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A PROJECT REPORT ON

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON NON PERFORMING ASSETS OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUIRMENT OF PG PROGRAME Institute of business management and research Ahmadabad SUBMITTED BY: JIGAR J. SONI ( 5 )

Session: 2007-2009

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A PROJECT REPORT ON

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON NON PERFORMING ASSETS OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS
SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF REQUIRMENT OF PG PROGRAME Institute of business management and research Ahmadabad SUBMITTED BY: JIGAR J. SONI ( 5 )

Session: 2007-2009
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ANNEXURE A (COVER PAGE)

IBMR- INSTITUTE OF BUSINESS MANAGEMNT & RESEARCH Code:-2911

Project title: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON NON PERFORMING ASSETS OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS

By:

Jigar J. Soni Nirav N. Gusai

A project report submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION of SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY, INDIA. Sikkim Manipal university of Health, Medical and technological Sciences Distance education wing Syndicate house [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 4

Manipal-576 104

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ANNEXURE B (STUDENT DECLARATION)

We

here

by

declare

that

the

project

report

entitled

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON NON PERFORMING ASSETS OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of masters of business Administration to Sikkim-Manipal University, India, are our original work and not submitted for the award of any other degree, diploma, fellowship, or any other similar title or prizes.

Reg.No: 520781709

Name JIGAR J. SONI

Date: Place:

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ANNEXURE C (EXAMINERS CERTIFICATE)


The project report by Jigar Soni & Nirav Gusai on COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON NON PERFORMING ASSETS OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS is approved and is acceptable in quality and form.

Internal examiner examiner Name:Qualification: Designation: -

External

Name:Qualification:Designation:-

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ANNUXERE D (UNIVERSITY STUDY CENTRE CERTIFICATE)


This is to certify that the project report entitled COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON NON PERFORMING ASSETS OF PRIVATE AND PUBLIC SECTORS BANKS Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION of SIKKIM MANIPAL UNIVERSITY of Health, Medical and Technological science. Jigar Soni and Nirav Gusai has worked under my supervision and that no part of this report has been submitted for the award of any other degree, Diploma , fellowship or other similar titles or prizes and that the work has been published in any journal or Magazine.

Name Jigar Soni

Reg. no 520781709

Certified (Guides Name and Qualification)

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
With a deep sense of gratitude I express we thanks to all those who have been instrumental in the development of the project report. I am also grateful to Institute of Business Management And Research, Ahmedabad who gave me a valuable opportunity of involving me in real live business project. I am thankful to all the professors whose positive attitude, guidance and faith in my ability spurred me to perform well. I am also indebted to all lecturers, friends and associates for their valuable advice, stimulated suggestions and overwhelming support without which the project would not have been a success.

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INTRODUCTION
The accumulation of huge non-performing assets in banks has assumed great importance. The depth of the problem of bad debts was first realized only in early 1990s. The magnitude of NPAs in banks and financial institutions is over Rs.1,50,000 crores. While gross NPA reflects the quality of the loans made by banks, net NPA shows the actual burden of banks. Now it is increasingly evident that the major defaulters are the big borrowers coming from the non-priority sector. The banks and financial institutions have to take the initiative to reduce NPAs in a time bound strategic approach. Public sector banks figure prominently in the debate not only because they dominate the banking industries, but also since they have much larger NPAs compared with the private sector banks. This raises a concern in the industry and academia because it is generally felt that NPAs reduce the profitability of a banks, weaken its financial health and erode its solvency. For the recovery of NPAs a broad framework has evolved for the management of NPAs under which several options are provided for debt recovery and restructuring. Banks and FIs have the freedom to design and implement their own policies for recovery and write-off incorporating compromise and negotiated settlements.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Type of Research
The research methodology adopted for carrying out the study were In this project Descriptive research methodologies were use. At the first stage theoretical study is attempted. At the second stage Historical study is attempted. At the Third stage Comparative study of NPA is undertaken.

Scope of the Study


Concept of Non Performing Asset Guidelines Impact of NPAs Reasons for NPAs Preventive Measures Tools to manage NPAs

Sampling plan
To prepare this Project we took five banks from public sector as well as five banks from private sector.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The basic idea behind undertaking the Grand Project on NPA was to:
To evaluate NPAs (Gross and Net) in different banks.

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To study the past trends of NPA To calculate the weighted of NPA in risk management in Banking To analyze financial performance of banks at different level of NPA To evaluate profitability positions of banks To evaluate NPA level in different economic situation.
To Know the Concept of Non Performing Asset

To Know the Impact of NPAs

To Know the Reasons for NPAs To learn Preventive Measures

Source of data collection


The data collected for the study was secondary data in Nature.

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((( CONTENTS )))


PAGE NO.

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Introduction to the topic


The three letters NPA Strike terror in banking sector and business circle today. NPA is short form of Non Performing Asset. The dreaded NPA rule says simply this: when interest or other due to a bank remains unpaid for more than 90 days, the entire bank loan automatically turns a non performing asset. The recovery of loan has always been problem for banks and financial institution. To come out of these first we need to think is it possible to avoid NPA, no can not be then left is to look after the factor responsible for it and managing those factors.

Definitions:
An asset, including a leased asset, becomes non-performing when it ceases to generate income for the bank. A non-performing asset (NPA) was defined as a credit facility in respect of which the interest and/ or instalment of principal has remained past due for a specified period of time.

With a view to moving towards international best practices and to ensure greater transparency, it has been decided to adopt the 90 days overdue norm for identification of NPAs, from the year ending March 31, 2004. Accordingly, with effect from March 31, 2004, a non-performing asset (NPA) shall be a loan or an advance where;

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Interest and/ or instalment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of a term loan,

The account remains out of order for a period of more than 90 days, in respect of an Overdraft/Cash Credit (OD/CC), The bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in the case of bills purchased and discounted, Interest and/or instalment of principal remains overdue for two harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two half years in the case of an advance granted for agricultural purposes, and

Any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of other accounts. As a facilitating measure for smooth transition to 90 days norm, banks have been advised to move over to charging of interest at monthly rests, by April 1, 2002. However, the date of classification of an advance as NPA should not be changed on account of charging of interest at monthly rests. Banks should, therefore, continue to classify an account as NPA only if the interest charged during any quarter is not serviced fully within 180 days from the end of the quarter with effect from April 1, 2002 and 90 days from the end of the quarter with effect from March 31, 2004.

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HISTORY OF INDIAN BANKING


A bank is a financial institution that provides banking and other financial services. By the term bank is generally understood an institution that holds a Banking Licenses. Banking licenses are granted by financial supervision authorities and provide rights to conduct the most fundamental banking services such as accepting deposits and making loans. There are also financial institutions that provide certain banking services without meeting the legal definition of a bank, a so-called Non-bank. Banks are a subset of the financial services industry. The word bank is derived from the Italian banca, which is derived from German and means bench. The terms bankrupt and "broke" are similarly derived from banca rotta, which refers to an out of business bank, having its bench physically broken. Moneylenders in Northern Italy originally did business in open areas, or big open rooms, with each lender working from his own bench or table. Typically, a bank generates profits from transaction fees on financial services or the interest spread on resources it holds in trust for clients while paying them interest on the asset. Development of banking industry in India followed below stated steps.

Banking in India has its origin as early as the Vedic period. It is believed that the transition from money lending to banking must have occurred even before Manu, the great Hindu Jurist, who has devoted a section of his work to deposits and advances and laid down rules relating to rates of interest. [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 18

Banking in India has an early origin where the indigenous bankers played a very important role in lending money and financing foreign trade and commerce. During the days of the East India Company, was the turn of the agency houses to carry on the banking business. The General Bank of India was first Joint Stock Bank to be established in the year 1786. The others which followed were the Bank Hindustan and the Bengal Bank.

In the first half of the 19th century the East India Company established three banks; the Bank of Bengal in 1809, the Bank of Bombay in 1840 and the Bank of Madras in 1843. These three banks also known as Presidency banks were amalgamated in 1920 and a new bank, the Imperial Bank of India was established in 1921. With the passing of the State Bank of India Act in 1955 the undertaking of the Imperial Bank of India was taken by the newly constituted State Bank of India.

The Reserve Bank of India which is the Central Bank was created in 1935 by passing Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 which was followed up with the Banking Regulations in 1949. These acts bestowed Reserve Bank of India (RBI) with wide ranging powers for licensing, supervision and control of banks. Considering the proliferation of weak banks, RBI compulsorily merged many of them with stronger banks in 1969.

The three decades after nationalization saw a phenomenal expansion in the geographical coverage and financial spread of the [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 19

banking system in the country. As certain rigidities and weaknesses were found to have developed in the system, during the late eighties the Government of India felt that these had to be addressed to enable the financial system to play its role in ushering in a more efficient and competitive economy. Accordingly, a highlevel committee was set up on 14 August 1991 to examine all aspects relating to the structure, organization, functions and procedures of the financial system. Based on the recommendations of the Committee (Chairman: Shri M. Narasimham), a comprehensive reform of the banking system was introduced in 1992-93. The objective of the reform measures was to ensure that the balance sheets of banks reflected their actual financial health. One of the important measures related to income recognition, asset classification and provisioning by banks, on the basis of objective criteria was laid down by the Reserve Bank. The introduction of capital adequacy norms in line with international standards has been another important measure of the reforms process. 1. Comprises balance of expired loans, compensation and other bonds such as National Rural Development Bonds and Capital Investment Bonds. Annuity certificates are excluded. 2. These represent mainly non- negotiable non- interest bearing securities issued to International Financial Institutions like International 3. At book value. 4. Comprises accruals under Small Savings Scheme, Provident Funds, Special Deposits of Non- Government In the post-nationalization era, no new private sector banks were allowed to be set up. However, in 1993, in recognition of the need [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 20 Monetary Fund, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and Asian Development Bank.

to introduce greater competition which could lead to higher productivity and efficiency of the banking system, new private sector banks were allowed to be set up in the Indian banking system. These new banks had to satisfy among others, the following minimum requirements: (i) It should be registered as a public limited company;

(ii) The minimum paid-up capital should be Rs 100 crore; (iii) The shares should be listed on the stock exchange; (iv)The headquarters of the bank should be preferably located in a centre which does not have the headquarters of any other bank; and (v) The bank will be subject to prudential norms in respect of banking operations, accounting and other policies as laid down by the RBI. It will have to achieve capital adequacy of eight per cent from the very beginning. A high level Committee, under the Chairmanship of Shri M. Narasimham, was constituted by the Government of India in December 1997 to review the record of implementation of financial system reforms recommended by the CFS in 1991 and chart the reforms necessary in the years ahead to make the banking system stronger and better equipped to compete effectively in international economic environment. The Committee has submitted its report to the Government in April 1998. Some of the recommendations of the Committee, on prudential accounting norms, particularly in the areas of Capital Adequacy Ratio, Classification of Government guaranteed advances, provisioning requirements on standard advances and more disclosures in the Balance Sheets of banks have been accepted and implemented. The other recommendations are under consideration. [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 21

The banking industry in India is in a midst of transformation, thanks to the economic liberalization of the country, which has changed business environment in the country. During the preliberalization period, the industry was merely focusing on deposit mobilization and branch expansion. But with liberalization, it found many of its advances under the non-performing assets (NPA) list. More importantly, the sector has become very competitive with the entry of many foreign and private sector banks. The face of banking is changing rapidly. There is no doubt that banking sector reforms have improved the profitability, productivity and efficiency of banks, but in the days ahead banks will have to prepare themselves to face new challenges.

