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State of Punjab Punjab (India) 1 General Situation

State of Punjab

Punjab

(India)

State of Punjab Punjab (India) 1 General Situation

1 General Situation

2 Data demolinguistic Punjab (Punjab or, Punjab English) discussed here is the Indian state of

2 Data demolinguistic

Punjab (Punjab or, Punjab English) discussed here is the Indian state of 50 362 km ², bounded to the north by Jammu and Kashmir, east by Himachal Pradesh, south by Haryana and Rajasthan and west by the Punjab province in Pakistan. Thus, there are two Punjab: Punjab India (50,362 sq km) and Punjab Pakistan (205 344 km ²). When the Indian independence and partition that followed in 1947, both countries, Pakistan and India, has recovered part of the Punjab region, whose name means "land of five rivers "(the Beas, Chenab, Jhelum, the Ravi and Sutlej), although there are six with the Indus ( see map ).

The capital of Indian Punjab is Chandigarh , which shares with the state of Haryana. However, this city is not part of either State, Chandigarh is a Union territory administered by the federal government and represented by an administrator. Thus, host governments Chandigarh Punjab, Haryana and the Federal Territory of Chandigarh.

The name Chandigarh is derived from words Chandi Mandir , a temple to the goddess Chandi, located in the district of Panchkula. The word Chandigarh literally means "the fort of Chandi". The territory has two satellite cities of Chandigarh and Mohali Panchkula. The three cities are known as "Chandigarh Tricity." That said, Amritsar remained the religious capital, the holy city of Sikhs.

According to the 2001 census, the population of Punjab was 24.3 million (exactly 24,358,999). Unlike many Indian states, Punjab is a sparsely multiethnic, multilingual and some with three main religions (Sikh, Hindu and Muslim), with about twenty different languages, and many small endangered languages. The large majority language is Punjabi spoken by 91.6% of the population, Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims can be panjabiphones (speaking Punjabi). The largest minority language is Hindi (7%), followed by Urdu (0.1%). All other languages are spoken by a small number of speakers, less than 20,000.

Speakers (2001)

Percentage

22334369

91.6%

1851128

7.5%

27

660

0.1%

20

655

0.0%

19

778

0.0%

18

034

0.0%

12

339

0.0%

12

117

0.0%

10

669

0.0%

10

345

0.0%

 

7296

0.0%

 

7040

0.0%

 

6882

0.0%

 

4001

0.0%

 

3277

0.0%

 

2980

0.0%

 

2411

0.0%

 

1394

0.0%

 

1072

0.02%

The above table presents only the languages spoken by more than 1000 speakers and it does not show small languages spoken by a small number of speakers.

2.1 The Punjabi

spoken by a small number of speakers. 2.1 The Punjabi The Punjabi (or Panjabi) belongs to

The Punjabi (or Panjabi) belongs to the Indo- European branch of the Indo-Iranian languages spoken in the region of Punjab(Pakistan and India), by about 100 million speakers. Such as Hindi, Punjabi is derived from Sanskrit, but it seems more archaic. In writing, Sikhs

panjabiphones-

alphabet Gurmukhi (which reads from left to right), but Hindus and Indian Muslims use the Devanagari script (which reads from left to right). Panjabiphones As

for Pakistan, they use the alphabet shahmukhi (whic

Panjabiphones As for Pakistan, they use the alphabet shahmukhi (whic Word Transcriptio n Meanin g aluminum

Word

Panjabiphones As for Pakistan, they use the alphabet shahmukhi (whic Word Transcriptio n Meanin g aluminum

Transcriptio

n

Meanin

g

aluminum

potato

h reads from right to left). The left figure shows the Gurmukhi alphabet and shahmukhi, while the right table (see Wikipedia) refers to Gurmukhi.

dil

heart

Generalâ

cow

refers to Gurmukhi. dil heart Generalâ cow Punjabi is fragmented into several dialects, but linguists

Punjabi is fragmented into several dialects, but linguists do not seem to agree on the classification criteria. Thus, Ethnologueclassifies these varieties into three groups: the Western Punjabi (Pakistan), the Eastern Punjabi (India) and Punjabi Mirpuri(Kashmir).

 

Designati

 

Speaker

Dialects

Location

 

on

   

s

   

Punjab,

 

Majhi

(districts of

Gurdaspur

and

Amritsar

 

Punjabi

itself, Majhi,

districts of

Firozpur

Doab,

27,100,0

in

India

00

Eastern

Punjabi

bhatyiana

(bhatneri,

and

Bhatyiana)

Rajasthan

(Ganganag

(India)

bhatti)

(2001)

 

powadhi,

   

malwa,

bathi, etc

ar district

and

 

Bhatyiana),

Haryana,

Delhi,

Jammu

and

Kashmir.

Western

lahnda,

 

60,600,0

Mainly in

Punjab

Pakistan.

Punjabi

Pakistan

)

Hindko,

Pahari-

00

Pakistan

in

 

potwari,

 

(2000).

 

etc

   

Punjabi

 

Kashmir

district of

1.0

Mirpur

 

million in

Mirpuri

Mirpur

(Kashmi

 

India

 

(Azad

r)

(2000)

   

Kashmir).

 

According to the linguist George Abraham Grierson (1851-1941), in his volume Linguistic Survey of India (between 1904-1928), there would be four dialects of Punjabi spoken in India and Pakistan: the Majhi dialect, the dialect of Malwi, dialect and the dialect of Doabi Pwadhi.

 

The Majhi dialect is the prestige dialect of Punjabi spoken in central Punjab where the majority of speakers of that language. This is the dialect of the historical region of Majha, which includes, in Pakistan, Lahore, Sheikhupura on the Kasur, Okara's The Gujranwala, Wazirabad on the Sialkot, the Narowal, the Gujrat district and part of Jhelum, Pakistan, the districts of Amritsar, Tarn Taran Sahib and Gurdaspur

1) Majhi dialect of

 
 

The dialect is spoken Malwi in the eastern part of Punjab in the Indian sector of Ludhiana, Ambala, Bathinda, Ganganagar, Malerkotla, Fazilka Ferozpur and south, and is also spoken in the State of Haryana.

2) dialect of Malwi:

 
 

The dialect is spoken in Doabi the Indian Punjab. The word Aabi Do means "land between two rivers" and refers to the dialects between the rivers Beas and Sutlej, but includes the districts of Jalandhar, Nawanshahr, Kapurthala and Hoshiarpur.

