current losses in the core have been found to be given by the expressions: Ph = Kh f Bmx Pe = Ke f2 Bm2 Where Kh = Proportionality constant , which depends upon the volume and quality of the core. Ke = Proportionality constant , whose value depends upon volume, resistivity of the core material and thickness of laminations. Bm = Maximum flux density of the core whose value depends upon applied voltage X = Constant varies from 1.5 to 2.8 Total core losses Pc = Kh f Bmx + Ke f2 Bm2 The maximum flux density of the core is directly proportional to applied voltage. By reducing the applied voltage the iron loss will be reduced. This reduction of per phase voltage can be easily achieved by simply connecting the 3 winding of the stator into

star mode. By connecting the stator always in star creates certain problems. Because induction motor starting torque Tst V2,at the time of starting this connection creates lot of problems. Even a 10% decrease in applied voltage may cause drop in nearly 25%of starting torque. SIGNIFICANCE OF REDUCING IRON LOSSES: For a motor with a 90% full load efficiency, the copper loss and iron loss are of the same order of magnitude, with the iron loss typically amounting to 25 - 40% of the total losses in the motor at full load. If we consider for example, an induction motor with a full load efficiency of 90%, then we could expect that the iron loss is between 2.5% and 4% of the motor rating. If by reducing the voltage, we are able to halve the iron loss, then this would equate to an iron loss saving of 1-2% of the rated motor load. If the motor was operating under open shaft condition, then the power consumed is primarily iron loss and we could expect to achieve a saving of 30% - 60% of the energy consumed under open shaft conditions. It must be reiterated however, that this is only about 1-2% of the rated motor load. For example, if we take a Toshiba 2 pole 22kW D180M motor, we find a full load efficiency of 90.9%. This motor has a rated iron loss of about 25% of the total loss. This amounts to 22 x .091x .25 = about 500 watts. At best, I would expect to halve this loss, resulting in a saving of 250 watts at light load. Under open shaft conditions, this may well amount to 30% of the energy consumed by the motor, but it is still only about 1% of the motor rating. If the energy wasted by the motor is small, then there is very little to be saved, irrespective of the technology used As from the above explanation worthwhile, power savings are achievable where the iron losses is an appreciable portion of the total power consumed by the motor. Where the amount of the iron losses is significant relative to the motor rating .

Relation between motor size & iron losses As we see from the figure the percentage iron losses decreases as the motor size increases. The reduced voltage scalid only for the motors whose rating is less than 100Hp. However this capacity can increased by operating along with fluidcouplings

PREVIOUS SCHEME: This reduced voltage scheme is implemented by simply connecting the stator of a 3phase induction motor in star fashion. Because all of us know per phase voltages are 1/ 3 times the line voltages Total copper loss of stator will remains same , moreover copper losses may decrease due to the improvement in power factor because of reduction in magnetizing current. Eventhough the scheme shown to be economical there is a problem while implementing this scheme. Suppose if we consider a conveyor drive whose value is less than 100 HP which is started by means of a DOL starter. Load on the conveyor drive may not be constant sometimes it has to run ideally without any load on it, sometimes it has to start with heavy load on it. In this case problem arises because of high starting torque during on load starting. Starting torque and running torque of an induction motor depends upon the current drawn by the motor. Since Tst V2 Due to star connection the starting torque of 3- phase induction motor is reduced by 3 times. May be this torque is not sufficient to drive the load so, the motor may get oscillated and get overheated. Eventhough it is withstanded for the starting load any increase in load may cause vibration in the rotor and even may disturb the operation. To overcome all these problems all the above said operation is done by using a modified reversible star/delta starter. One of the major disadvantage of conventional mode of star/delta starter is that once the motor has switched over to delta mode, after a fixed starting time delay the applied voltage remains same independent of the load condition . Thus even during light loading conditions the motor continuous to draw the same magnetizing current there by reducing power factor and hence the overall efficiency of the motor. This can be avoided and our power saving scheme is done by using modified star/delta starter.

MODIFIED SCHEME: In this power saving scheme we are using closed loop control scheme which continuously senses the amount of load on the shaft. Here in this case all the motors which we are applying this scheme are started by Direct On Line starters. With this modified star/delta starter operation the motor starts in delta configuration and after a pre-determined elapse of time T1 switched over to star.