Indian Banking: Key Developments 1969 Government acquires ownership in major banks Almost all banking operations in manual mode Some banks had Unit record Machines of IBM for IBR & 1970- 1980 Pay roll Unprecedented expansion in geographical coverage, staff, business & transaction volumes and directed lending to agriculture, SSI & SB sector Manual systems struggle to handle exponential rise in transaction volumes - Outsourcing of data processing to service bureau begins Back office systems only in Multinational (MNC) banks' offices

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1981- 1990

Regulator (read RBI) led IT introduction in Banks Product level automation on stand alone PCs at branches (ALPMs) In-house EDP infrastructure with Unix boxes, batch processing in Cobol for MIS. Mainframes in corporate office

1991-1995

Expansion slows down Banking sector reforms resulting in progressive deregulation of banking, introduction of prudential banking norms entry of new private sector banks Total Branch Automation (TBA) in Govt. owned and old private banks begins New private banks are set up with CBS/TBA form the start

1996-2000

New delivery channels like ATM, Phone banking and Internet banking and convenience of any branch banking and auto sweep products introduced by new private and MNC banks Retail banking in focus, proliferation of credit cards Communication infrastructure improves and becomes cheap. IDRBT sets up VSAT network for Banks Govt. owned banks feel the heat and attempt to respond using intermediary technology, TBA implementation surges ahead under fiat from Central Vigilance Commission (CVC), Y2K threat consumes last two years

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2000-2003

Alternate delivery channels find wide consumer acceptance IT Bill passed lending legal validity to electronic transactions Govt. owned banks and old private banks start implementing CBSs, but initial attempts face problems Banks enter insurance business launch debit cards

(Source:

M.Y.KHAN,

INDIAN

FINANCIAL

SYSYEM,3rd

edition

Publication by TATA McGraw hill)

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NON PERFORMING ASSETS (NPA)


WHAT IS A NPA (NON PERFORMING ASSETS) ? Action for enforcement of security interest can be initiated only if the secured asset is classified as Nonperforming asset. Non performing asset means an asset or account of borrower ,which has been classified by bank or financial institution as sub standard , doubtful or loss asset, in accordance with the direction or guidelines relating to assets classification issued by RBI . An amount due under any credit facility is treated as past due when it is not been paid within 30 days from the due date. Due to the improvement in the payment and settlement system, recovery climate, up gradation of technology in the banking system etc, it was decided to dispense with past due concept, with effect from March 31, 2001. Accordingly as from that date, a Non performing asset shell be an advance where i. ii. iii. iv. Interest and/or installment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 180 days in respect of a term loan, The account remains out of order for a period of more than 180 days ,in respect of an overdraft/cash credit (OD/CC) The bill remains overdue for a period of more than 180 days in case of bill purchased or discounted. Interest and/or principal remains overdue for two harvest season but for a period not exceeding two half years in case of an advance granted for agricultural purpose ,and Any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 180 days in respect of other accounts With a view to moving towards international best practices and to ensure greater transparency, it has been decided to adopt 90 days overdue norms for identification of NPAs ,from the year ending March 31,2004,a non performing asset shell be a loan or an advance where;

v.

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i. ii. iii. iv.

Interest and/or installment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of a term loan, The account remains out of order for a period of more than 90 days ,in respect of an overdraft/cash credit (OD/CC) The bill remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in case of bill purchased or discounted. Interest and/or principal remains overdue for two harvest season but for a period not exceeding two half years in case of an advance granted for agricultural purpose ,and Any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of other accounts

v.

Out of order An account should be treated as out of order if the outstanding balance remains continuously in excess of sanctioned limit /drawing power. in case where the out standing balance in the principal operating account is less than the sanctioned amount /drawing power, but there are no credits continuously for six months as on the date of balance sheet or credit are not enough to cover the interest debited during the same period ,these account should be treated as out of order. Overdue Any amount due to the bank under any credit facility is overdue if it is not paid on due date fixed by the bank.

FACTORS FOR RISE IN NPAs The banking sector has been facing the serious problems of the rising NPAs. But the problem of NPAs is more in public sector banks when compared to private sector banks and foreign banks. The NPAs in PSB are growing due to external as well as internal factors. [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 26

EXTERNAL FACTORS :--------------------------------- Ineffective recovery tribunal

The Govt. has set of numbers of recovery tribunals, which works for recovery of loans and advances. Due to their negligence and ineffectiveness in their work the bank suffers the consequence of non-recover, their by reducing their profitability and liquidity.

Willful Defaults

There are borrowers who are able to payback loans but are intentionally withdrawing it. These groups of people should be identified and proper measures should be taken in order to get back the money extended to them as advances and loans. Natural calamities

This is the measure factor, which is creating alarming rise in NPAs of the PSBs. every now and then India is hit by major natural calamities thus making the borrowers unable to pay back there loans. Thus the bank has to make large amount of provisions in order to compensate those loans, hence end up the fiscal with a reduced profit.

Mainly ours farmers depends on rain fall for cropping. Due to irregularities of rain fall the farmers are not to achieve the production level thus they are not repaying the loans.

Industrial sickness

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Improper project handling , ineffective management , lack of adequate resources , lack of advance technology , day to day changing govt. Policies give birth to industrial sickness. Hence the banks that finance those industries ultimately end up with a low recovery of their loans reducing their profit and liquidity.

Lack of demand

Entrepreneurs in India could not foresee their product demand and starts production which ultimately piles up their product thus making them unable to pay back the money they borrow to operate these activities. The banks recover the amount by selling of their assets, which covers a minimum label. Thus the banks record the non recovered part as NPAs and has to make provision for it.

Change on Govt. policies

With every new govt. banking sector gets new policies for its operation. Thus it has to cope with the changing principles and policies for the regulation of the rising of NPAs.

The fallout of handloom sector is continuing as most of the weavers Co-operative societies have become defunct largely due to withdrawal of state patronage. The rehabilitation plan worked out by the Central government to revive the handloom sector has not yet been implemented. So the over dues due to the handloom sectors are becoming NPAs.

INTERNAL FACTORS :-

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Defective Lending process

There are three cardinal principles of bank lending that have been followed by the commercial banks since long. i. ii. iii. Principles of safety Principle of liquidity Principles of profitability

i.

Principles of safety :-

By safety it means that the borrower is in a position to repay the loan both principal and interest. The repayment of loan depends upon the borrowers:

a. Capacity to pay

b. Willingness to pay

Capacity to pay depends upon: 1. Tangible assets 2. Success in business Willingness to pay depends on: 1. Character 2. Honest 3. Reputation of borrower [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 29

The banker should, there fore take utmost care in ensuring that the enterprise or business for which a loan is sought is a sound one and the borrower is capable of carrying it out successfully .he should be a person of integrity and good character.

Inappropriate technology

Due to inappropriate technology and management information system, market driven decisions on real time basis can not be taken. Proper MIS and financial accounting system is not implemented in the banks, which leads to poor credit collection, thus NPA. All the branches of the bank should be computerized.

Improper SWOT analysis

The improper strength, weakness, opportunity and threat analysis is another reason for rise in NPAs. While providing unsecured advances the banks depend more on the honesty, integrity, and financial soundness and credit worthiness of the borrower.

Banks should investment.

consider

the

borrowers

own

capital

it should collect credit information of the borrowers from_

a. From bankers.

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b. Enquiry from business.

market/segment

of

trade,

industry,

c. From external credit rating agencies.

Analyze the balance sheet.

True picture of business will be revealed on analysis of profit/loss a/c and balance sheet.

Purpose of the loan

When bankers give loan, he should analyze the purpose of the loan. To ensure safety and liquidity, banks should grant loan for productive purpose only. Bank should analyze the profitability, viability, long term acceptability of the project while financing.

Poor credit appraisal system

Poor credit appraisal is another factor for the rise in NPAs. Due to poor credit appraisal the bank gives advances to those who are not able to repay it back. They should use good credit appraisal to decrease the NPAs.

Managerial deficiencies

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The banker should always select the borrower very carefully and should take tangible assets as security to safe guard its interests. When accepting securities banks should consider the_

1. Marketability 2. Acceptability 3. Safety 4. Transferability.

The banker should follow the principle of diversification of risk based on the famous maxim do not keep all the eggs in one basket; it means that the banker should not grant advances to a few big farms only or to concentrate them in few industries or in a few cities. If a new big customer meets misfortune or certain traders or industries affected adversely, the overall position of the bank will not be affected.

Like OSCB suffered loss due to the OTM Cuttack, and Orissa hand loom industries. The biggest defaulters of OSCB are the OTM (117.77lakhs), and the handloom sector Orissa hand loom WCS ltd (2439.60lakhs).

Absence of regular industrial visit

The irregularities in spot visit also increases the NPAs. Absence of regularly visit of bank officials to the customer point decreases the collection of interest and principals on the loan. The NPAs due to willful defaulters can be collected by regular visits.

Re loaning process [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 32

Non remittance of recoveries to higher financing agencies and re loaning of the same have already affected the smooth operation of the credit cycle.

Due to re loaning to the defaulters and CCBs and PACs, the NPAs of OSCB is increasing day by day.

PROBLEMS DUE TO NPA 1. Owners do not receive a market return on there capital .in the worst case, if the banks fails, owners loose their assets. In modern times this may affect a broad pool of shareholders. 2. Depositors do not receive a market return on saving. In the worst case if the bank fails, depositors loose their assets or uninsured balance. 3. Banks redistribute losses to other borrowers by charging higher interest rates, lower deposit rates and higher lending rates repress saving and financial market, which hamper economic growth. 4. Non performing loans epitomize bad investment. They misallocate credit from good projects, which do not receive funding, to failed projects. Bad investment ends up in misallocation of capital, and by extension, labour and natural resources. Non performing asset may spill over the banking system and contract the money stock, which may lead to economic contraction. This spill over effect can channelize through liquidity or bank insolvency: a) When many borrowers fail to pay interest, banks may experience liquidity shortage. This can jam payment across the country, b) Illiquidity constraints bank in paying depositors [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 33

.c) Undercapitalized banks exceeds the banks capital base.

The three letters Strike terror in banking sector and business circle today. NPA is short form of Non Performing Asset. The dreaded NPA rule says simply this: when interest or other due to a bank remains unpaid for more than 90 days, the entire bank loan automatically turns a non performing asset. The recovery of loan has always been problem for banks and financial institution. To come out of these first we need to think is it possible to avoid NPA, no can not be then left is to look after the factor responsible for it and managing those factors.

Interest and/or instalment of principal remains overdue for two harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two half years in the case of an advance granted for agricultural purposes, and Any amount to be received remains overdue for a period of more than 90 days in respect of other accounts. As a facilitating measure for smooth transition to 90 days norm, banks have been advised to move over to charging of interest at monthly rests, by April 1, 2002. However, the date of classification of an advance as NPA should not be changed on account of charging of interest at monthly rests. Banks should, therefore, continue to classify an account as NPA only if the interest charged during any quarter is not serviced fully within 180 days from the end of the quarter with effect from April 1, 2002 and 90 days from the end of the quarter with effect from March 31, 2004.

'Out of Order' status:


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An account should be treated as 'out of order' if the outstanding balance remains continuously in excess of the sanctioned limit/drawing power. In cases where the outstanding balance in the principal operating account is less than the sanctioned limit/drawing power, but there are no credits continuously for six months as on the date of Balance Sheet or credits are not enough to cover the interest debited during the same period, these accounts should be treated as 'out of order'.