3) dialect of Doabi:

 
 

The dialect is spoken in Pwadhi Region Region Powadh (Puadh or Powadha) Pakistani part of Punjab State of Haryana between the Satluj and Ghaggar rivers.

4) dialect of Pwadhi:

 

The problem is that data from Ethnologue and linguist Grierson data do not match, just as it appears difficult to reconcile the two proposals. Correspond to Western Punjabi dialect Majhi nicknamed Lahnda by Grierson. But Malwi dialects and varieties are Doabi Eastern Punjabi. Grierson does not speak the Hindko, Saraiki of, the khetrani, the Marwari's or Mirpuri. The contemporary Indian language today have avoided using the term Lahnda dialects and designated "Southern Lahnda" as Saraiki and "lahnada North" as potwari, the "Western lahnda" as Hindko. Today, the Dogri spoken in Kashmir is no longer considered a dialect of Punjabi, while Mirpuri is seen as a dialect spoken in potwari district Mirpur.

For other linguists, languages are lahnda part of a group of Indo-Iranian languages constituting a macrolangue which should include the Hindko, the khetrani, Western Punjabi, the potwari the Mirpuri and derawali, but would not part of the East India Punjabi.

Sikh symbol Indian Punjab is famous for hosting the largest Sikh community in the world.

Sikh symbol

Indian Punjab is famous for hosting the largest Sikh community in the world. It is estimated the Sikh community in India about 20 million people, or about 2% of the Indian population. Sikhs are both an ethnic group (write Sikhs with a capital letter, as opposed to the

Pakistanis, Nepalis, Assamese, etc

(write Sikhs , with a tiny, as opposed to Muslims, Hindus,

Christians, etc

are also present in the Haryanan and Himachal Pradesh, and in the

Delhi area. Elsewhere, there are also large Sikh communities in

Pakistan, the United Kingdom, Canada, United States, Australia,

Singapore, Kenya, Indonesia, etc

designated as the "land of the Sikhs", covers only a small part of

the former Punjab or Punjab History that included not only the Indian Punjab and Pakistani Punjab, but also Haryana, Himachal Pradesh .

)

and a religious community

) and they settled mainly in Punjab India, but they

However, the Punjab

2.2 The minority languages

The Indian Punjab has virtually no minority languages, at least in terms of numerical importance. The only language that leaves the group of these languages is Hindi spoken by 7.5% of the population, 1.8 million speakers of a total of 24.3 million inhabitants (2001). In other words, the Punjab is relatively homogeneous linguistically. However, the Hindi-speaking community is a powerful minority in Punjab, since 180 million speakers speak that language in neighboring states.

Regarding religion, the Punjab is the "land of the Sikhs." Indeed, the Sikh

religion is practiced by nearly 60% of the population of this Indian state, other individuals practicing Hinduism (37%), Islam (1.5%), Christianity

(1.2% ), Buddhism (, 01%), etc

population is Hindu, against 30% of Sikhs. In the Pakistani Punjab, about 97% of the population is Muslim.

However, in southern Punjab, about 65%

3 Historical Data

Archaeological discoveries show that the Punjab region was inhabited as early as 7000 years BC. Small communities lived in the Indus valley around 3000 BCE and cities were founded. As the Punjab is a vast plain, it became

very early in the corridor of invasions, an open area on the Pakistan and North India.

From 1600 BC, Aryan tribes (Indo-European), from the north invaded the region and, from the present Punjab and Haryana today, conquered all of northern India. It is in this strategic region that the Vedic civilization began and the Sanskrit language was born, the mother language of Hindi. It is written in Sanskrit that was the sacred story of Mahabharata , which tells the epic of the Bharata dynasty, of which India is named Bharat . This is an immense work of early Indian literature: it has 100,000 couplets, seven

times the Iliad and the Odyssey, the Bible three times, and tells of the struggle for power of two rival branches of a royal family, the Kauravas and the Pandavas (some 2000 years BC). In the first millennium AD, the political model of the Aryans has spread throughout Southeast Asia and Himalayan in Asia. The sovereign then adopted Sanskrit, astrology, mathematics and literature of the Indians.

Over the centuries, various invaders occupied the region: the Huns, Turks and Afghans won decisive battles in the history of the region. After the fall of the Gupta empire in the middle of the VI th century AD (535), northern India was again fragmented into several kingdoms. The Huns established their supremacy over the Punjab. It was after this period that one of the greatest emperors of ancient India, Harsha or Harshvardhan (590-648), began a reign that lasted more than four decades. His empire stretched across northern India. It is believed that the Punjabi language was used in Punjab to the XI th century, but early texts would have appeared at XIV th century. However, Punjabi has never been used in the spheres of power.

3.1 The Mughal rule and the Sikh Empire

The Sikh religion (the Sikh Sanskrit: "disciple" or "follower of a religious doctrine") was founded in the Punjab by Guru Nanak (1469-1539), who sought to reconcile Hinduism and Islam as one religion. He taught "the unity of God, brotherhood of man, rejection of caste and the futility of idol worship." He was followed by nine masters, the last of whom was Guru Gobind Singh (1666 -1708; guru from 1675 to 1708). Punjabi was only used as a religious language by the Sikhs and of course, as a vernacular by the people. The region passed into the hands of the Mughals from 1526, when Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the last Sultan of Delhi at the battle of Panipat. The Mughals were "persanisés" and Islamized, they introduced in India a Persian literature and culture, and an architecture including the Taj Mahal - in the State of Uttar Pradesh - is the best known example. The Mughal Empire marked the height of the Muslim expansion in India. However, if the Muslim culture had great influence in India, the Islamization of the population was still relatively limited, the Indians remained devout Hindus, only a minority of the Indian population is being converted to Islam. After the assassination of Guru Gobind (1708), Sikhs were persecuted by the Muslim Mughal. L e Punjab would be built in the Mughal

Empire Muslim XVI th century until the middle of the XVIII th century. This is Persian

which served as administrative language throughout the Mughal rule.