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR MODIFIED POWER SAVING SCHEME For automatic conversion from star to delta and from delta to star is done by a simple electronic circuit. The circuit shown in figure gets activated only after initial delay T2 (slightly greater than T1 ) from the start of the motor. The electronic circuit then continuously senses the load current. As soon as the load current increases above a critical value, indicating the motor is loaded, the stator reverts back to delta. This critical load may be defined as the load on the motor shaft for which, on switch the motor to delta mode. There is no appreciable loss in its speed. For the most of the induction motors this may be safely taken as 50% of the full load current, or it may be determined experimentally for the higher values.

The critical load for switch over can be adjusted using resistive preset in the comparator circuit. Since in star configuration the supply becomes less, the current drawn by the motor and thus copper losses reduces. Also the motor power factor increases due to less magnetizing current drawn by the motor in star connection. All this results in greater efficiency of the motor, when the motor load is below the critical load. The motor remains in star mode till the motor load current again becomes more than critical load, thereafter motor switch to delta configuration for full voltage application. The electronic circuit need not have any dead band or neutral zone for switch over from delta to star and back to delta mode of operation. Switching over to mode reduces the excitation voltage resulting in low magnetizing current and hence lower total load current. This reduction in load current itself acts as the dead band or neutral zone for the motor to revert back to delta mode. Thus small fluctuations in load current around critical loads will not result in chattering of switchover relay. The main function of timer delay in the electronic circuit is to disable the load dependent switchover for initial delay T2 ( T2 T1 ) and let the motor switch from star to delta mode as per conventional controller, i.e. after time delay T1, irrespective of load current. During start up, the current is high ( higher than critical load ) because of lack of back e.m.f. and not because the motor has high shaft load. Thus timer delay T2 takes care of this anomaly. Since the electronic circuit is not activated during time interval T2 the motor remains in star mode inspite of higher load current. ADVANTAGES: Under reduced voltage conditions the magnetizing current and hence the overall current drawn by the motor is less . This is not only reduces the copper loss and core loss but, also improves the power factor and hence the overall efficiency of the motor increases.This scheme is very effectively used for the motors which is running at lessthan 25% of full load maximum time of its operation The modifying circuit uses an Op-amp for comparator and IC 555 for time delay T2. Because the circuit is not using any thyristors to reduce the current, the cost of the circuit is very low resulting in shorter payback period.

LIMITATIONS: This scheme is also contain certain limitations because power saving achieved only under the conditions where the motor is operating under 25% of its rated load. Suppose for a large motor, the magnetizing current can be as low as 20% of the rated full load current of the motor. Three phase induction motors have a high efficiency less than 50% load, and experience suggests that there is no realizable saving to be made until the motor is operating at well below maximum efficiency. (typically below 25% load) A Toshiba 150KW 4 pole machine exhibits a full load efficiency of 94.6%, at 75% load efficiency of 94.8%, at 50% load efficiency of 94% and at 25% load efficiency of 90.3%. There are many examples such as this which illustrate that the induction motor is efficient at considerably less than full load, and as such there can be very little advantage in using an energy saving algorithm on anything other than a small inefficient motor. This generally requires a considerable fall in power factor, typically down to below 0.4 under full voltage operating conditions. Large motors have a very low iron loss, (often 2 - 6% of the motor rating) and so the maximum achievable savings are small relative to the motor rating.

KW eff pf

0.37 66.2 0.69

0.75 74 0.83

2.2 82.5 0.84

5.5 86.4 0.85

11 89.2 0.86

30 91.6 0.88

110 93.2 0.91

355 94.9 0.88

CONCLUSION: There is no doubt that the basic technology of reducing the voltage on a motor which is operating at less than maximum efficiency, can result in a reduction of the iron loss of the motor. In a case where the motor has a very high magnetizing current, and it is operating at essentially open shaft conditions, there can be a reduction in copper loss also. In practice, with a partially loaded motor, a reduction in the voltage applied to the motor will reduce the iron loss, but the corresponding increase in the load current can cause an increase in copper loss that is greater than the reduction in the iron loss, resulting in a net increase in motor losses. Worthwhile power savings are only achievable where the iron loss is an appreciable portion of the total power consumed by the motor, and where the amount of the iron loss is significant relative to the motor rating.

BIBILOGRAPHY: 1. ELECTRICAL MACHINERY--by P.S. Bimbrah 2 . ELECTRICAL TECHNOLOGY---by B.L.Theraja, A.K.Theraja 3. Steel plant conveyors operation manual.

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