Overdue:
Any amount due to the bank under any credit facility is overdue if it is not paid on the due date fixed by the bank.

Types of NPA
A] Gross NPA B] Net NPA A] Gross NPA:
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Gross NPAs are the sum total of all loan assets that are classified as NPAs as per RBI guidelines as on Balance Sheet date. Gross NPA reflects the quality of the loans made by banks. It consists of all the non standard assets like as sub-standard, doubtful, and loss assets. It can be calculated with the help of following ratio:

Gross NPAs Ratio

Gross NPAs Gross Advances

B]

Net NPA:

Net NPAs are those type of NPAs in which the bank has deducted the provision regarding NPAs. Net NPA shows the actual burden of banks. Since in India, bank balance sheets contain a huge amount of NPAs and the process of recovery and write off of loans is very time consuming, the provisions the banks have to make against the NPAs according to the central bank guidelines, are quite significant. That is why the difference between gross and net NPA is quite high. It can be calculated by following_ Net NPAs Gross NPAs Provisions Gross Advances - Provisions

INCOME RECOGNITION
Income recognition Policy

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The policy of income recognition has to be objective and based on the record of recovery. Internationally income from non-performing assets (NPA) is not recognised on accrual basis but is booked as income only when it is actually received. Therefore, the banks should not charge and take to income account interest on any NPA. However, interest on advances against term deposits, NSCs, IVPs, KVPs and Life policies may be taken to income account on the due date, provided adequate margin is available in the accounts.

Fees and commissions earned by the banks as a result of renegotiations or rescheduling of outstanding debts should be recognised on an accrual basis over the period of time covered by the re-negotiated or rescheduled extension of credit.

If Government guaranteed advances become NPA, the interest on such advances should not be taken to income account unless the interest has been realised.

Reversal of income:

If any advance, including bills purchased and discounted, becomes NPA as at the close of any year, interest accrued and credited to income account in the corresponding previous year, should be reversed or provided for if the same is not realised. This will apply to Government guaranteed accounts also.

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In respect of NPAs, fees, commission and similar income that have accrued should cease to accrue in the current period and should be reversed or provided for with respect to past periods, if uncollected.

Leased Assets

The net lease rentals (finance charge) on the leased asset

accrued and credited to income account before the asset became non-performing, and remaining unrealised, should be reversed or provided for in the current accounting period.

The term 'net lease rentals' would mean the amount of finance

charge taken to the credit of Profit & Loss Account and would be worked out as gross lease rentals adjusted by amount of statutory depreciation and lease equalisation account.

As per the 'Guidance Note on Accounting for Leases' issued

by the Council of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI), a separate Lease Equalisation Account should be opened by the banks with a corresponding debit or credit to Lease Adjustment Account, as the case may be. Further, Lease Equalisation Account should be transferred every year to the Profit & Loss Account and disclosed separately as a deduction from/addition to gross value of lease rentals shown under the head 'Gross Income'.

Appropriation of recovery in NPAs

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Interest realised on NPAs may be taken to income account provided the credits in the accounts towards interest are not out of fresh/ additional credit facilities sanctioned to the borrower concerned.

In the absence of a clear agreement between the bank and the borrower for the purpose of appropriation of recoveries in NPAs (i.e. towards principal or interest due), banks should adopt an accounting principle and exercise the right of appropriation of recoveries in a uniform and consistent manner.

Interest Application:
There is no objection to the banks using their own discretion in debiting interest to an NPA account taking the same to Interest Suspense Account or maintaining only a record of such interest in proforma accounts.

Reporting of NPAs

Banks are required to furnish a Report on NPAs as on 31st March each year after completion of audit. The NPAs would relate to the banks global portfolio, including the advances at the foreign branches. The Report should be furnished as per the prescribed format given in the Annexure I.

While reporting NPA figures to RBI, the amount held in interest suspense account, should be shown as a deduction from gross NPAs as well as gross advances while arriving at the net NPAs. [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 39

Banks which do not maintain Interest Suspense account for parking interest due on non-performing advance accounts, may furnish the amount of interest receivable on NPAs as a foot note to the Report.

Whenever NPAs are reported to RBI, the amount of technical write off, if any, should be reduced from the outstanding gross advances and gross NPAs to eliminate any distortion in the quantum of NPAs being reported.

REPORTING FORMAT FOR NPA GROSS AND NET NPA Name of the Bank: Position as on PARTICULARS 1) Gross Advanced * 2) Gross NPA * 3) Gross NPA as %age of Gross Advanced 4) Total deduction( a+b+c+d ) ( a ) Balance in interest suspense a/c ** ( b ) DICGC/ECGC claims received and held pending adjustment ( c ) part payment received and kept in suspense a/c ( d ) Total provision held *** 5) Net advanced ( 1-4 ) 6) Net NPA ( 2-4 ) 7) Net NPA as a %age of Net Advance *excluding Technical write-off of Rs.________crore. **Banks which do not maintain an interest suspense a/c to park the accrued interest on NPAs may furnish the amount of interest receivable on NPAs.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 40

***Excluding amount of Technical write-off (Rs.______crore) and provision on standard assets. (Rs._____crore).

Asset Classification ------------------------------Categories of NPAs


[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 41

Standard Assets:
Standard assets are the ones in which the bank is receiving interest as well as the principal amount of the loan regularly from the customer. Here it is also very important that in this case the arrears of interest and the principal amount of loan does not exceed 90 days at the end of financial year. If asset fails to be in category of standard asset that is amount due more than 90 days then it is NPA and NPAs are further need to classify in sub categories. Banks are required to classify non-performing assets further into the following three categories based on the period for which the asset has remained non-performing and the realisability of the dues:

( 1 ) Sub-standard Assets ( 2 ) Doubtful Assets ( 3 ) Loss Assets

( 1 ) Sub-standard Assets:-With effect from 31 March 2005, a sub standard asset would be one, which has remained NPA for a period less than or equal to 12 month. The following features are exhibited by sub standard assets: the current net worth of the borrowers / guarantor or the current market value of the security charged is not enough to ensure recovery of the dues to the banks in full; and the asset has well-defined credit weaknesses that jeopardise the liquidation of the debt and are characterised by the distinct possibility that the banks will sustain some loss, if deficiencies are not corrected. [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 42

( 2 ) Doubtful Assets:-A loan classified as doubtful has all the weaknesses inherent in assets that were classified as sub-standard, with the added characteristic that the weaknesses make collection or liquidation in full, on the basis of currently known facts, conditions and values highly questionable and improbable. With effect from March 31, 2005, an asset would be classified as doubtful if it remained in the sub-standard category for 12 months.

( 3 ) Loss Assets:-A loss asset is one which considered uncollectible and of such little value that its continuance as a bankable asset is not warranted- although there may be some salvage or recovery value. Also, these assets would have been identified as loss assets by the bank or internal or external auditors or the RBI inspection but the amount would not have been written-off wholly.

Provisioning Norms -----------------------------------------[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 43

General
In order to narrow down the divergences and ensure adequate provisioning by banks, it was suggested that a bank's statutory auditors, if they so desire, could have a dialogue with RBI's Regional Office/ inspectors who carried out the bank's inspection during the previous year with regard to the accounts contributing to the difference.

Pursuant to this, regional offices were advised to forward a list of individual advances, where the variance in the provisioning requirements between the RBI and the bank is above certain cut off levels so that the bank and the statutory auditors take into account the assessment of the RBI while making provisions for loan loss, etc.

The primary responsibility for making adequate provisions for any diminution in the value of loan assets, investment or other assets is that of the bank managements and the statutory auditors. The assessment made by the inspecting officer of the RBI is furnished to the bank to assist the bank management and the statutory auditors in taking a decision in regard to making adequate and necessary provisions in terms of prudential guidelines.

In conformity with the prudential norms, provisions should be made on the non-performing assets on the basis of classification of assets into prescribed categories as detailed in paragraphs 4 supra. Taking into account the time lag between an account becoming doubtful of recovery, its recognition as such, the [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 44

realisation of the security and the erosion over time in the value of security charged to the bank, the banks should make provision against sub-standard assets, doubtful assets and loss assets as below:

Loss assets:
The entire asset should be written off. If the assets are permitted to remain in the books for any reason, 100 percent of the outstanding should be provided for.

Doubtful assets:

100 percent of the extent to which the advance is not covered by the realisable value of the security to which the bank has a valid recourse and the realisable value is estimated on a realistic basis.

In regard to the secured portion, provision may be made on the following basis, at the rates ranging from 20 percent to 50 percent of the secured portion depending upon the period for which the asset has remained doubtful:

Period for which the advance has been considered as doubtful

Provision requirement (%)

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 45

Up to one year One to three years More than three years: (1) Outstanding stock of NPAs as on March 31, 2004. (2) Advances classified as doubtful more than three years on or after April 1, 2004.

20 30 60% with effect from March 31,2005. 75% effect from March 31, 2006. 100% with effect from March 31, 2007.

Additional provisioning consequent upon the change in the definition of doubtful assets effective from March 31, 2003 has to be made in phases as under:

As on 31.03.2003, 50 percent of the additional provisioning

requirement on the assets which became doubtful on account of new norm of 18 months for transition from sub-standard asset to doubtful category.

As on 31.03.2002, balance of the provisions not made during the

previous year, in addition to the provisions needed, as on 31.03.2002. Banks are permitted to phase the additional provisioning

consequent upon the reduction in the transition period from substandard to doubtful asset from 18 to 12 months over a four year period commencing from the year ending March 31, 2005, with a minimum of 20 % each year. Note: Valuation of Security for provisioning purposes [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 46

With a view to bringing down divergence arising out of difference in assessment of the value of security, in cases of NPAs with balance of Rs. 5 crore and above stock audit at annual intervals by external agencies appointed as per the guidelines approved by the Board would be mandatory in order to enhance the reliability on stock valuation. Valuers appointed as per the guidelines approved by the Board of Directors should get collaterals such as immovable properties charged in favour of the bank valued once in three years.

Sub-standard assets:
A general provision of 10 percent on total outstanding should be made without making any allowance for DICGC/ECGC guarantee cover and securities available.

Standard assets:

From the year ending 31.03.2000, the banks should make a general provision of a minimum of 0.40 percent on standard assets on global loan portfolio basis.

The provisions on standard assets should not be reckoned for arriving at net NPAs.

The provisions towards Standard Assets need not be netted from gross advances but shown separately as 'Contingent Provisions [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 47

against Standard Assets' under 'Other Liabilities and Provisions Others' in Schedule 5 of the balance sheet.

Floating provisions:
Some of the banks make a 'floating provision' over and above the specific provisions made in respect of accounts identified as NPAs. The floating provisions, wherever available, could be set-off against provisions required to be made as per above stated provisioning guidelines. Considering that higher loan loss provisioning adds to the overall financial strength of the banks and the stability of the financial sector, banks are urged to voluntarily set apart provisions much above the minimum prudential levels as a desirable practice.

Provisions on Leased Assets:


Leases are peculiar transactions where the assets are not recorded in the books of the user of such assets as Assets, whereas they are recorded in the books of the owner even though the physical existence of the asset is with the user (lessee). __(AS19 ICAI)

Sub-standard assets : -

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 48

10 percent of the 'net book value'.