On the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707, the Marathas began to weaken the Mughal empire and expand their hold in the region is now Maharashtra, then between 1720 and 1760 most of the territory of Madhya

Pradesh today. Then, the region again broke up into small states, which would favor the British colonization. Indeed, the British fanned the competition between different religious groups to control the subcontinent.

different religious groups to control the subcontinent. Regarding the Punjab, a Sikh chief, Ranjit Singh

Regarding the Punjab, a Sikh chief, Ranjit Singh (1780-1839), succeeded in unifying the region was split into several entities under the direction of many warlords. In 1799, Singh had made the country independent. He then took the title of maharajadhiraaja(or Maharaja ) in April 1801 and gradually extended its area by annexing Amritsar at the expense of the Mughals, and many other cities like Ludhiana (1806), Jammu and Kangra (1809), Wazirabad (1810) , Faridkot (1807), Attock (1813) and Multan (1818), then to occupy Kashmir and Peshawar in 1819 (now in Pakistan) in 1823. In 1836, Punjab was the biggest Sikh empire in history, but he would soon be annexed by the British in 1849.

Note that the Punjab, even under the regime of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Punjabi never acquired official status, although it was the language spoken by the majority of the population. As a result, Persian served as sole language of administration, judicial and legal. Subsequently, Persian and Urdu remained the lingua and dominant cultural elite in Punjab.

3.2 The British colonization

After three wars against Maratha Empire, wars called "Anglo-Maratha wars," the British settled in North India and began to conquer the Punjab. The Anglo-Sikh War of 1848-1849 led to the battle of Gujrat February 21, 1849, when the British defeated the Sikhs of Punjab with the help of sepoys, Indian soldiers embedded in the troops of the British East India Company . On 2 April 1849, the British annexed the Punjab as a new province of British India, which included most of present Haryana. The princely states of northern (Loharu, Nabha, Jind and Patiala) were administered by the Central Agency of India ("Central India Agency"). In these "provinces", then the British Administration had jurisdiction over 22 districts and 16 principalities, the capital was Nagpur.

In 1854, a document called Magna Charta of English Education in India ("Great Charter of English teaching in India") had a language policy in which English is used in the field of power, but that languages vernacular would be used to spread knowledge among the people. The same year, British officials working in Punjab had prepared an education policy for

language teaching. As Urdu was already used in the northwest of India, it seemed preferable to perpetuate this system instead of English. Nevertheless, the "natives" who were employed in the administration had to know English. The Department of Education, created in 1855, retained the Persian language as records and administration, and later was replaced by the Persian and Urdu became the language of instruction for boys, the language of administration of justice and the lower levels.

In 1857, the sepoys revolted against British occupation. Sikhs was used extensively in the British army to avenge the sepoys in helping to quell this revolt. The British successfully suppressed rebellions in India. In 1858, the British Parliament transferred political power held by the East India Company to the Crown. The Haryana was incorporated in Punjab. The UK administration then most of India, while controlling the rest through treaties with local kings and princes. Queen Victoria was declared "Empress of India" in 1876. After the revolt of 1857, the Muslims of Punjab lost their privileges in the administration and the army. The public service was monopolized by Hindus, military service, a privilege of the Sikhs.

In the language field, the Hindus of Punjab, generally panjabiphones, had been educated by the British in Urdu and English in order to occupy various administrative tasks. In reaction to this tax, Hindus asked to replace Urdu by Hindi deemed more suitable for them that Urdu too associated with Islam. At first it was the pro-Hindi purely politico-religious and mainly supported by the Arya Samaj, an organization founded in 1875 in Bombay, by Dayananda Sarasvati, to promote the revival of Hinduism in a future Independent India. The Arya Sama fought to replace the official status of Urdu and Arabic and Persian alphabet in Hindi and the Devanagari script, in order to promote Hindi and Hindu identity. Linguistic and religious question was quickly implemented politically. Immediately, the Anjumun-e- Islamiya of Lahore, who defended the rights of Muslims, protested against this request because it sought to oust the Muslims of Punjab. The Muslim League held a meeting in Amritsar to condemn this position. But she also considered that Punjabi was equally unworthy of employment as a teaching language at all levels, since the multiplicity of dialects in their eyes constituted a serious defect. Many Muslims believed that even the promotion of Punjabi was a conspiracy to destroy the Muslims and Urdu. Meanwhile, English was increasingly used by the colonial administration. The influence of this language would be felt even more over the years.

In 1891, the District Commissioner of Shahpur, J. Wilson wanted to find an alternative to the teaching of Urdu in Punjab. He said the high illiteracy rate (90%) in this region was caused by the use of Urdu and Persian alphabet,

language and writing too much ignored by Panjabi. In fact, very few young people could read and write Punjabi and Urdu. However, the profusion of dialects of Punjabi, the colonial authorities refused to use that language not standardized. To the British, the many dialects of Punjabi was simply "barbarians mixtures of Hindi and Persian," which Urdu was the pure model ("barbarian and Persian mixtures of Hindee of Oordoo Which is the pure type").

mixtures of Hindee of Oordoo Which is the pure type"). Moreover, the British could not ignore

Moreover, the British could not ignore the fact that Punjabi was the language spoken by 17 million of their "subjects" of Punjab. In a memo written in 1909 ("Committee on Oriental Studies in London", Appendix XIII , part. XX , 1909, p. 116), it was written the following:

Punjabi is of special importance as Being the language of our Sikh soldiers. It is of the greatest importance in Sikh That the officers regiments Should Be Able to converse in Punjabi Freely. Too many of 'em Employ of Hindustani. There is a great deal of tea grown in the Northern Punjab. The European There Must Be Able employed to speak Punjabi.

There is a great deal of tea grown in the Northern Punjab. The European There Must
There is a great deal of tea grown in the Northern Punjab. The European There Must
The European There Must Be Able employed to speak Punjabi. [Punjabi is of special importance as

[Punjabi is of special importance as the language of our Sikh soldiers. It is of utmost importance that the officers in the Sikh regiments are able to converse freely in Punjabi. Too many of them use Hindustani. There are lots of tea grown in the northern Punjab. Europeans who are employees must be able to speak Punjabi.]

There are lots of tea grown in the northern Punjab. Europeans who are employees must be

In reality, the British did nothing for the Punjabi simply because they preferred Urdu already used throughout northern India. They did not use at this time of Sikhs in the administration and very little in the army they preferred Hindus considered more peaceful. Initially, the courts attempted to impose English well, but the British realized that it was not possible to translate into English very many local words and expressions particular, in the circumstances, the English s' has proved an inadequate instrument. Hence the interest in Urdu as the language and administrative.

