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________________________

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_______________ .

.... .
..... .. ...
...........
.5.. .. . . . .
. . . . . . . . ...
.
.6 Cotton
..

... . . . . .
..13.
...
.....14.
...
....16
....
.......24
....

....46. .
. ....47.
..
....48. .
..
...49
....
........51
Denim

... . . . .
. .........54.
...
......56
. . . ....68. .
. . .....70.. . .
....71____________
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__________ .

.......

. . .. . . .
.111______
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________________ ________
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___ _____________________
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_ _______________________
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____________ ____________

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________________________

7R
equired per day
(kg) 8763
14235Speed
70000
750004.812.7Inst
alled Efficiency
90 90waste 0.2
___________________

0.216.401required
8763
142358683.62240
/month in tonnes
263 427n% 70
70/day 3788
3788Delivered 0
0Required per

day 8789
142921waste 0.6
0.6required 2.32
3.77dia/ inch 27
27rpm 51 51effe.
85% 85%waste
5% 5%delivered
0.1 0.1draft 2 2in

kg 43 43daykg
1036
1036required
8842
14378required
8.53
13.879010800req
uired/day 9308

9308required 0.86
1.47700_____________
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_______ _________________
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impr
ove durability
thus eliminating
routine
maintenance.
__________________

Drive Rolls
are____________________
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___________ _____________
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with some
sodium______________
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__6y____________________
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C and
oxidised with
sodium______________
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________ ________________
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C,

the goods are


removed and
well___________________
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________________ ________

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___ _____________________
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_ _______________________
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____________ ____________
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__________

DyeingOr

Sheet
DyeingDyeing____
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________________________
_______

TIMING_____

________________________
________________________
________________________

of
Hydrosulphite_____
______

________________________
________________________
________________________

al HCl ( 0.1
HCl) to pH 7.0
(ml =
______

A)_____________________
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______________ __________
________________________
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_ _______________________
________________________
________________________

depth of
shade is achieved
____________

Depth of shade is
not goodoxidation
time is greater for
fixation The
immersion and
oxidation times
areopening is
avoided Warp

sheet
entanglement is a
danger_______________
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_______ _________________
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__________________ ______
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________________ ________
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weaveweaveW
eave__________________
___

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H
ATTLESH
ATTLEL E S S ___________
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_________

looms 86

looms________________
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______ __________________
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singeing After
singeing_____________
____

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_________

Width

103" /
2600mmWidth
108" /
2800mm____________
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e.______________________
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_____________

rtment

5_______________________
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_______ _________________
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________________

used

for marking
purposes and for
very particular
fastenings,

suchthe thread;
use No. 40 or 50
with a 5 or 6
needle.of the
work, passing the
needle through
the material orfor
very much the

same purpose as
even basting,
except________________
________________________
________________________

as
you did for even
basting, but
instead of taking a
___________________

longit over about


an inch before
taking another
short__________________
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_________________ _______
________________________
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____ ____________________
________________________

________________________
_______________ _________
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__ ______________________
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_____________ ___________
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___________ _____________
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________________________

CAUSTIC01

_______
________________________
________________________
________________________
___________ vi,

sQty

(pcs): 140Weight
(kg):
110kgCCkgCCC_____
________________________
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________________________

______ __________________
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________________________

C
and 35 C for at
least 24 months.
Once containers
have been
opened, theC
_________________

(LVT, sp. 1,
50min1)C.___________________
________________________
________________________
________________

CCC

C______________________
________________________
________________________
_____________

CCB)

CC____________________
________________________
________________________
_______________ _________
________________________
________________________
________________________
__ ______________________
________________________
________________________

C to
40CC may
_____________

reduce the shelf


life. The product
should be stored
in the original
sealedC and
above 40 C.C)
Approx. 5 mPa
sC) Approx. 1.04

g/cm3________________
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___________________ _____
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______ __________________
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_________________ _______
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________________________

Process:RAN
GES 60 deg.C
5.0; best at 4.8to
60
minutesRANGES
55C; best at
52C 5.0; best at
4.8to 60
____

minutes______________
________________________
________________________

m
ethodmethod/l (
for spray
finish)________________
_____________________

________________________
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___________________ _____
________________________

________________________
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______ __________________
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_________________ _______
________________________
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____ ____________________
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_______________ _________
________________________
________________________

________________________

(tables, ironing
boards)used to
create a 3D
effect.________________
__

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___________________ _____
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______ __________________

________________________
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_________________ _______
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____ ____________________
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_______________ _________
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__ ______________________
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________________________
_____________ ___________
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__ ______________________
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________________________

This
method is very
simple and
environmentally
_______________

friendly because
after
laundering,_________
________________________
________________________
________________________

from a doubledyeing
technique___________
____

________________________

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__ ______________________
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_______________ _________
________________________
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____ ____________________
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_________________ _____
________________________

________________________
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a water free
process therefore
zero effluent
discharge.___________
________

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__ ______________________
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_____________ ___________
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___________ _____________
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_________ _______________

________________________
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_______

PROJECT REPORT
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
_______

PRESTON UNIVERSITY

139

GLOSIER
Y OF
DENIM
Abrasion
The process of
making garments

look worn and aged


by scraping or
rubbing the surface
of thefabric causing
abrasion.