As per the 'Guidance Note on Accounting for Leases' issued by the

ICAI, 'Gross book value' of a fixed asset is its historical cost or other amount substituted for historical cost in the books of account or financial statements. Statutory depreciation should be shown separately in the Profit & Loss Account. Accumulated depreciation should be deducted from the Gross Book Value of the leased asset in the balance sheet of the lesser to arrive at the 'net book value'.

Also, balance standing in 'Lease Adjustment Account' should be

adjusted in the 'net book value' of the leased assets. The amount of adjustment in respect of each class of fixed assets may be shown either in the main balance sheet or in the Fixed Assets Schedule as a separate column in the section related to leased assets.

Doubtful assets :-

100 percent of the extent to which the finance is not secured by the realisable value of the leased asset. Realisable value to be estimated on a realistic basis. In addition to the above provision, the following provision on the net book value of the secured portion should be made, depending upon the period for which asset has been doubtful: Period Up to one year One to three years More than three years %age of provision 20 30 50

Loss assets :-

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 49

The entire asset should be written-off. If for any reason, an asset is allowed to remain in books, 100 percent of the sum of the net investment in the lease and the unrealised portion of finance income net of finance charge component should be provided for. ('net book value')

Guidelines for Provisions under Special Circumstances


Government guaranteed advances

With effect from 31 March 2000, in respect of advances sanctioned

against State Government guarantee, if the guarantee is invoked and remains in default for more than two quarters (180 days at present), the banks should make normal provisions as prescribed in paragraph 4.1.2 above.

As regards advances guaranteed by State Governments, in respect of

which guarantee stood invoked as on 31.03.2000, necessary provision was allowed to be made, in a phased manner, during the financial years ending 31.03.2000 to 31.03.2003 with a minimum of 25 percent each year.

Advances

granted

under

rehabilitation

packages

approved by BIFR/term lending institutions:

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 50

In respect of advances under rehabilitation package approved by

BIFR/term lending institutions, the provision should continue to be made in respect of dues to the bank on the existing credit facilities as per their classification as sub-standard or doubtful asset.

As regards the additional facilities sanctioned as per package

finalised by BIFR and/or term lending institutions, provision on additional facilities sanctioned need not be made for a period of one year from the date of disbursement.

In respect of additional credit facilities granted to SSI units which are

identified as sick [as defined in RPCD circular No.PLNFS.BC.57 / 06.04.01/2001-2002 dated 16 January 2002] and where rehabilitation packages/nursing programmes have been drawn by the banks themselves or under consortium arrangements, no provision need be made for a period of one year.

Advances against term deposits, NSCs eligible for surrender, IVPs, KVPs, and life policies are exempted from provisioning requirements. However, advances against gold ornaments,

government securities and all other kinds of securities are not exempted from provisioning requirements.
[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 51

Treatment of interest suspense account:


Amounts held in Interest Suspense Account should not be reckoned as part of provisions. Amounts lying in the Interest Suspense Account should be deducted from the relative advances and thereafter, provisioning as per the norms, should be made on the balances after such deduction.

Advances covered by ECGC/DICGC guarantee


In the case of advances guaranteed by DICGC/ECGC, provision should be made only for the balance in excess of the amount guaranteed by these Corporations. Further, while arriving at the provision required to be made for doubtful assets, realisable value of the securities should first be deducted from the outstanding balance in respect of the amount guaranteed by these Corporations and then provision made as illustrated hereunder: Example Outstanding Balance DICGC Cover doubtful Value of security (excludes worth of Rs.) Rs. 4 lakhs 50 percent than 3 years remained doubtful held Rs. 1.50 lakhs

Period for which the advance has remained More

Provision required to be made Outstanding balance Rs. 4.00 lakhs

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 52

Less: Value of security held Unrealised balance Less: DICGC (50% of unrealisable balance) Net unsecured balance advance Provision advance Total provision required to be made for secured portion

Rs. 1.50 lakhs Rs. 2.50 lakhs Cover Rs. 1.25 lakhs Rs. 1.25 lakhs unsecured portion) of Rs. 0.75 lakhs (@ 50 percent of secured portion) Rs. 2.00 lakhs

Provision for unsecured portion of Rs. 1.25 lakhs (@ 100 percent of

Advance covered by CGTSI guarantee


In case the advance covered by CGTSI guarantee becomes nonperforming, no provision need be made towards the guaranteed portion. The amount outstanding in excess of the guaranteed portion should be provided for as per the extant guidelines on provisioning for nonperforming advances. Two illustrative examples are given below:

Example I Asset classification status: CGTSI Cover Doubtful More than 3 years; 75% of the amount outstanding or 75% of the unsecured amount or Rs.18.75 lakh, whichever is the least [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 53

Realisable value of Security Balance outstanding Less Realisable value security Unsecured amount Less CGTSI cover (75%) Net unsecured uncovered portion:

Rs.1.50 lakh Rs.10.00 lakh

of Rs. 1.50 lakh Rs. 8.50 lakh Rs. 6.38 lakh and Rs. 2.12 lakh Provision Required

Secured portion Unsecured portion Total provision required &

Rs.1.50 lakh uncovered Rs.2.12 lakh

Rs. 0.75 lakh (@ 50%) Rs. 2.12 lakh ( 100%) Rs. 2.87 lakh

Example II Asset classification status CGTSI Cover Doubtful More than 3 years; 75% of the amount outstanding or75% of the unsecured amount or Rs.18.75 lakh, whichever is the least Realisable value of Security Balance outstanding Less Realisable value Rs.10.00 lakh Rs.40.00 lakh of Rs. 10.00 lakh

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 54

security Unsecured amount Less CGTSI cover (75%) Net unsecured uncovered portion: Provision Required Secured portion Unsecured portion Total provision required Rs. 16.25 lakh & Rs.10.00 lakh uncovered Rs.11.25 lakh Rs. 5.00 lakh (@ 50%) Rs.11.25 lakh (100%) Rs. 30.00 lakh Rs. 18.75 lakh and Rs. 11.25 lakh

Take-out finance
The lending institution should make provisions against a 'take-out finance' turning into NPA pending its take-over by the taking-over institution. As and when the asset is taken-over by the taking-over institution, the corresponding provisions could be reversed.

Reserve for Exchange Rate Fluctuations Account (RERFA)


When exchange rate movements of Indian rupee turn adverse, the outstanding amount of foreign currency denominated a loan (where actual disbursement was made in Indian Rupee) which becomes overdue goes up correspondingly, with its attendant implications of provisioning requirements. Such assets should not normally be revalued. In case such

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 55

assets need to be revalued as per requirement of accounting practices or for any other requirement, the following procedure may be adopted:

Profit

The loss on revaluation of assets has to be booked in the bank's & Loss Account.

Besides the provisioning requirement as per Asset Classification, banks should treat the full amount of the Revaluation Gain relating to the corresponding assets, if any, on account of Foreign Exchange Fluctuation as provision against the particular assets.

Impact of NPA
Profitability:NPA means booking of money in terms of bad asset, which occurred due to wrong choice of client. Because of the money getting blocked the prodigality of bank decreases not only by the amount of NPA but NPA lead to opportunity cost also as that [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 56

much of profit invested in

some return earning project/asset. So

NPA doesnt affect current profit but also future stream of profit, which may lead to loss of some long-term beneficial opportunity. Another impact of reduction in profitability is low ROI (return on investment), which adversely affect current earning of bank.

Liquidity:-

Money is getting blocked, decreased profit lead to lack of enough cash at hand which lead to borrowing money for shot\rtes period of time which lead to additional cost to the company. Difficulty in operating the functions of bank is another cause of NPA due to lack of money. Routine payments and dues.

Involvement of management:-

Time and efforts of management is another indirect cost which bank has to bear due to NPA. Time and efforts of management in handling and managing NPA would have diverted to some fruitful activities, which would have given good returns. Now days banks have special employees to deal and handle NPAs, which is additional cost to the bank.

Credit loss:-

Bank is facing problem of NPA then it adversely affect the value of bank in terms of market credit. It will lose its goodwill and brand image and credit which have negative impact to the people who are putting their money in the banks .

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 57

REASONS FOR NPA:


Reasons can be divided in to two broad categories:A] Internal Factor
[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 58

B] External Factor

[ A ] Internal Factors:Internal Factors are those, which are internal to the bank and are controllable by banks. Poor lending decision: Non-Compliance to lending norms: Lack of post credit supervision: Failure to appreciate good payers: Excessive overdraft lending: Non Transparent accounting policy:

[ B ] External Factors:External factors are those, which are external to banks they are not controllable by banks. Socio political pressure:

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 59

Chang in industry environment: Endangers macroeconomic disturbances: Natural calamities Industrial sickness Diversion of funds and willful defaults Time/ cost overrun in project implementation Labour problems of borrowed firm Business failure Inefficient management Obsolete technology Product obsolete

Early symptoms by which one can recognize a performing asset turning in to Non-performing asset
[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 60

Four categories of early symptoms:--------------------------------------------------( 1 ) Financial:


Non-payment of the very first installment in case of term loan. Bouncing of cheque due to insufficient balance in the accounts. Irregularity in installment. Irregularity of operations in the accounts. Unpaid over due bills. Declining Current Ratio. Payment which does not cover the interest and principal amount of that installment. While monitoring the accounts it is found that partial amount is diverted to sister concern or parent company.

(2)

Operational and Physical:

If information is received that the borrower has either initiated the process of winding up or are not doing the business. Overdue receivables. Stock statement not submitted on time. External non-controllable factor like natural calamities in the city where borrower conduct his business. Frequent changes in plan. Non payment of wages.

( 3 ) Attitudinal Changes:
Use for personal comfort, stocks and shares by borrower. Avoidance of contact with bank. [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 61

Problem between partners.

( 4 ) Others:
Changes in Government policies. Death of borrower. Competition in the market.

Preventive Measurement For NPA


[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 62

Early Recognition of the Problem:Invariably, by the time banks start their efforts to get involved in a revival
process, its too late to retrieve the situation- both in terms of rehabilitation of the project and recovery of banks dues. Identification of weakness in the very beginning that is : When the account starts showing first signs of weakness regardless of the fact that it may not have become NPA, is imperative. Assessment of the potential of revival may be done on the basis of a techno-economic viability study. Restructuring should be attempted where, after an objective assessment of the promoters intention, banks are convinced of a turnaround within a scheduled timeframe. In respect of totally unviable units as decided by the bank, it is better to facilitate winding up/ selling of the unit earlier, so as to recover whatever is possible through legal means before the security position becomes worse.

Identifying Borrowers with Genuine Intent:Identifyi ng borrowers with genuine intent from those who are non- serious with no commitment or stake in revival is a challenge confronting bankers. Here the role of frontline officials at the branch level is paramount as they are the ones who has intelligent inputs with regard to promoters sincerity, and capability to achieve turnaround. Base don this objective assessment, banks should decide as quickly as possible whether it would be worthwhile to commit additional finance. In this regard banks may consider having Special Investigation of all financial transaction or business transaction, books of account in order to [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 63

ascertain real factors that contributed to sickness of the borrower. Banks may have penal of technical experts with proven expertise and track record of preparing techno-economic study of the project of the borrowers. Borrowers having genuine problems due to temporary mismatch in fund flow or sudden requirement of additional fund may be entertained at branch level, and for this purpose a special limit to such type of cases should be decided. This will obviate the need to route the additional funding through the controlling offices in deserving cases, and help avert many accounts slipping into NPA category.