The British shared the prejudices of the Hindus against Sikhs and Punjabi. Like them, they believed that Punjabi was a dialect areas (English:

"rural dialect"), whose Urdu was the refined form. It must be said that British officers were suspicious of the Gurmukhi script of Punjabi because it was the symbol of the religious identity of Sikhs. In a letter dated June 2, 1862, Robert Cust, a British officer stationed Punjab, advocated the use of Punjabi Gurmukhi alphabet written with for the simple reason that it was the

vernacular and that the British should support it. This suggestion was quickly disavowed by the other officers who felt that Punjabi was "merely a dialect of Urdu" ("Merely a dialect of Urdu"). In short, the British never took seriously the proposal of Robert Crust. They believed that, anyway, Sikhs included the Hindustani , while Muslims were unaware Punjabi. In a letter dated June 16, 1982, the representative of the Commissioner of Delhi wrote to the Governor of Punjab following words:

Any Which would revive the measure Goormukhee Written Pujabee Which is the tongue, Would Be a politique error.

[Any measure that would revive the Gurmukhi, who is writing the Punjabi language would be a political mistake.]

Only the English missionaries employed among the Punjabi population in order to convert Sikhs to Christianity and teach the Bible. When the Hunter commission was established in 1882 to choose the language of instruction in schools of Punjab, it raised the possibility of finding a solution to conflicts between the three major religious communities. Muslims chose to block Urdu and Persian alphabet, while the Hindus supported the Hindi spoken by the majority and the Devanagari script, but only identified with the Punjabi Sikhs and Gurmukhi alphabet. April 28, 1882, the National Association of Sikh Lahore petitioned Charles Aitchison, the Governor of Punjab, to make Punjabi Gurmukhi alphabet with the language of instruction at least for the Sikh community. The governor replied that such action would prejudice the Sikhs:

To exclude the Children of the Sikhs from instruction in Urdu Would Be Under 'em up to very serious Disadvantages. Without a knowledge of Urdu it Would Be unable to advance Beyond the MOST elementary education, and continues to Their studies in the middle and high schools. Would Be THEY shut out from access to an excellent year, broad, and daily Increasing literature, and THEY Would Be Placed at a great Disadvantage With Their Countrymen in the business of life.

[Exclude Sikh children instruction in Urdu would place them in very serious drawbacks. Without a knowledge of Urdu, it would be impossible to go beyond the most basic education and further education in intermediate and secondary education. They would be denied access to a great literature, great daily and progressive, and would be placed in a great disadvantage compared to their fellow citizens in the affairs of life.]

The view of the Governor was that the teaching of Punjabi would effect ghettoization. He forgot that all communities wanted to emphasize a particular language - Punjabi for Sikhs, Muslims in Urdu and Hindi for Hindus - and that choosing one of three languages have basically the same effect. In reality, any attempt to authorize the Punjabi or Hindi was interpreted as an attack against Muslims. But excluding these languages was a sign of contempt for Hindus and Sikhs.

All proposals to promote Punjabi were rejected by the colonial authorities who hoped the same

All proposals to promote Punjabi were rejected by the colonial authorities who hoped the same Punjabi disappearance. Thus, the judge Divisional District Jullundur, AW Stogdon, wrote these words, 3 August 1895 ( quoted by Chaudhary, 1977 ):

As for the promotion of Punjabi, I am of the opinion That year it is uncouth dialect not fit to be has permanent language, and the sooner it is driven out by Urdu the better.

[As for the promotion of Punjabi, I believe that it is a rustic dialect unfit to become a permanent language and the sooner he will be chased by Urdu the better.]

It was not until 1911 that the Maharaja of Patiala ( PEPSU ), one of the princely states of Punjab, Punjabi grants the status of co-official language with Urdu. However, the small princely state of Patiala only covered a small area in the Great British Punjab.

In April 1919, British colonial authorities made the mistake to charge the army against a crowd of 10,000 people demonstrating peacefully in Amritsar. The hundreds of deaths and injuries caused something of a break between the Sikh and Hindu elites, and the British colonizers. Requirements of the Hindus were abandoned with the result that Urdu was able to maintain its dominance in Punjab until 1947.

Note that, over time, the British had changed their positions with respect to religious communities. At the beginning of XX th century, the sympathy of the British had begun to change.Widespread dissatisfaction of Hindus and Sikhs against British colonialism, the authorities judged that they had to ally themselves with Muslims to counter the rise of nationalist other communities. With the foundation in 1913 of a pro-independence movement, so anti-British, the Ghadar, Punjabi and Urdu word meaning "rebellion" or "rebellion," the sympathy of Sikhs is considerably attenuated. That is why the British began to support the Muslim League (" All India Muslim League ").

The Simon Commission, established in 1927 to propose a constitutional reform to the colony, published his report of 17 volumes in 1930, but the British commissioners rejected the request to make of Hindi or Punjabi language teaching at primary level in British schools of Punjab. In sum, the British were responsible for the disintegration of the political system of the Sikhs of Punjab, will result in a deep wound that will change irrevocably the destiny of the Sikhs and Punjab. The reputation of "Lions of Punjab" suffered as much as the Sikhs had always been of great warriors. But most important lesson that the British colonization in Punjab has transformed the

languages and religions in the combat arms to the identity of the three main communities. Thus Hindus identified themselves in Hindi (Devanagari script), Sikhs in Punjabi (Gurmukhi alphabet) and Muslims in Urdu (Arabic and Persian alphabet).Several historians have been able to talk while the "three Panjabs": the Sikhs, the Hindus and the Muslims. This does not mean that these three communities were still hostile towards each other. It also happened that they unite against the English, but politics in the British Punjab is primarily organized on a religious basis, according to the principle of "divide and rule". Anyway, the teaching of Punjabi became mandatory in 1942, the eve of independence in public primary schools.

The XX th century was that of decolonization as a result of many independence movements that took place all over India. By 1927, the Indian Congress had demanded independence.The end of World War II led the British to realize that independence was inevitable: they no longer had the power or the desire to maintain a vast empire, the "jewel of the British Crown."