Acid Wash
The finish that gives
indigo jeans sharp
contrasts by
soakingpumice

stonesin chlorine
andletting the stones
create the contrast.

Bartak
Stitching that
reinforces places on
jeans such as flies
and pocket openings.

Bleach

A chemical used to
make denim fade.

Carding
The process in which
raw cotton is
separated and
cleaned to make a
sliver.

Cotton

After blooming, this


plant turns from
white to purple,
providing the wellknown textile
thatwithstands high
temperatures, accepts
dyes well, and
increases in strength
when wet. The

quality of cottonis
determined by the
length of fibres; the
longer the fibres, the
higher the quality.

Crocking
A term used to
describe how dye

rubs off fabric on


skin or other fabric.

Crosshatch
Mixing uneven yarns
in both the weft and
warped directions to
create a unique type
ofdenim that shows a
square grid-like
pattern in the weave.

Defoliant
A chemical that
causes plants' leaves
to drop off earlier,
used to speed up the
harvestingprocess of
cotton.

Denim
The word denim is
believed to be a

derivative of the
French term, serge
deNmes, a
ruggedcotton twill te
xtile, in which
theweftpasses under
two or
morewarpfibers,
producing the
familiar diagonal

ribbing identifiable
on the reverse of the
fabric distinguishing
denim fromcotton
duck.

Dips
What fabric or yarn
are called when
dipped in dye.

Double Needle

A common seam on
jeans where two
stitches run parallel
to each other
forreinforcement.

Dual Ring Spun


The process in which
both the warp and
weft threads are
made of ring-spun

yarn. Itcreates a
much softer and
textured hand than
regular (single) ringspun denim.

Enzymes
Proteins that speed
up chemical
processes. They are
used in textile

processing, mainly in
thefinishing of
fabrics and garments.

Enzyme Wash
A more
environmentally
sound way to create a
stone wash, organic
proteins are used

toeat away at
theindigo.

Finishing
The overall processes
performed on a
garment giving it its
unique look.

Five Pocket Jeans


Most frequent design
for denim: two back

pockets, two front


pockets and a
coinpocket inside the
right front pocket.

Ginning
The process in which
seeds are removed
from pickedcotton.

PROJECT REPORT
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
_______

PRESTON UNIVERSITY

140

Hand
The term used to
describe how denim
feels.

Indigo
A blue dye obtained
from indigo plants.
The chemical
structure was
synthetically
produced in1987.
Indigo's inherent
features are good
colorfastness to

water and light and a


continual fading.
Thisallows the blue
color in jeans to
always look irregular
and individual.

Jean
Possibly derived
from the French
work "genes", it was

first used to describe


the type of pant worn
byGenoan sailors.

Laundry
A facility that takes
unwashed jeans and
processes them;
i.e.stone wash,
sandblasting,finishin
g, etc. It is essential

in creating
commercial denim
and has become as
important as
fabricdevelopment.

Laser technology,
initially used by the
military, has
developed

dramatically in the
last few years as
atextile treatment
with laser finishes.
Used with automated
Tonello machines,
lasers can be
directedvertically or
horizontally and used
to create both

specific detailing or a
textured all-over
effect. Thefrequency
of the laser is set to
erode the indigo
surface in order to
either alter the color
or burn through
thecloth. Laser
treatments are used

exclusively in the
upper end of the
denim market and
are considered amore
environmentally
acceptable process
than the traditional
methods of finishing.

Left-Hand Twill

A weave in which
the grain lines run
from the top lefthand corner of the
fabric towardsthe
bottom right. Usually
in piece-dyed fabrics,
left-hand twill fabrics
are woven from
single piled yarns

inthe warp. They


often have a softer
hand feel to them
after washing.

Loop Dyed
One of three major
industrial methods of
dyeingindigoyarn.

Open-End
Spinning
Aspinningprocess in
which individual
fibers are fed into a
high-speed
rotorshaped like a
cup where they begin
to accumulate. The
yarns produced using

this method are not


as strongas the ringspun yarns of the
same size.

Overdye
A dying process in
which additional
color is applied to
create a different

shade or cast on
thegarment.
Oxidation

In denim
manufacturing,
when
indigo

yarn comes out of


the dip and joins

oxygen,penetrating
the fibre.

Padazoic
A dye used in the
late 1960's - early
1970's in place
ofindigo, which was
in short supply
andhigh demand.