Timeliness and Adequacy of response:Longer the delay in response, grater the injury to the account and the asset. Time is a crucial element in any restructuring or rehabilitation activity. The response decided on the basis of techno-economic study and promoters commitment, has to be adequate in terms of extend of additional funding and relaxations etc. under the restructuring exercise. The package of assistance may be flexible and bank may look at the exit option.

Focus on Cash Flows:While financing, at the time of restructuring the banks may not be guided by the conventional fund flow analysis only, which could yield a potentially misleading picture. Appraisal for fresh credit requirements may be done by analyzing funds flow in conjunction with the Cash Flow rather than only on the basis of Funds Flow.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 64

Management Effectiveness:The general perception among borrower is that it is lack of finance that leads to sickness and NPAs. But this may not be the case all the time. Management effectiveness in tackling adverse business conditions is a very important aspect that affects a borrowing units fortunes. A bank may commit additional finance to an aling unit only after basic viability of the enterprise also in the context of quality of management is examined and confirmed. Where the default is due to deeper malady, viability study or investigative audit should be done it will be useful to have consultant appointed as early as possible to examine this aspect. A proper technoeconomic viability study must thus become the basis on which any future action can be considered.

Multiple Financing:A. During the exercise for assessment of viability and restructuring, a
Pragmatic and unified approach by all the lending banks/ FIs as also sharing of all relevant information on the borrower would go a long way toward overall success of rehabilitation exercise, given the probability of success/failure.

B. In some default cases, where the unit is still working, the bank
should make sure that it captures the cash flows (there is a tendency on part of the borrowers to switch bankers once they default, for fear of getting their cash flows forfeited), and ensure that such cash flows are used for working capital purposes. Toward this end, there should be regular flow of information among consortium members. A bank, which is not part of the consortium, [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 65

may not be allowed to offer credit facilities to such defaulting clients. Current account facilities may also be denied at nonconsortium banks to such clients and violation may attract penal action. The Credit Information Bureau of India Ltd.(CIBIL) may be very useful for meaningful information exchange on defaulting borrowers once the setup becomes fully operational.

C. In a forum of lenders, the priority of each lender will be different.


While one set of lenders may be willing to wait for a longer time to recover its dues, another lender may have a much shorter timeframe in mind. So it is possible that the letter categories of lenders may be willing to exit, even a t a cost by a discounted settlement of the exposure. Therefore, any plan for restructuring/rehabilitation may take this aspect into account.

D. Corporate

Debt

Restructuring

mechanism

has

been

institutionalized in 2001 to provide a timely and transparent system for restructuring of the corporate debt of Rs. 20 crore and above with the banks and FIs on a voluntary basis and outside the legal framework. Under this system, banks may greatly benefit in terms of restructuring of large standard accounts (potential NPAs) and viable sub-standard accounts arrangements. with consortium/multiple banking

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 66

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 67

Tools for recovery of NPAs


Credit Default

Inability to Pay

Willful default

Unviable

Viable

Rehabilitation Compromise

Lok Adalat Debt Recovery Tribunals

Rephasement of Repayment Period Securitization Act

Consortium Finance

Sole Banker

Asset Reconstruction

Corporate Debt Restructuring

Fresh Issue of Term Loan

Conversion into WCTL

Fresh WC Limit

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 68

Once NPA occurred, one must come out of it or it should be managed in most efficient manner. Legal ways and means are there to over come and manage NPAs. We will look into each one of it.

Willful Default :A] Lok Adalat and Debt Recovery Tribunal B] Securitization Act C] Asset Reconstruction

Lok Adalat:
Lok Adalat institutions help banks to settle disputes involving account in doubtful and loss category, with outstanding balance of Rs. 5 lakh for compromise settlement under Lok Adalat. Debt recovery tribunals have been empowered to organize Lok Adalat to decide on cases of NPAs of Rs. 10 lakh and above. This mechanism has proved to be quite effective for speedy justice and recovery of small loans. The progress through this channel is expected to pick up in the coming years. Debt Recovery Tribunals(DRT): The recovery of debts due to banks and financial institution passed in March 2000 has helped in strengthening the function of DRTs. Provision for placement of more than one recovery officer, power to attach defendants property/assets before judgment, penal provision for disobedience of tribunals order or for breach of any terms of order and appointment of receiver with power of realization, management, protection and preservation of property are [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 69

expected to provide necessary teeth to the DRTs and speed up the recovery of NPAs in the times to come. DRTs which have been set up by the Government to facilitate speedy recovery by banks/DFIs, have not been able make much impact on loan recovery due to variety of reasons like inadequate number, lack of infrastructure, under staffing and frequent adjournment of cases. It is essential that DRT mechanism is strengthened and vested with a proper enforcement mechanism to enforce their orders. Non observation of any order passed by the tribunal should amount to contempt of court, the DRT should have right to initiate contempt proceedings. The DRT should empowered to sell asset of the debtor companies and forward the proceed to the winding up court for distribution among the lenders

Inability to Pay Consortium arrangements:


Asset classification of accounts under consortium should be based on the record of recovery of the individual member banks and other aspects having a bearing on the recoverability of the advances. Where the remittances by the borrower under consortium lending arrangements are pooled with one bank and/or where the bank receiving remittances is not parting with the share of other member banks, the account will be treated as not serviced in the books of the other member banks and therefore, be treated as NPA. The banks participating in the consortium should, therefore, arrange to get their share of recovery transferred from the lead bank or get an express consent from the lead bank for the transfer of their share of recovery, to ensure proper asset classification in their respective books. [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 70

Corporate debt Restructuring (CDR): Background


In spite of their best efforts and intentions, sometimes corporate find themselves in financial difficulty because of factors beyond their control and also due to certain internal reasons. For the revival of the corporate as well as for the safety of the money lent by the banks and FIs, timely support through restructuring in genuine cases is called for. However, delay in agreement amongst different lending institutions often comes in the way of such endeavours.

Based on the experience in other countries like the U.K., Thailand, Korea, etc. of putting in place institutional mechanism for restructuring of corporate debt and need for a similar mechanism in India, a Corporate Debt Restructuring System has been evolved, as under :

Objective

The objective of the Corporate Debt Restructuring (CDR) framework is to ensure timely and transparent mechanism for restructuring of the corporate debts of viable entities facing problems, outside the purview of BIFR, DRT and other legal proceedings, for the benefit of all concerned. In particular, the framework will aim at preserving viable corporate that are affected by certain internal and external factors and minimize the losses to the creditors and other stakeholders through an orderly and coordinated restructuring programme.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 71

Structure:
CDR system in the country will have a three-tier structure: (A) CDR Standing Forum (B) CDR Empowered Group (C) CDR Cell

(A) CDR Standing Forum :

The CDR Standing Forum would be the representative general body of all financial institutions and banks participating in CDR system. All financial institutions and banks should participate in the system in their own interest. CDR Standing Forum will be a self-empowered body, which will lay down policies and guidelines, guide and monitor the progress of corporate debt restructuring. The Forum will also provide an official platform for both the creditors and borrowers (by consultation) to amicably and collectively evolve policies and guidelines for working out debt restructuring plans in the interests of all concerned. The CDR Standing Forum shall comprise Chairman & Managing Director, Industrial Development Bank of India; Managing Director, Industrial Credit & Investment Corporation of India Limited; Chairman, State Bank of India; Chairman, Indian Banks Association and Executive Director, Reserve Bank of India as well as Chairmen and Managing Directors of all banks and financial institutions participating as permanent members in the system. The Forum will elect its Chairman for a period of [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 72

one year and the principle of rotation will be followed in the subsequent years. However, the Forum may decide to have a Working Chairman as a whole-time officer to guide and carry out the decisions of the CDR Standing Forum.

A CDR Core Group will be carved out of the CDR Standing Forum to assist the Standing Forum in convening the meetings and taking decisions relating to policy, on behalf of the Standing Forum. The Core Group will consist of Chief Executives of IDBI, ICICI, SBI, Bank of Baroda, Bank of India, Punjab National Bank, Indian Banks Association and a representative of Reserve Bank of India. The CDR Standing Forum shall meet at least once every six months and would review and monitor the progress of corporate debt restructuring system. The Forum would also lay down the policies and guidelines to be followed by the CDR Empowered Group and CDR Cell for debt restructuring and would ensure their smooth functioning and adherence to the prescribed time schedules for debt restructuring. It can also review any individual decisions of the CDR Empowered Group and CDR Cell. The CDR Standing Forum, the CDR Empowered Group and CDR Cell (described in following paragraphs) shall be housed in IDBI. All financial institutions and banks shall share the administrative and other costs. The sharing pattern shall be as determined by the Standing Forum.

CDR Empowered Group and CDR Cell:


The individual cases of corporate debt restructuring shall be decided by the CDR Empowered Group, consisting of ED level [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 73

representatives of IDBI, ICICI Limited and SBI as standing members, in addition to ED level representatives of financial institutions and banks who have an exposure to the concerned company. In order to make the CDR Empowered Group effective and broad based and operate efficiently and smoothly, it would have to be ensured that each financial institution and bank, as participants of the CDR system, nominates a panel of two or three EDs, one of whom will participate in a specific meeting of the Empowered Group dealing with individual restructuring cases. Where, however, a bank / financial institution has only one Executive Director, the panel may consist of senior officials, duly authorized by its Board. The level of representation of banks/ financial institutions on the CDR Empowered Group should be at a sufficiently senior level to ensure that concerned bank / FI abides by the necessary commitments including sacrifices, made towards debt restructuring. The Empowered Group will consider the preliminary report of all cases of requests of restructuring, submitted to it by the CDR Cell. After the Empowered Group decides that restructuring of the company is primafacie feasible and the enterprise is potentially viable in terms of the policies and guidelines evolved by Standing Forum, the detailed restructuring package will be worked out by the CDR Cell in conjunction with the Lead Institution. The CDR Empowered Group would be mandated to look into each case of debt restructuring, examine the viability and rehabilitation potential of the Company and approve the restructuring package within a specified time frame of 90 days, or at best 180 days of reference to the Empowered Group.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 74

There should be a general authorisation by the respective Boards of the participating institutions / banks in favour of their representatives on the CDR Empowered Group, authorising them to take decisions on behalf of their organization, regarding restructuring of debts of individual corporate.

The decisions of the CDR Empowered Group shall be final and action-reference point. If restructuring of debt is found viable and feasible and accepted by the Empowered Group, the company would be put on the restructuring mode. If, however, restructuring is not found viable, the creditors would then be free to take necessary steps for immediate recovery of dues and / or liquidation or winding up of the company, collectively or individually.

CDR Cell:
The CDR Standing Forum and the CDR Empowered Group will be assisted by a CDR Cell in all their functions. The CDR Cell will make the initial scrutiny of the proposals received from borrowers / lenders, by calling for proposed rehabilitation plan and other information and put up the matter before the CDR Empowered Group, within one month to decide whether rehabilitation is prima facie feasible, if so, the CDR Cell will proceed to prepare detailed Rehabilitation Plan with the help of lenders and if necessary, experts to be engaged from outside. If not found prima facie feasible, the lenders may start action for recovery of their dues.