3.3 The Punjab after independence

On 15 August 1947, India gained independence and was appointed Nehru as prime minister. The same year, took place the partition of India, under the provisions of the Mountbatten Plan, which created India and Pakistan, previously the province of British India of Punjab. The western part, mainly inhabited by Muslims, returned to Pakistan, what will the Pakistani Punjab, while the eastern, predominantly Sikh or Hindu, returned to India (Indian Punjab). Six million Sikhs and Hindus had to flee the Pakistani Punjab and Indian Punjab to seek refuge. Before independence of India (1947), the Hindus of Punjab panjabiphones employed Urdu as the language of administration, commerce and journalism. Urdu was also the main language of literary expression in the British Punjab, Punjabi, while still only a spoken language. But Punjabi Sikhs preferred, and they felt cheated because their language was ignored by the Hindus as yet panjabiphones them.

- The score and its consequences

The partition of India and Punjab itself broke out between two rival states, India and Pakistan, would play a decisive role for the Sikhs. In this new configuration, the Sikhs demanded the formation of an independent state, the Sikhistan , who never saw the day. In an officially secular India and traumatized by the 1947 partition, it was unconstitutional to demand an autonomous territory on the basis of religion, such as Sikhism.

- The language question However, the Indian government was in favor of amending the boundaries

- The language question

However, the Indian government was in favor of amending the boundaries of plots Union states on a linguistic basis.

In 1950, two states were created Punjabi:

Punjab himself the principalities and Punjabi integrated in a set called Patiala and East Punjab States Union ( PEPSU ), where the Sikhs were half citizens. They obtained a territory and, perhaps smaller, but at least recognized and in which they were almost a majority.

As to the former capital, Lahore, who was now in the territory of Pakistan, the Indian government decided to build a new one. The Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, gave the French architect Le Corbusier, the

task of building in 1951 the capital of Punjab, Chandigarh, as a planned "new town, a symbol of the freedom of India discharged

traditions and the past [

expression of confidence in the nation's future. " The project took ten years to

materialize. New changes to the status of the capital of Punjab would be imposed by central government to the dismay of Sikhs.

] that is an

The vast majority of Muslims had immigrated from the Punjab in Pakistani Punjab, while the entire Sikh population and Hindus in West Punjab had won the Indian Punjab. In the former British Punjab (or Panjab plain), Sikhs, as a small minority, were also associated with the Hindu minority to deal with the Muslim majority. However, in the Indian Punjab, Urdu- language confrontation turned into Hindi Punjabi-Hindi conflict, which led to the problem of the official language of the new state. Should it focus on Hindi or Punjabi, or both? This conflict was accompanied by tensions between Hindus and Sikhs, a non-existent problem during the British regime, since the fight was mainly limited to the two main religious groups, Hindus and Muslims. In the new Indian Punjab, the Hindu majority identified themselves in Hindi, while the Muslims of Pakistani Punjab Punjabi abandoned in favor of Urdu as the symbol of their ethnic and religious Urdu, we repeat, was clearly favored by the British who used it as the administrative language of preference in Punjabi. By reaction with Sikhs, Hindus of Punjab Indian retreated to Hindi while Punjabi Sikhs resorted to as a symbol of their cultural and political identity. Religion,

language and politics got entangled resulting in a long conflict between Hindus and Sikhs, which gave birth to Sikh separatism. In fact, leaders of political parties exploited the religious and ethnic issues, to raise nationalist sentiment favoring their own interests, that is to say the aspiration to political demands for autonomy.

In the Punjab after the partition, the parents had the opportunity to declare Hindi as their mother tongue for children in the fields and panjabiphones hindiphones. This was what was called the "formula Sachar" (Bhim Sen Sachar was then prime minister of Punjab). Punjabi as mother tongue and language of instruction was permitted in the first year and Hindi as a second language to fourth. As the choice of language of instruction was left to parents, and Hindus have freely opted for Hindi and Punjabi Sikhs.

In the decades fifties and sixties, the Punjab Indian language dispute has focused on three issues. First it was the status of Punjabi language. Hindus claimed that Punjabi was not a real "language", it was only a dialect of Hindi without a strong literary tradition, which prevented Punjabi to be elevated to the status of a official language because of its "backwardness." The second reason given by the Hindus based on the fact that the Punjabi alphabet did not own. Finally, Hindus claimed Hindi as their mother tongue all over the Punjab. In fact, Punjabi Hindus rejected because both Hindi was the language of religious discourse and the symbol of their political dominance. Under British rule, the Hindus had fought to promote Urdu and Hindi, this time it was the turn of Punjabi. However, in the opinion of many linguists (Grierson, Gumperz, Pandit, and Srivastva Pattanayak), Punjabi is indeed a separate language from Hindi, with its own grammar and lexicon. Relegating to the status of Punjabi dialect, it was inappropriate to grant him the status of official language.Only states of PEPSU in 1954 had succeeded in imposing the Punjabi language of instruction, either as the first language of the first grade and beyond in the area panjabiphone; same time, Hindi has become a compulsory subject from the third grade.

The language issue became heated with the census of 1951 and 1961, while the Hindus of Punjab decided to record Hindi as their mother tongue instead of Punjabi. Hindus were so preoccupied with fighting Urdu associated with Islam as the only Hindi them seemed able to stand up to Urdu. For Hindus panjabiphones, religion had precedence over the language, they chose the Hindi religious grounds, even maintain their own language without status. Therefore, Punjabi has turned into a weapon of political struggle, especially for the Sikhs, while Hindi has become a weapon for Hindus.

In censuses, the Sikh authorities, meanwhile, was urged to register their fellow Punjabi as their mother tongue. Newspapers of the two large communities, while mainly published in Urdu, appealed to their respective members to affirm their loyalty to their mother tongue. Sikhs and the media have begun to express concern that the Sikh religion could be in danger, because the powerful Hindu religion would absorb all other minority religions. On the other hand, the Hindu newspapers propagated the idea that Sikhs were "traitors" because they wanted to start their own independent state of Khalistan (the "Land of the Pure").

state of Khalistan (the "Land of the Pure"). In 1953, the Indian government had created the

In 1953, the Indian government had created the States Reorganisation Commission ( Commission on the Reorganization of States)or CBC, to delineate the boundaries of linguistic states of the Indian Union and thus meet the requirements of communities claiming a territorial re obeying the criterion of linguistic homogeneity. E n 1955, the CBC rejected the application on the grounds that Sikh Punjabi did not differ grammatically from Hindi and he was not getting a majority of speakers in the territory. In 1956, the Indian government decided to expand the territory of Punjab in his annexing the PEPSU ( Patiala and East Punjab States Union ) and Himachal Pradesh, to cut short the Sikh land claim by the increasing number of Hindus on the same administrative territory. At the same time, several Himalayan districts traditionally related to Punjab were incorporated into the State of Himachal Pradesh.