Pigment Dyes
Dye that lack the
ability to grab onto
the fibers and must
be held to the fabric
with resins.

Pima Cotton
Originally grown in
the 1900's in Peru,
Pima Cotton is

known for its long


fibres, making it
avery high quality,
luxurious cotton.
Pima Cotton was
brought to America
and got its name
from the
PimaIndians, who
harvested this

particular type of
cotton.

Polyurethane
Provides a chemical
resistance in the
washing and dyeing
process in order to
achievethe desired
denim wash/ color. It
is the basis of a novel

type of elastomeric
fiber known
generically
asspandex. It is a
man-made fiber
(segmented
polyurethane) able to
stretch at least 100%
and snap back
likenatural rubber.

Pumice Stone
Lightweight and
strong, this stone is
used in the process
ofstonewashingapparel.

Ring Dyeing
Describes a quality
unique toindigodye
in which only the

outer ring of the


fibers in theyarn is
dyed while the inner
core remains white.
PROJECT REPORT
________________________
________________________
________________________
________________________
_______

PRESTON UNIVERSITY

141

Ring Spinning
The process that
creates unique
surface
characteristics in a
garment by
feedingindividual

fibers into the end of


the yarn while in its
twisting zone
producing an
irregular authentic
vintagelook. Ringspun yarns add
strength, softness and
character to jeans.

River Washing

The process that


creates a naturally
aged look by
combiningpumice
stonesandcellulose
enzymes. The washer
is first loaded with
stones and fabric.
The second stage
introduces

theenzymes and
tumbled together to
give denim a vintage,
worn hand.

Rivet
A metal accessory
that is used for
reinforcement of
stress points as well
as

nonfunctionalorname
ntation.

Sanding
Process that makes
the surface of a
garment soft by
rubbing aggressively
with papercontaining
small loose grains of
worn rock.

Sanforization
:
A process which
shrinks and stabilizes
cloth before it is cut.
Sanforization was
inventedby Sanford
L. Cluett and
patented in 1928.
Most denim

companies followed
suit, apart from Levi
who stillproduced
shrink to fit denim
for three decades
following.

Sea Island Cotton


Known for its silky
feel and lustre, one

of the
bestcottonfibres.

Selvage
The edge of a fabric
that is woven so that
it will not fray or
ravel. Old 28 to 30
inch shuttle
loomsproduce denim
where selvages are

closed, whereas on
the larger modern
weaving machines
the weft yarnis cut on
every pick, creating
what is called a
fringe selvage.

Slasher Dyeing

One of the three


main methods of
dyeingindigoyarn

Spinning
A process used to
create yarn or thread
where short fibres
are twisted together.
These yarnswill be
used to weave into

cloth or used in
sewing. Longer
fibres like silk are
not spun.

Spraying &
Staining
:
Spraying color can
be added at various

stages in the
finishing cycle,
either byhand or by
automated robot. The
effect adds to the
aged look of a
garment by
introducting stained
areas,color contrast
or blotched tints.

These appear more


natural following
laundry treatment.
Overdyeing
andtinting is carried
out in giant washing
machines, where a
dirty or stained effect
is achieved via the
use of apigment dye.

The more subtle and


sophistocated effects
are hand-applied to
individual areas.

Stone Washing
Process that
physically removes
color and adds
contrast using
pumice stones.

Thelonger the denim


and stones are
rotated the lighter the
color becomes and
more contrast occurs.
The denimis then
rinsed, softened, and
tumble-dried.

Sulphur Bottoms
:

Many manufacturers
apply a sulphur dye
before the customary
indigo dye. This
isknown as Sulphur
Bottom Dyeing. It
can be used to create
a grey or yellow
vintage cast.
Warp

: Yarn that runs


parallel to selvedge.
In denim, its dyed
indigo.

Weft
The un-dyed
crosswise filling
yarns used in denim
weave.
Weight

: Denim is
traditionally graded
by its weight per
yard of fabric at a
29-inch width. Early
jeans werenineounce Levis,
increasing to 10ounce in 1927. Lee
Cowboy Pants were

introduced in the
much heavier13ounce weight, and
most modern jeans
are now 14 ounces.

Whiskering
Term used to
describe a denim
that has a fading

of the ridges in
creases inthe
crotch area and
back of the knees
giving the
appearance of
aged denim.

denim washing
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TYPES OF DENIM
YARN MANUFACTURING

WARPING PLAN
SULPHUR DYES:
DENIM DYEING:ROPE DYEING:
WEAVERS BEAM:AIR-JET WEAVING:
SANFORIZING

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4gen

moosaar123left a comment
moosaar@gmail.com
05 / 25 / 2010
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Tasleem left a comment
Very good project
04 / 09 / 2010
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springstarleft a comment
thanx:)
03 / 31 / 2010
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