To begin with, CDR Cell will be constituted in IDBI, Mumbai and adequate members of staff for the Cell will be deputed from banks and financial institutions. The CDR Cell may also take outside professional help. The initial cost in operating the CDR mechanism including CDR Cell will be met by IDBI initially for one year and then from contribution from [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 75

the financial institutions and banks in the Core Group at the rate of Rs.50 lakh each and contribution from other institutions and banks at the rate of Rs.5 lakh each. All references for corporate debt restructuring by lenders or borrowers will be made to the CDR Cell. It shall be the responsibility of the lead institution / major stakeholder to the corporate, to work out a preliminary restructuring plan in consultation with other stakeholders and submit to the CDR Cell within one month. The CDR Cell will prepare the restructuring plan in terms of the general policies and guidelines approved by the CDR Standing Forum and place for the consideration of the Empowered Group within 30 days for decision. The Empowered Group can approve or suggest modifications, so, however, that a final decision must be taken within a total period of 90 days. However, for sufficient reasons the period can be extended maximum upto 180 days from the date of reference to the CDR Cell.

Other features:
CDR will be a Non-statutory mechanism. CDR mechanism will be a voluntary system based on debtorcreditor agreement and inter-creditor agreement. The scheme will not apply to accounts involving only one financial institution or one bank. The CDR mechanism will cover only multiple banking accounts / syndication / consortium accounts with outstanding exposure of Rs.20 crore and above by banks and institutions.

The CDR system will be applicable only to standard and substandard accounts. However, as an interim measure, permission for [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 76

corporate debt restructuring will be made available by RBI on the basis of specific recommendation of CDR "Core-Group", if a minimum of 75 per cent (by value) of the lenders constituting banks and FIs consent for CDR, irrespective of differences in asset classification status in banks/ financial institutions. There would be no requirement of the account / company being sick, NPA or being in default for a specified period before reference to the CDR Group. However, potentially viable cases of NPAs will get priority. This approach would provide the necessary flexibility and facilitate timely intervention for debt restructuring. Prescribing any milestone(s) may not be necessary, since the debt restructuring exercise is being triggered by banks and financial institutions or with their consent. In no case, the requests of any corporate indulging in wilful default or misfeasance will be considered for restructuring under CDR.

Reference to Corporate Debt Restructuring System could be triggered by (i) any or more of the secured creditor who have minimum 20% share in either working capital or term finance, or (ii) by the concerned corporate, if supported by a bank or financial institution having stake as in (i) above.

Legal Basis
The legal basis to the CDR mechanism shall be provided by the Debtor-Creditor Agreement (DCA) and the Inter-Creditor Agreement. The debtors shall have to accede to the DCA, either at the time of original loan documentation (for future cases) or at the time of reference to Corporate Debt Restructuring Cell. Similarly, all participants in the CDR mechanism through their membership of the Standing Forum shall have to enter into a legally binding agreement, with necessary enforcement and

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 77

penal clauses, to operate the System through laid-down policies and guidelines.

Stand-Still Clause:
One of the most important elements of DebtorCreditor Agreement would be 'stand still' agreement binding for 90 days, or 180 days by both sides. Under this clause, both the debtor and creditor(s) shall agree to a legally binding 'stand-still' whereby both the parties commit themselves not to taking recourse to any other legal action during the 'stand-still' period, this would be necessary for enabling the CDR System to undertake the necessary debt restructuring exercise without any outside intervention judicial or otherwise. The Inter-Creditors Agreement would be a legally binding agreement amongst the secured creditors, with necessary enforcement and penal clauses, wherein the creditors would commit themselves to abide by the various elements of CDR system. Further , the creditors shall agree that if 75% of secured creditors by value, agree to a debt restructuring package, the same would be binding on the remaining secured creditors.

Accounting treatment for restructured accounts


The accounting treatment of accounts restructured under CDR would be governed by the prudential norms indicated in circular DBOD. BP. BC. 98 / 21.04.048 / 2000-01 dated March 30, 2001. Restructuring of corporate debts under CDR could take place in the following stages:

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 78

Before commencement of commercial production; After commencement of commercial production but before the asset has been classified as sub-standard; After commencement of commercial production and the asset has been classified as sub-standard. The prudential treatment of the accounts, subjected to restructuring under CDR, would be governed by the following norms:

Treatment of standard accounts restructured under CDR:

A rescheduling of the instalments of principal alone, at any of the aforesaid first two stages [paragraph 5(a) and (b) above] would not cause a standard asset to be classified in the sub-standard category, provided the loan / credit facility is fully secured.

A rescheduling of interest element at any of the foregoing first two stages would not cause an asset to be downgraded to substandard category subject to the condition that the amount of sacrifice, if any, in the element of interest, measured in present value terms, is either written off or provision is made to the extent of the sacrifice involved. For the purpose, the future interest due as per the original loan agreement in respect of an account should be discounted to the present value at a rate appropriate to the risk category of the borrower (i.e. current PLR + the appropriate credit risk premium for the borrower-category) and compared with the present value of the dues expected to be received under the restructuring package, discounted on the same basis.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 79

In case there is a sacrifice involved in the amount of interest in present value terms, as at (b) above, the amount of sacrifice should either be written off or provision made to the extent of the sacrifice involved.

Treatment of sub-standard accounts restructured under CDR

A rescheduling of the instalments of principal alone, would render a sub-standard asset eligible to be continued in the sub-standard category for the specified period, provided the loan / credit facility is fully secured.

A rescheduling of interest element would render a sub-standard asset eligible to be continued to be classified in sub-standard category for the specified period subject to the condition that the amount of sacrifice, if any, in the element of interest, measured in present value terms, is either written off or provision is made to the extent of the sacrifice involved. For the purpose, the future interest due as per the original loan agreement in respect of an account should be discounted to the present value at a rate appropriate to the risk category of the borrower (i.e., current PLR + the appropriate credit risk premium for the borrower-category) and compared with the present value of the dues expected to be received under the restructuring package, discounted on the same basis.

In case there is a sacrifice involved in the amount of interest in present value terms, as at (b) above, the amount of sacrifice should either be written off or provision made to the extent of the sacrifice involved. Even in cases where the sacrifice is by way of write off of the past interest dues, the asset should continue to be treated as sub-standard.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 80

The sub-standard accounts at (ii) (a), (b) and (c) above, which have been subjected to restructuring, etc. whether in respect of principal instalment or interest amount, by whatever modality, would be eligible to be upgraded to the standard category only after the specified period, i.e., a period of one year after the date when first payment of interest or of principal, whichever is earlier, falls due, subject to satisfactory performance during the period. The amount of provision made earlier, net of the amount provided for the sacrifice in the interest amount in present value terms as aforesaid, could also be reversed after the one-year period. During this one-year period, the sub-standard asset will not deteriorate in its classification if satisfactory performance of the account is demonstrated during the period. In case, however, the satisfactory performance during the one year period is not evidenced, the asset classification of the restructured account would be governed as per the applicable prudential norms with reference to the pre-restructuring payment schedule. The asset classification under CDR would continue to be bankspecific based on record of recovery of each bank, as per the existing prudential norms applicable to banks.

Restructuring / Rescheduling of Loans


A standard asset where the terms of the loan agreement regarding interest and principal have been renegotiated or rescheduled after [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 81

commencement of production should be classified as sub-standard and should remain in such category for at least one year of satisfactory performance under the renegotiated or rescheduled terms. In the case of sub-standard and doubtful assets also, rescheduling does not entitle a bank to upgrade the quality of advance automatically unless there is satisfactory performance under the rescheduled / renegotiated terms. Following representations from banks that the foregoing stipulations deter the banks from restructuring of standard and sub-standard loan assets even though the modification of terms might not jeopardise the assurance of repayment of dues from the borrower, the norms relating to restructuring of standard and sub-standard assets were reviewed in March 2001. In the context of restructuring of the accounts, the following stages at which the restructuring / rescheduling / renegotiation of the terms of loan agreement could take place, can be identified:

Before commencement of commercial production; After commencement of commercial production but before the

asset has been classified as sub standard, After commencement of commercial production and after the

asset has been classified as sub standard. In each of the foregoing three stages, the rescheduling, etc., of principal and/or of interest could take place, with or without sacrifice, as part of the restructuring package evolved.

Treatment of Restructured Standard Accounts:


A rescheduling of the instalments of principal alone, at any of the aforesaid first two stages would not cause a standard asset to be [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 82

classified in the sub standard category provided the loan/credit facility is fully secured.

A rescheduling of interest element at any of the foregoing first two stages would not cause an asset to be downgraded to sub standard category subject to the condition that the amount of sacrifice, if any, in the element of interest, measured in present value terms, is either written off or provision is made to the extent of the sacrifice involved. For the purpose, the future interest due as per the original loan agreement in respect of an account should be discounted to the present value at a rate appropriate to the risk category of the borrower (i.e., current PLR+ the appropriate credit risk premium for the borrower-category) and compared with the present value of the dues expected to be received under the restructuring package, discounted on the same basis.

In case there is a sacrifice involved in the amount of interest in present value terms, as at (b) above, the amount of sacrifice should either be written off or provision made to the extent of the sacrifice involved.

Treatment of restructured sub-standard accounts:


A rescheduling of the instalments of principal alone, would render a sub-standard asset eligible to be continued in the sub-standard category for the specified period, provided the loan/credit facility is fully secured.

A rescheduling of interest element would render a sub-standard asset eligible to be continued to be classified in sub standard category for the specified period subject to the condition that the amount of sacrifice, if any, in the element of interest, measured in present value [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 83

terms, is either written off or provision is made to the extent of the sacrifice involved. For the purpose, the future interest due as per the original loan agreement in respect of an account should be discounted to the present value at a rate appropriate to the risk category of the borrower (i.e., current PLR + the appropriate credit risk premium for the borrowercategory) and compared with the present value of the dues expected to be received under the restructuring package, discounted on the same basis. In case there is a sacrifice involved in the amount of interest in present value terms, as at (b) above, the amount of sacrifice should either be written off or provision made to the extent of the sacrifice involved. Even in cases where the sacrifice is by way of write off of the past interest dues, the asset should continue to be treated as sub-standard.

Up gradation of restructured accounts:


The sub-standard accounts which have been subjected to restructuring etc., whether in respect of principal instalment or interest amount, by whatever modality, would be eligible to be upgraded to the standard category only after the specified period i.e., a period of one year after the date when first payment of interest or of principal, whichever is earlier, falls due, subject to satisfactory performance during the period. The amount of provision made earlier, net of the amount provided for the sacrifice in the interest amount in present value terms as aforesaid, could also be reversed after the one year period. During this one-year period, the sub-standard asset will not deteriorate in its classification if satisfactory performance of the account is demonstrated during the period. In case, however, the satisfactory performance during the one-year period is not evidenced, the asset classification of the restructured account would be governed as per the applicable prudential norms with reference to the prerestructuring payment schedule. [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 84

General:

These instructions would be applicable to all type of credit facilities including working capital limits, extended to industrial units, provided they are fully covered by tangible securities. As trading involves only buying and selling of commodities and the problems associated with manufacturing units such as bottleneck in commercial production, time and cost escalation etc. are not applicable to them, these guidelines should not be applied to restructuring/ rescheduling of credit facilities extended to traders. While assessing the extent of security cover available to the credit facilities, which are being restructured/ rescheduled, collateral security would also be reckoned, provided such collateral is a tangible security properly charged to the bank and is not in the intangible form like guarantee etc. of the promoter/ others.