Following the 1961 census, the pro-Hindi had reduced substantially, at least on paper, the number of speakers of Punjabi, which minority appeared for the first time in the history of censuses. Less than 60% in 1951, speakers of Punjabi were passed in 1961 to over 40% of the population of Punjab. As for the Sikhs, they became a small minority in the state, struggling with Hindu majority and officially hindiphones.

Understanding that Hindus wanted to control political power, Sikhs launched a movement for linguistic reorganization of Punjab, as had been done in other parts of the country. Their real intention was to form a Sikh- majority state and officially panjabiphone within the Indian Union: it was the Punjabi Suba (province panjabiphone). In 1960, Punjab had passed its first law on language: the Punjab Official Language Act ( Act the official language of Punjab ). The centerpiece of this legislation was to declare that

the alphabet Punjabi Gurmukhi and Hindi with the Devanagari script were the official languages of the State. This law was not enforced very long because internal conflicts were quick to stop enforcement.Supporters of the Punjabi language had to also contend with the reservations of Prime Minister Nehru said in 1961 that the Sikh leader Fateh Singh:

It is not out of Any Discrimination Against

The distrust of the Punjab or Sikhs That the process of forming a linguistic state Was

There is no discrimination against Punjab or Sikhs distrust for the process of forming a

linguistic state is possible. [

]

Punjabi is

Not possible. Punjabi WAS

Essentially

essentially the dominant language of the State of Punjab, common to both Hindus and Sikhs, though it is not possible to accept the principle of purely linguistic state in the case

of Punjab.

the dominant language of the Punjab state, common to Hindus and Sikhs Both, though it is not possible, to accept the principle of linguistic states in the Purely box of Punjab.

He had to redraw the Punjab in order to allow the award of Punjabi in Punjab, in order not to disadvantage hindiphones and Urdu.

The restructuring of Punjab in 1966 and its consequences

Following the 1965 war between Pakistan and India, Punjab has emerged again as a strategic region, that had to spare, and this, especially since the Sikh soldiers had rendered good and loyal service to the Union. In addition, the year 1966 saw the arrival of Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister of India, who succeeded Lal Bahadur Shashi, which had always opposed the Punjabi Suba . In the circumstances, the leader of the Shiromani Akali Dal (Akali Religious Party or SAD), Fateh Singh, obtained more easily succeed, patriotism Sikh can no longer be doubted. Therefore, in November 1966, Parliament granted the Indian Punjab the Punjabi Suba , that is to say the province panjabiphone.

However, the Punjabi Suba granted hardly corresponded to the aspirations of the Sikhs. It was

However, the Punjabi Suba granted hardly corresponded to the aspirations of the Sikhs. It was rather a cold shower among Sikhs. First, the Indian state of Punjab was divided into three - Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana - based on 1961 Census, which had been "biased" by Hindus as in 1951, so that the border called "language" also corresponded to the borders "religious" between Sikhs and Hindus. The new Punjab, smaller, was certainly in Sikh majority (but only to 60%) and high panjabiphone majority (nearly 90%). A massive population panjabiphone but low Sikh majority, with limited political control. In return, the partition of 1966 excluded all panjabiphones residing outside Punjab, whether in Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Delhi. The following decades would demonstrate these panjabiphones would change the language and assimilate.

Moreover, the Punjab was narrowed to be placed under the supervision of the central government that its capital, Chandigarh, was established "Union territory" (like Delhi, Goa and Pondicherry), outside Punjab . Indeed, the Indian Parliament had decided that the capital of Punjab would be located on the border of Punjab and Haryana, while being shared by both states.

The Indian government's ambivalent attitude towards the state of Punjab was easily explained. We had spare the Sikhs for several reasons. First, the geopolitical importance of Punjab was denied to India. The only Indian roads linking northern India in Kashmir, an area of armed conflict between India and Pakistan, even with China, all passed by the Punjab. Second, the Punjab was becoming the granary of India, producing enough wheat and rice to enable India to achieve food self-sufficiency and soon climb to the rank of major industrial

powers. At the same time, Indians were wary of the Sikhs.

The central government decisions deeply humbled Sikhs, while the nationalist sentiment of identity was at its height with the creation of Punjabi Suba . Moreover, Hindus were offended at the concessions made to Sikhs.

In the reorganization of a st November 1966, the State of Punjab has become a unilingual state panjabiphone. With the adoption of the Act the official language of Punjab 1967, Punjabi has become the only official language of the territory, and, from April 13, 1968 statewide. On July 2, 1969, the local government took the decision to replace the "Sachar formula" and "formula PEPSU "by the three language formula. According to this decision, the Punjabi became the first compulsory language and language teaching at all stages in public schools. Hindi was the second language compulsory from the fourth year, while English was the third compulsory language from the sixth year.

Over the following years, mass demonstrations on both sides and hunger strikes to demand succeeded Chandigarh, the capital. In 1970, the president of the SAD, Fateh Singh, in New Delhi proposed to exchange 114 villages Chandigarh against Hindi-speaking majority areas of Fazilka and Abohar in, with an access corridor through the Punjab, under the control of Haryana, but the proposal caused a period of instability in Punjab. Because of the many social and political upheavals, the central government decided in June 1971 to directly administer the Punjab Sikhs, a situation which lasted until March 1972. Then the INC (Indian National Congress) returned to power in Punjab, and from that moment, Punjab entered a period of "turbulence", particularly because of the refusal of the CNI to negotiate with moderate Sikhs on the issue of Chandigarh . In fact, leaders of the Shiromani Akali Dal had a long list of demands:

- Granting autonomous status to the State of Punjab;

- the granting of Chandigarh to Punjab State only:

- the concession areas adjacent panjabiphones in Punjab;

- granting the status of second official language Punjabi in the neighboring states of Hryana and Himachal Pradesh.

These claims of 1978 seemed too ambitious for the Hindus and the central government. They sealed the rift between Hindus and Sikhs.

