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ISS Test #3 Review

Elements of communication include a sender, a receiver, a message, a channel, a noise, and a context. Sender- The person who initiates the message. Receiver- The person to whom the message is targeted. Message-Refers to the information or meaning that is transmitted from sender to receiver. Speakers encode or transform their ideas and feelings into symbols and organize them into a message. Receivers decode or translate that message into their own ideas and feelings. Channel- Refers to the sensory means through which the message reaches the receiver. (Hearing the person, observing facial expressions, eye contact, touch) Noise- Any stimulus that interferes with accurately expressing or understanding a message. (Environmental factors, physical factors, physiological factors, or even slurs, sexist language, profanity.) Context- The environment in which communication takes place. (location, time of day, face-to-face, telephone call, internet)

Proxemics- The study of peoples use of interpersonal space. Personal space is a zone of space surrounding a person that is felt to belong to that person. Zone 1: Intimate distance zone (0-18) - parents and children, lovers, spouses/partners. Zone 2: Personal distance zone (18-4) - close friends. Zone 3: Social distance zone (4-12) - co-workers, social gatherings, friends, work situations. Zone 4: Public distance zone (12 +) - Actors, total strangers, important officials.

There are gender differences in proxemics. WHAT ARE THEY? Eye contact differs in every culture. For example: European Americans who have high levels of eye contact are said to have effective social skills and credibility. To those is Mexico, Latin America, Japan, and Africa, an Americans direct eye contact is considered insulting. People in Arab countries look directly at others for even longer than Americans. Women tend to gaze at others more than men do. Higher status individuals look at the other person more when speaking that when listening, lower-status people do the opposite (women usually show the lower)

The paradox of close relationships is a phenomenon where close relationships arouse positive (passion, concern, caring) and negative (rage, jealousy, despair) feelings. The mere exposure effect says that you will have an increased positive feeling toward a novel stimulus (person) based on frequent exposure to it. The matching hypothesis proposes that people of similar levels of physical attractiveness gravitate toward each other. The parental investment theory says that species mating patterns depends on what the sex has to invest. Species want to look for the best possible partner to produce only the best offspring. Evolutionary psychologists believe that in an evolutionary view, species pick their partner in this way. Females should be young, attractive, big breasts. Males should have a high income, status, ambition, strength, broad shoulders.

Sternbergs triangular theory of love:

Attachment styles: Secure adults are trusting and easily let people get close to them, and are comfortable with dependence; they rarely worry about being abandoned by their partner. Their parents were warm and responsive. Avoidant adults fear and feel uncomfortable about getting close to others. They are reluctant to trust others and prefer to maintain emotional distance; they have the lowest incidence of positive relationships. Their parents were cold and rejecting. Anxious-ambivalent adults are obsessive and preoccupied with their relationships. They want more closeness and suffer extreme jealousy, based on fears of

abandonment. Their parents were less warm than secure, had unhappy marriages, and they were ambivalent and inconsistent. Predictors of marital success include their familys background (their parents happiness in marriage), age, length of courtship, personality, premarital communication, and stressful events. The U shaped curve:

Gender stereotypes are widely shared beliefs about males and females abilities, personality traits, and social behavior. Androcentrism is the belief that males are the norm. Gender v. Sex: Gender is the state of being male or female; it is cognitive and it is what you think you are in your brain. Sex is biological; if youre a girl you have a vagina, if youre a guy you have a penis.

If a man or woman had all the qualities you desired, would you marry this person if you were not in love with him or her? Western societies, the more individualistic, said no, while collectivist cultures said yes. Americans equate love with happiness, whereas Chinese associate it with sadness and unrequited love.