Income recognition

There will be no change in the existing instructions on income recognition. Consequently, banks should not recognise income on accrual basis in respect of the projects even though the asset is classified as a standard asset if the asset is a "non performing asset" in terms of the extant instructions. In other words, while the accounts of the project may be classified as a standard asset, banks shall recognise income in such [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 85

accounts only on realisation on cash basis if the asset has otherwise become non performing as per the extant delinquency norm of 180 days. The delinquency norm would become 90 days with effect from 31 March 2004. Consequently, banks, which have wrongly recognised income in the past, should reverse the interest if it was recognised as income during the current year or make a provision for an equivalent amount if it was recognised as income in the previous year(s). As regards the regulatory treatment of income recognised as funded interest and conversion into equity, debentures or any other instrument banks should adopt the following:

Funded Interest:

Income recognition in respect of the NPAs,

regardless of whether these are or are not subjected to restructuring/ rescheduling/ renegotiation of terms of the loan agreement, should be done strictly on cash basis, only on realisation and not if the amount of interest overdue has been funded. If, however, the amount of funded interest is recognised as income, a provision for an equal amount should also be made simultaneously. In other words, any funding of interest in respect of NPAs, if recognised as income, should be fully provided for.

Conversion into equity, debentures or any other


instrument: The amount outstanding converted into other instruments
would normally comprise principal and the interest components. If the amount of interest dues is converted into equity or any other instrument, and income is recognised in consequence, full provision should be made for the amount of income so recognised to offset the effect of such income recognition. Such provision would be in addition to the amount of provision [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 86

that may be necessary for the depreciation in the value of the equity or other instruments, as per the investment valuation norms. However, if the conversion of interest is into equity, which is quoted, interest income can be recognised at market value of equity, as on the date of conversion, not exceeding the amount of interest converted to equity. Such equity must thereafter be classified in the "available for sale" category and valued at lower of cost or market value. In case of conversion of principal and /or interest in respect of NPAs into debentures, such debentures should be treated as NPA, ab initio, in the same asset classification as was applicable to loan just before conversion and provision made as per norms. This norm would also apply to zero coupon bonds or other instruments which seek to defer the liability of the issuer. On such debentures, income should be recognised only on realisation basis. The income in respect of unrealised interest, which is converted into debentures or any other fixed maturity instrument, should be recognised only on redemption of such instrument. Subject to the above, the equity shares or other instruments arising from conversion of the principal amount of loan would also be subject to the usual prudential valuation norms as applicable to such instruments.

Provisioning
While there will be no change in the extant norms on provisioning for NPAs, banks which are already holding provisions against some of the accounts, which may now be classified as standard, shall continue to hold the provisions and shall not reverse the same.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 87

Special Cases
Accounts with temporary deficiencies:

The classification of an asset as NPA should be based on the record of recovery. Bank should not classify an advance account as NPA merely due to the existence of some deficiencies which are temporary in nature such as non-availability of adequate drawing power based on the latest available stock statement, balance outstanding exceeding the limit temporarily, non-submission of stock statements and non-renewal of the limits on the due date, etc. In the matter of classification of accounts with such deficiencies banks may follow the following guidelines:

Banks should ensure that drawings in the working capital

accounts are covered by the adequacy of current assets, since current assets are first appropriated in times of distress. Drawing power is required to be arrived at based on the stock statement which is current. However, considering the difficulties of large borrowers, stock statements [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 88

relied upon by the banks for determining drawing power should not be older than three months. The outstanding in the account based on drawing power calculated from stock statements older than three months, would be deemed as irregular. A working capital borrower account will become NPA if such irregular drawings are permitted in the account for a continuous period of 180 days even though the unit may be working or the borrower's financial position is satisfactory.

Regular and ad hoc credit limits need to be reviewed/

regularised not later than three months from the due date/date of ad hoc sanction. In case of constraints such as non-availability of financial statements and other data from the borrowers, the branch should furnish evidence to show that renewal/ review of credit limits is already on and would be completed soon. In any case, delay beyond six months is not considered desirable as a general discipline. Hence, an account where the regular/ ad hoc credit limits have not been reviewed/ renewed within 180 days from the due date/ date of ad hoc sanction will be treated as NPA.

Accounts regularised near about the balance sheet date:


The asset classification of borrower accounts where a solitary or a few credits are recorded before the balance sheet date should be handled with care and without scope for subjectivity. Where the account indicates inherent weakness on the basis of the data available, the account should be deemed as a NPA. In other genuine cases, the banks must furnish satisfactory evidence to the Statutory Auditors/Inspecting Officers about the manner of regularisation of the account to eliminate doubts on their performing status.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 89

Asset Classification to be borrower-wise and not facility-wise


It is difficult to envisage a situation when only one facility to a borrower becomes a problem credit and not others. Therefore, all the facilities granted by a bank to a borrower will have to be treated as NPA and not the particular facility or part thereof which has become irregular.

If the debits arising out of devolvement of letters of credit or invoked guarantees are parked in a separate account, the balance outstanding in that account also should be treated as a part of the borrowers principal operating account for the purpose of application of prudential norms on income recognition, asset classification and provisioning.

Accounts where there is erosion in the value of security

A NPA need not go through the various stages of classification in cases of serious credit impairment and such assets should be straightaway classified as doubtful or loss asset as appropriate. Erosion in the value of security can be reckoned as significant when the realisable value of the security is less than 50 per cent of the value assessed by the bank or accepted by RBI at the time of last inspection, as the case may be. Such NPAs may be straightaway classified under doubtful category and provisioning should be made as applicable to doubtful assets.

If the realisable value of the security, as assessed by the bank/ approved values/ RBI is less than 10 per cent of the outstanding in the borrower accounts, the existence of security should be ignored and the asset should be straightaway classified as loss asset. It may be either written off or fully provided for by the bank. [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 90

Advances to PACS/FSS ceded to Commercial Banks:


In respect of agricultural advances as well as advances for other purposes granted by banks to ceded PACS/ FSS under the on-lending system, only that particular credit facility granted to PACS/ FSS which is in default for a period of two harvest seasons (not exceeding two half years)/two quarters, as the case may be, after it has become due will be classified as NPA and not all the credit facilities sanctioned to a PACS/ FSS. The other direct loans & advances, if any, granted by the bank to the member borrower of a PACS/ FSS outside the on-lending arrangement will become NPA even if one of the credit facilities granted to the same borrower becomes NPA.

Advances against Term Deposits, NSCs, KVP/IVP, etc:


Ad vances against term deposits, NSCs eligible for surrender, IVPs, KVPs and life policies need not be treated as NPAs. Advances against gold ornaments, government securities and all other securities are not covered by this exemption.

Loans with moratorium for payment of interest

In the case of bank finance given for industrial projects or for agricultural plantations etc. where moratorium is available for payment of interest, payment of interest becomes 'due' only after the moratorium or gestation period is over. Therefore, such amounts of interest do not become overdue and hence NPA, with reference to the date of debit of

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 91

interest. They become overdue after due date for payment of interest, if uncollected.

In the case of housing loan or similar advances granted to staff members where interest is payable after recovery of principal, interest need not be considered as overdue from the first quarter onwards. Such loans/advances should be classified as NPA only when there is a default in repayment of instalment of principal or payment of interest on the respective due dates

Agricultural advances

In respect of advances granted for agricultural purpose where interest and/or instalment of principal remains unpaid after it has become past due for two harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two halfyears, such an advance should be treated as NPA. The above norms should be made applicable to all direct agricultural advances as listed at items 1.1, 1.1.2 (i) to (vii), 1.1.2 (viii)(a)(1) and 1.1.2 (viii)(b)(1) of Master Circular on lending to priority sector No. RPCD. PLAN. BC. 12/04.09.01/ 2001- 2002 dated 1 August 2001. An extract of the list of these items is furnished in the Annexure II. In respect of agricultural loans, other than those specified above, identification of NPAs would be done on the same basis as non agricultural advances which, at present, is the 180 days delinquency norm.

Where

natural

calamities

impair

the

repaying

capacity

of

agricultural borrowers, banks may decide on their own as a relief measure [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 92

- conversion of the short-term production loan into a term loan or reschedulement of the repayment period; and the sanctioning of fresh shortterm loan, subject to various guidelines contained in RBI circulars RPCD.No.PLFS.BC.128/05.04.02/97-98 dated 20.06.98 and RPCD.No.PLFS.BC.9/05.01.04/98-99 dated 21.07.98.

In such cases of conversion or re-schedulement, the term loan as well as fresh short-term loan may be treated as current dues and need not be classified as NPA. The asset classification of these loans would thereafter be governed by the revised terms & conditions and would be treated as NPA if interest and/or instalment of principal remains unpaid, for two harvest seasons but for a period not exceeding two half years.

Government guaranteed advances:


The credit facilities backed by guarantee of the Central Government though overdue may be treated as NPA only when the Government repudiates its guarantee when invoked. This exemption from classification of Government guaranteed advances as NPA is not for the purpose of recognition of income. With effect from 1st April 2000, advances sanctioned against State Government guarantees should be classified as NPA in the normal course, if the guarantee is invoked and remains in default for more than two quarters. With effect from March 31, 2001 the period of default is revised as more than 180 days.

Take-out Finance:
Takeout finance is the product emerging in the context of the funding of long-term infrastructure projects. Under this arrangement, the institution/the bank financing infrastructure projects will have an

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 93

arrangement with any financial institution for transferring to the latter the outstanding in respect of such financing in their books on a predetermined basis. In view of the time-lag involved in taking-over, the possibility of a default in the meantime cannot be ruled out. The norms of asset classification will have to be followed by the concerned bank/financial institution in whose books the account stands as balance sheet item as on the relevant date. If the lending institution observes that the asset has turned NPA on the basis of the record of recovery, it should be classified accordingly. The lending institution should not recognise income on accrual basis and account for the same only when it is paid by the borrower/ taking over institution (if the arrangement so provides). The lending institution should also make provisions against any asset turning into NPA pending its take over by taking over institution. As and when the asset is taken over by the taking over institution, the corresponding provisions could be reversed. However, the taking over institution, on taking over such assets, should make provisions treating the account as NPA from the actual date of it becoming NPA even though the account was not in its books as on that date.

Post-shipment Supplier's Credit


In respect of post-shipment credit extended by the banks covering export of goods to countries for which the ECGCs cover is available, EXIM Bank has introduced a guarantee-cum-refinance programme whereby, in the event of default, EXIM Bank will pay the guaranteed amount to the bank within a period of 30 days from the day the bank invokes the guarantee after the exporter has filed claim with ECGC. Accordingly, to the extent payment has been received from the EXIM Bank, the advance may not be treated as a non-performing asset for asset classification and provisioning purposes. [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 94

Export Project Finance:


In respect of export project finance, there could be instances where the actual importer has paid the dues to the bank abroad but the bank in turn is unable to remit the amount due to political developments such as war, strife, UN embargo, etc.

In such cases, where the lending bank is able to establish through documentary evidence that the importer has cleared the dues in full by depositing the amount in the bank abroad before it turned into NPA in the books of the bank, but the importer's country is not allowing the funds to be remitted due to political or other reasons, the asset classification may be made after a period of one year from the date the amount was deposited by the importer in the bank abroad.