In 1967, Punjab had adopted a second language law repealing the first:

the Punjab Official Language Act ( Act the official language of Punjab ). The 1967 Act declared Punjabi as official language only indirectly while allowing some districts in the Hindi and Urdu in one case. In fact, the law does not specify which language should be used in these districts, but

rather what religion (Hindu or Sikh) was permitted. Punjabi has become the first compulsory language and language teaching in schools, Hindi compulsory second language and English the third compulsory language. The law provided replace English in the administration by Punjabi. Section 8 of the law required the government to take all possible measures to promote Hindi in the State, without giving the language official status. Anyway, the various governments in power have lacked conviction and political will to implement the provisions of that Act.

- The Sikh terrorism

It was at this time that a Sikh preacher, Jamail Singh Bhindranwale, founded a fundamentalist movement, the Dal Khalsa , claiming a Sikh nation-state, independent and sovereign.Unlike other organizations, the Dal Khasa advocated the use of force to achieve its ends, as evidenced by the hijacking of an Indian Airlines aircraft, September 29, 1981. The movement was banned in India as early as May 1982 under the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act ( Act preventing illegal activities ) and giving full powers to law enforcement in violation of Article 19 of the Indian Constitution, which guaranteed freedom of expression. And conflicts between Hindus and Sikhs were spread throughout the Punjab. It was then that the central government took direct control of the state of Punjab in 1983. The following year, a force of 50,000 federal troops occupied the Punjab and the neighboring state of Haryana.

Far from calming the game, the arrival of the Indian armed forces (federal) provoked widespread violence. On June 5, 1984, the Indian Army entered the Golden Temple in Amritsar, the Mecca of Sikhism, as part of a military operation (Blue Star) controlled by the central government (Indira Gandhi). A group of armed separatists, led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, took refuge in the Golden Temple. After the failure of negotiations and refusal of nationalists to withdraw peacefully, Mrs. Indira Gandhi ordered the evacuation of the temple. A shootout ensued with the result, according to historians, several hundred dead and wounded (700 for soldiers, 5000 for Sikhs). The problem is that Sikh militants were only a handful of men, the temple was filled with pilgrims, including women and children. There were also the destruction of sacred buildings and the burning of the Central Sikh Library.Obviously, the Sikhs regarded the breach of their holy place as the ultimate insult.

A few months later, on October 31, Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards. In retaliation, thousands of Sikhs were massacred throughout India by Hindus, with the support of Indian National Congress and the police in suspicious circumstances. Thousands of homes of Sikhs

were looted and burned, women raped. These actions exacerbated the polarization and violence between Hindu and Sikh communities.

The politico-military organizations of the cause khalistanaise retaliated with

a policy of mass terror, which corresponded to the extra-judicial executions

of the Indian police. Sikh fighters imposed their people a multitude of strict religious codes of assorted punishments. These were forbidden, for

example, on tobacco, alcohol and meat, the wearing Western clothes, on the obligation for women to dress clothes "traditional", the port of

untrimmed beard, a ban on cosmetics, skirts, etc

began to threaten to kill teachers and monitor the curriculum; the national

anthem, the flags Indian and Hindi were banned. As a result of this slippage widespread Sikh politico-military groups, they were divided and killing each other. In November 1991, nine divisions of the Indian army occupied the entire Punjab: some 250,000 military and paramilitary forces participated in this operation.

Then the Sikh fighters

It is no longer a secret: Pakistan was the main support to separatist

groups. Weapons, money and advice from strategists came from Pakistani intelligence. It was for Pakistan to use the armed Sikh separatist groups to destabilize the Indian authorities.

- The return of local government in Punjab

authorities. - The return of local government in Punjab Before the deterioration of the situation, the

Before the deterioration of the situation, the Indian government decided in 1992 to restore the local government in Punjab. In 1993, the Punjab government announced that it had eradicated the Sikh terrorism. Certainly, Sikh terrorism is much less present than it was there ten years, but it is not gone away. Certainly the Sikh terrorist movement has lost much of its support.

Since the beginning of the 2000s, Punjab gets more and more immigrants from other States. About 10% of the population of Punjab is now composed of migrants from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. If the trend continues, the Sikhs will soon become a minority in their state. Some observers assert that uncontrolled immigration is encouraged by the central government to minoriser Sikhs.The pro- Khalistan organization Dal Khalsa condemns the government for the problems caused by crime and unemployment caused by immigration. Moreover, immigration seems

essential for the economy of Punjab as farmers still rely on the labor of immigrants for labor.

In 2008, the State Legislature passed the Punjab Official Language (Amendment), the Official Language Act (Amendment) . Punjabi now become compulsory in schools and administration. This Act is considered necessary before the decline in Punjabi Sikhs in the state.

4 The language policy

It is not easy to describe the language policy of the State of Punjab. On the one hand, the information is fragmented, secondly, the legislation are not available (at least in English). We must therefore refer to secondary sources, in English only. In addition, the State of Punjab has never given relevant information regarding the languages used in linguistic minority

commissioner ("Commissioner Linguistic Minorities" of the central

government. Finally, the language policy of the Indian Punjab is in a restructuring phase . It is therefore called to be transformed dramatically in the coming years.

In principle, with the adoption of the Act the official language of Punjab 1967 ( Punjab Official Languages Act ), Punjabi became the only official language, except as provided for Hindi, Urdu and English . Indeed, Hindi was co-official in some districts, and Urdu, in one (Malerkotla). As for English, it could be used for business transactions of the State Legislature.

On July 2, 1969, the local government has decided to replace the "Sachar formula" and "formula PEPSU "by the three language formula. According to this decision, the Punjabi became the first compulsory language and language teaching at all stages in public schools. Hindi was the second language compulsory from the fourth year, while English was the third compulsory language from the sixth year. Anyway, the 1967 law was never strictly enforced, however. This is why it was repealed and replaced in 2008 by the Act amended language ( Punjab Official Language, Amendment).

This law was adopted unanimously by the Legislature, September 10, 2008. The law of the Punjabi language in Punjab and paves the way for full use of this language in the administration of the State. It is no coincidence that the 1967 Act was replaced. One member of Congress, Ajit Inder Singh Mofar, said the decision should have been taken there at least twenty or thirty years, indicating that the Punjabi language should get priority in schools, universities and other institutions: "If we continue to ignore it, we will forget the Punjabi language." The House also passed a bill on the

learning of Punjabi and other languages. Now, Punjabi is compulsory (from April 2009) for students in first through the tenth year. The Minister of Education and Language, Upinderjit Kaur, said it is extremely important to monitor the implementation status of Punjabi as the official language of the state. Understand that if Punjabi is one of the constitutional languages , it remained the language of a minority community.

4.1 The state language and English

Punjabi is, in principle, the only state language of Punjab, subject to the privileges granted to the English language in state affairs. In fact, English is just as official as Punjabi.Members of the Legislative Assembly have the right to use Punjabi as well as English. The lower courts use Punjabi, but English and Hindi are allowed. For other languages, we must resort to translating and interpreting.

In the administration of the State, Punjabi and English are also permitted. While most officials use Punjabi in the line of duty, the facts also show that many government officials use English as their main working language, even as the only working language. According to official figures from the Languages Department Punjab, during the last 18 months of 2007, a total of 1,837 government offices audited by the department, some 277 officials were working exclusively in English, on the latter number, 123 were employees of senior. Over the past seven years, some 7,000 government offices have been audited, and it appears that 2800 employees work exclusively in English. Under the language law of 1967, a government employee who does not use Punjabi in official correspondence may face disciplinary action, which may not exclude or censorship or demotion. According to the Language Department of Punjab, from 10% to 16% of employees still working in English only. The problem is not the same use of English, but the failure to use Punjabi. The whole problem is this: some officials remained unable to use Punjabi in their daily tasks. In other words, the Act on the official language of Punjab 1967 ( Punjab Official Languages Act ) has never been applied with all its provisions.

The state government has warned that the incumbent minister of the Department of Languages will now take action against officials who violate the provisions of the 2008 Act. From 2009, all the billboards, all signs, all forms, all official documents shall be compulsorily written in Punjabi. If the document is permitted in English, it is because there exists a version in Punjabi. In other words, the unilingual English will not be allowed. The Punjab Languages Department will conduct inspections of all government institutions to verify the status and respect for the law. All citizens of Punjab will be assured of legal services in Punjabi on request.

4.2

Education

In the field of education, the situation is similar. It is true that Punjabi is taught in public schools of the State of Punjab. However, parents have the choice to send their children to schools where the teaching language is another language, whether English, Hindi or Urdu. Generally, Muslims attend schools in Urdu (or English); Hindus, schools in Hindi (or English), Sikhs, Punjabi schools (or English). However, the Sikh families who can afford it prefer their children attend schools where the language of instruction is strictly English.Children whose parents are relatively educated and pupils from high-income families usually attend English schools rather than schools in Punjabi, as a degree in English provides some jobs, unlike diplomas from schools of Punjabi.

In principle, Punjabi should be taught during the first three grades; Hindi is the second language compulsory from the fourth year, while English is the third compulsory language from the sixth year. Moreover, in almost all schools, all teaching in materials science and computing is in English. But parents have the option of sending their children to schools where Punjabi is the language of instruction. The problem is that, despite the law, Punjabi is not taught in English schools, schools or ourdoues Hindi. The class graduated from these schools do not always read and write Punjabi. At best, many young people use the Punjabi spoken with their families or when listening to the radio. In universities, Punjabi is ignored, since most courses are taught in English, if not in Hindi. Over 85% of students who almost never use Punjabi, from urban centers, against 15% for rural areas. In sum, Punjabi is devalued in the State of Sikhs and does not reach the prestige which he is entitled.

In 2008, the Government of Punjab has decided that this is Punjabi as a compulsory subject in all universities of the State (2008-2009), so that all students have minimal knowledge of Punjabi at the end of their university studies . This does not mean that courses must be taught in Punjabi, but Punjabi courses will now be mandatory. In this respect a new law, thePunjab Learning of Punjabi and Other Languages Act 2008 ("Act on learning Punjabi and other languages of Punjab 2008") was developed and adopted to ensure adequate and binding in the education in all public schools in the state. The government also stated that by implementing Punjabi as a compulsory subject in schools the language formula would also be protected in the letter and spirit so that students of Punjab can compete in international fora and national learning also Hindi and English languages.

Most newspapers are published in the Punjab Punjabi ( 5abi, Daily Ajit, Aj Di Awaz

Most newspapers are published in the Punjab Punjabi ( 5abi, Daily Ajit, Aj Di Awaz Daly, Daly Ajiit, Daily Charhdikala, Punjabi Tribune, Sikh

but several are published

in English ( Nava Panga, Punjab

Express Punjab Newsline, etc

(N ews Guru India, Punjab Kesari,

Sach Kahoon, etc Hamarasmaj .

Virsa, etc

),

), Hindi

) or Urdu ( Daily

The electronic media are in a relatively similar with respect to language of broadcast. Most radio stations are in Punjabi, but there are a number in

English, Hindi, Urdu or Bengali, Nepali, etc

stations, in addition to Hindi and English, other languages. TV channels are regional Punjabi (Alpha ETC Punjabi, NRI TV, Zee Punjabi, DD Punjabi,

etc

Several national broadcast

),

But other channels are in Hindi and other languages.

), But other channels are in Hindi and other languages. The Indian state of Punjab has

The Indian state of Punjab has developed, so often sporadic and timid, a policy of developing the official language, Punjabi. Unlike most Indian states, Punjab seems to have had many difficulties to promote its regional language. This is why the State has not even provided special measures against minorities, as they have in fact done anyway, especially the powerful Hindi-speaking Hindu minority.

In fact, the State of Punjab remains one of the Indian states least prepared in terms of language planning. Not only that State lacked safeguards for minorities, but he did no more for the majority. Punjab has always struggled to impose its official regional language. The new legislation could be a step forward, but past experience suggests caution, as the legislation of 1967 has not produced the desired results. We can only hope that the 2008 could lead to more convincing results in favor of Punjabi. In short, the language policy of Punjab is yet to be built. To achieve this will require that the elite put their shoulder to the wheel and follows up to the 2008 legislation. The entire nation is its language, but the elite has so far been rather timid in promoting Punjabi.

Last updated: October 1, 2010

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Union

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of the States : list of states available

 
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the Union of the States : list of states available   Previous page Home: Language Planning
the Union of the States : list of states available   Previous page Home: Language Planning
the Union of the States : list of states available   Previous page Home: Language Planning