Advances under rehabilitation approved by BIFR/ TLI:


Ban ks are not permitted to upgrade the classification of any advance in respect of which the terms have been re-negotiated unless the package of re-negotiated terms has worked satisfactorily for a period of one year. While the existing credit facilities sanctioned to a unit under rehabilitation packages approved by BIFR/term lending institutions will continue to be classified as sub-standard or doubtful as the case may be, in respect of additional facilities sanctioned under the rehabilitation packages, the Income Recognition, Asset Classification norms will become applicable after a period of one year from the date of disbursement.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 95

ROLE OF ARCIL :This empowerment encouraged the three major players in Indian banking system, namely, State Bank of India (SBI), ICICI Bank Limited (ICICI) and IDBI Bank Limited (IDBI) to come together to set-up the first ARC. Arcil was incorporated as a public limited company on February 11, 2002 and obtained its certificate of commencement of business on May 7, 2003. In pursuance of Section 3 of the Securitization Act 2002, it holds a certificate of registration dated August 29, 2003, issued by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and operates under powers conferred under the Securitization Act, 2002. Arcil is also a "financial institution" within the meaning of Section 2 (h) (ia) of the Recovery of Debts due to Banks and Financial Institutions Act, 1993 (the "DRT Act"). Arcil is the first ARC in the country to commence business of resolution of non-performing assets (NPAs) upon acquisition from Indian banks and financial institutions. As the first ARC, Arcil has played a pioneering role in setting standards for the industry in India. [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 96

Unlocking capital for the banking system and the economy The primary objective of Arcil is to expedite recovery of the amounts locked in NPAs of lenders and thereby recycling capital. Arcil thus, provides relief to the banking system by managing NPAs and help them concentrate on core banking activities thereby enhancing shareholders value.

Creating a vibrant market for distressed debt assets / securities in India offering a trading platform for Lenders

Arcil has made successful efforts in funneling investment from both from domestic and international players for funding these acquisitions of distressed assets, followed by showcasing them to prospective buyers. This has initiated creation of a secondary market of distressed assets in the country besides hastening their resolution. The efforts of Arcil would lead the countrys distressed debt market to international standards.

To evolve and create significant capacity in the system for quicker resolution of NPAs by deploying the assets optimally With a view to achieving high delivery capabilities for resolution, Arcil has put in place a structure aimed at outsourcing the various sub-functions of resolution to specialized agencies, wherever applicable under the provision of the Securitisation Act, 2002. Arcil has also encourage, groomed and developed many such agencies to enhance its capacity in line with the growth of its activity.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 97

ANALYSIS
For the purpose of analysis and comparison between private sector and public sector banks, we take five-five banks in both sector to compare the non performing assets of banks. For understanding we further bifurcate the non performing assets in priority sector and non priority sector, gross NPA and net NPA in percentage as well as in rupees, deposit investment advances. Deposit Investment Advances is the first in the analysis because due to these we can understand the where the bank stands in the competitive market. As at end of march 2008, in private sector ICICI Bank is the highest deposit-investment-advances figures in rupees crore, second is HDFC Bank and KOTAK Bank has least figures. [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 98

In public sector banks Punjab National Bank has highest depositinvestment-advances but when we look at graph first three means Bank of Baroda and Bank of India are almost the similar in numbers and Dena Bank is stands for last in public sector bank. When we compare the private sector banks with public sector banks among these banks, we can understand the more number of people prefer to choose public sector banks for deposit-investment. But when we compare the private sector bank ICICI Bank with the public sector banks ICICI Bank is more deposit-investment figures and first in the all banks.

DEPOSIT-INVESTMENT-ADVANCES ( RS.CRORE) of both sector banks and comparison among them, year 2007-08.

BANK AXIS HDFC ICICI KOTAK INDUSIND TOTAL

DEPOSIT 87626 100769 244431 16424 19037 468287

INVESTMENT 33705 49394 111454 9142 6630 210325

ADVANCES 59661 63427 225616 15552 12795 377051

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 99

250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 IC I IC HF DC AX IS IND S U IND K AK OT D POS E IT INVE T NT S ME AD VANC S E

BANK BOB BOI DENA PNB UBI TOTAL

DEPOSIT 152034 150012 33943 166457 103859 606305

INVESTMENT 43870 41803 10282 53992 33823 183770

ADVANCES 106701 113476 23024 119502 74348 437051

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 100

100 800 100 600 100 400 100 200 100 000 800 00 600 00 400 00 200 00 0

D POS E IT INVE T NT S ME AD VANCE S

PNB

B OB

B OI

UB I

D NA E

ICICI BANK AND PUNJAB NATIONAL BANK :BANK ICICI BANK PNB DEPOSIT 244431 166457 INVESTMENT 111454 53992 ADVANCES 225616 119502

25 00 00 20 00 00 15 00 00 10 00 00 5 00 00 0 DEP S O IT INV TMENT ES A A ES DV NC

IC I IC

P NB

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 101

There are two concepts related to non-performing assets_ gross and net. Gross refers to all NPAs on a banks balance sheet irrespective of the provisions made. It consists of all the non standard assets, viz. sub standard, doubtful, and loss assets. A loan asset is classified as sub standard if it remains NPA up to a period of 18 months; doubtful if it remains NPA for more than 18 months; and loss, without any waiting period, where the dues are considered not collectible or marginally collectible. Net NPA is gross NPA less provisions. Since in India, bank balance sheets contains a huge amount of NPAs and the process of recovery and write off of loans is very time consuming, the provisions the banks have to make against the NPA according to the central bank guidelines, are quite significant. Here, we can see that there are huge difference between gross and net NPA. While gross NPA reflects the quality of the loans made by banks, net NPA shows the actual burden of banks. The requirements for provisions are : 100% for loss assets 100% of the unsecured portion plus 20-50% of the secured portion, depending on the period for which the account has remained in the doubtful category 10% general provision on the outstanding balance under the sub standard category.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 102

Here, there are gross and net NPA data for 2006-07 and 2007-08 we taken for comparison among banks. These data are NPA AS PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL ASSETS. As we discuss earlier that gross NPA reflects the quality of the loans made by banks. Among all the ten banks Dena Banks has highest gross NPA as a percentage of total assets in the year 2006-07 and also net NPA. Punjab National Bank shows vast difference between gross and net NPA. There is almost same figures between BOI and BOB.

YEAR 2006-07
BANK BOB BOI DENA PNB UBI GROSS NPA 1.46 1.48 2.37 2.09 1.82 NET NPA 0.35 0.45 1.16 0.45 0.59

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 103

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 D NA E UB I PNB B OI B OB GR SNPA OS NE NPA T

2007-08
BANK BOB BOI DENA PNB GROSS NPA 1.10 1.08 1.48 1.67 NET NPA 0.27 0.33 0.56 0.38

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 104

UBI

1.34

0.10

1 .8 1 .6 1 .4 1 .2 1 0 .8 0 .6 0 .4 0 .2 0

GR SNP OS A NE NP T A

D NA E

P NB

B OI

B OB

UB I

2006-07
BANK AXIS HDFC ICICI KOTAK INDUSIND GROSS NPA 0.57 0.72 1.20 1.39 1.64 NET NPA 0.36 0.22 0.58 1.09 1.31

1 .8 1 .6 1 .4 1 .2 1 0 .8 0 .6 0 .4 0 .2 0

GR SNP OS A NE NP T A

IND IND K AK US OT

IC I IC

AX IS

HF DC

2007-08 [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 105

BANK AXIS HDFC ICICI KOTAK INDUSIND

GROSS NPA 0.45 0.68 1.90 1.55 1.69

NET NPA 0.23 0.22 0.87 0.98 1.25

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 G OS NPA R S NE NPA T

IND IND US

K AK OT

ICICI

HF DC

AX IS

COMPARISON OF GROSS NPA WITH ALL BANKS FOR THE YEAR 2007-08. The growing NPAs affects the health of banks, profitability and efficiency. In the long run, it eats up the net worth of the banks. We can say that NPA is not a healthy sign for Average of these ten banks So if we financial institutions. Here we take all the ten banks gross NPA together for better understanding. gross NPAs is 1.29 as percentage of total assets.

compare in private sector banks AXIS and HDFC Bank are below average of all banks and in public sector BOB and BOI. Average of these five private sector banks gross NPA is 1.25 and average of public sector banks is 1.33. Which is higher in compare of private sector banks.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 106

GROSS NPA :-

2 1.5 1 0.5 0 IC IC I INDUS IND KOTA K HDFC A XIS BOI B OB UB I DENA P NB

COMPARISON OF NET NPA WITH ALL BANKS FOR THE YEAR 2007-08. Average of these ten banks net NPA is 0.56. And in the public sector banks all these five banks are below this. But in private sector banks there are three banks are above average. The difference between private and public banks average is also vast. Private sector banks net NPA average is 0.71 and in public sector banks it is 0.41 as percentage of total assets. As we know that net NPA shows actual burden of banks. IndusInd bank has highest net NPA figure and HDFC Bank has lowest in comparison.

NET NPA of banks:1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 IC I IC IN US D D IN K TAK O H DFC AX IS BI O BB O UB I D A EN PB N

PRIORITY NON PRIORITY SECTOR When we further bifurcate NPA in priority sector and Non priority sector. Agriculture + small + others are priority sector. In private sector banks ICICI Bank has the highest NPA in both sector in compare to other private sector banks. Around 72% of NPA is with ICICI Bank with Rs.1359 crore [Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 107

in priority sector and around 78% in non priority sector. We can see that in private sector banks , banks has more NPA in non priority sector than priority sector.
BANK AGRI (1) AXIS HDFC ICICI KOTAK INDUSIND TOTAL 109.12 36.12 981.85 10.00 30.44 1167.53 SMALL (2) 14.76 110.56 23.35 33.84 3.18 185.69 OTHERS (3) 86.71 47.70 354.13 4.04 30.02 522.60 PRIORITY SECTOR ( 1+2+3 ) 210.59 194.41 1359.34 47.87 63.64 1875.85 NONPRIORITY 275.06 709.23 6211.12 405.20 328.67 7929.28

7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 AXIS HDFC IC I IC KOTAK INDUS IND P RIOR ITY NON-P RIORITY

BANK BOB BOI DENA PNB UBI

PRIORITY SECTOR (ADVANCED RS.CRORE ) 5469 3269 1160 3772 1924

NPA 350 325 106 443 197

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 108

6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 B OB B OI D NA E P NB UI B P IOR Y R IT NP A

When we talk about public sector banks they are more in priority sector and they given advanced to weaker sector or industries. Public sector banks give more loans to Agriculture , small scale and others units and as a result we see that there are more number of NPA in public sector banks than in private sector banks. BOB given more advanced to priority sector in 2007-08 than other four banks and Dena Bank is in least. But when there are comparison between private bank and public sector bank still ICICI Bank has more NPA in both priority and non priority sector with the comparison of public sector banks. Large NPA in ICICI Bank because the strategy of bank that risk-reward attitude and initiative in each sector. Above we also discuss that ICICI Bank has highest depositinvestment-advance than other banks. Now, when we compare the all public sector banks and public sector banks on priority and non-priority sector than the figures are really shocking. Because in compare of private sector banks, public sector banks numbers are very large.
PUBLIC SECTOR 2006-07 2007-08 22954 490 25287 299 NEW PRIVATE 2006-07 2007-08 1468 3 2080 0

SECTOR PRIORITY PUBLIC

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 109

NON PRT TOTAL

15158 38602

14163 39749

4800 6271

8339 10419

Here, there are huge difference between private and public sector banks NPA. There is increase in new private sector banks NPA of Rs.4148 cr in 2007-08 which is almost 66% rise than previous year. In public sector banks the numbers are not increased like private sector banks.

[Comparative analysis on NPA of Private & Public sector Banks] Page 110