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MATLAB Introduction course Fanilo RAMASOMANANA ramasoma@unistra.fr MATLAB - Introduction course Context • What is

MATLAB

Introduction course

Fanilo RAMASOMANANA

ramasoma@unistra.fr

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
ramasoma@unistra.fr MATLAB - Introduction course Context • What is MATLAB? • Objectives • Introduction

Context

• What is MATLAB?

• Objectives

• Introduction to Chapter 1:

Starting and Quitting MATLAB

MATLAB Desktop

Desktop Tools

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB Desktop Desktop Tools MATLAB - Introduction course What is MATLAB? MATLAB is a commercial software

What is MATLAB?

MATLAB is a commercial software of interactive calculus. It makes it possible to carry out numerical simulations based on algorithms of numerical analysis. It can thus be used for solving numerical problems for the approximate resolution of differential equations, partial differential equations, linear and nonlinear systems, or scientific and engineering graphics, etc… and to write programs in a lower level language.

MATLAB provides a block diagram tool for modeling and simulating dynamical systems, including signal processing, controls, communications, and other complex systems ranging from engineering and mathematics to chemistry, biology, and economics.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
biology, and economics. MATLAB - Introduction course Objectives The objective of this MATLAB's course is

Objectives

The objective of this MATLAB's course is double:

• the knowledge of this software is essential because it is more and more used for calculus in industries and banks, …

• the knowledge of algorithms existing in the software and to test new algorithms.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Introduction Chapter 1: This chapter provides a brief introduction to starting and quitting MATLAB, and

Introduction

Chapter 1:

This chapter provides a brief introduction to starting and quitting MATLAB, and the tools and functions that help you to work with MATLAB variables and files.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB variables and files. MATLAB - Introduction course Starting and Quitting MATLAB Starting MATLAB: On a

Starting and Quitting MATLAB

Starting MATLAB:

On a Microsoft Windows platform, to start MATLAB, double- click the MATLAB shortcut icon on your Windows desktop.

click the MATLAB shortcut icon on your Windows desktop. Quitting MATLAB: To end your MATLAB session,

Quitting MATLAB:

To end your MATLAB session, select Exit MATLAB from the File menu in the desktop, or type quit in the Command Window.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
quit in the Command Window. MATLAB - Introduction course MATLAB Desktop • When you start MATLAB,

MATLAB Desktop

• When you start MATLAB, the MATLAB desktop appears,

containing tools for managing files, variables, and applications

associated with MATLAB.

• The first time MATLAB starts, the desktop appears as shown in the following illustration.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
in the following illustration. MATLAB - Introduction course MATLAB Desktop You can change the way your

MATLAB Desktop

You can change the way your desktop looks by opening, closing, moving, and resizing the tools in it. You can also move tools outside of the desktop or return them back inside the desktop.

You can also move tools outside of the desktop or return them back inside the desktop.
MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Desktop Tools This section provides an introduction to MATLAB’s desktop tools. The tools are: •

Desktop Tools

This section provides an introduction to MATLAB’s desktop tools. The tools are:

• “Command Window”

• “Command History”

• “Help Browser”

• “Current Directory”

• “Workspace”

• “Array Editor”

• “Create M-Files”

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
• “Create M-Files” MATLAB - Introduction course Desktop Tools Command Window: Use the Command Window to

Desktop Tools

Command Window:

MATLAB - Introduction course Desktop Tools Command Window: Use the Command Window to make calculations and

Use the Command Window to make calculations and run functions which exist in MATLAB and M- files (programs) created by us.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
files (programs) created by us. MATLAB - Introduction course Desktop tools Command History: Lines you enter

Desktop tools

Command History:

MATLAB - Introduction course Desktop tools Command History: Lines you enter in the Command Window are

Lines you enter in the Command Window are logged in the Command History window. In the Command History, you can view previously used functions, and copy and execute selected lines.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
and execute selected lines. MATLAB - Introduction course Desktop tools Help Browser: Use the Help browser

Desktop tools

Help Browser:

Use the Help browser to search and view documentation for all MathWorks products. The Help browser is a Web browser integrated into the MATLAB desktop that displays HTML documents.

To open the Help browser, click the help button type helpbrowser in the Command Window.

browser, click the help button type helpbrowser in the Command Window. in the toolbar, or MATLAB

in the toolbar, or

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Desktop tools Help Browser: MATLAB - Introduction course Desktop tools Current Directory Browser: MATLAB file

Desktop tools

Help Browser:

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Desktop tools Help Browser: MATLAB - Introduction course Desktop tools Current Directory Browser: MATLAB file operations

Desktop tools

Current Directory Browser:

MATLAB file operations use the current directory as reference points. Any file you want to run must be in the current directory.

To search for, view, open, and make changes to MATLAB-related directories and files, use the MATLAB Current Directory browser.

and files, use the MATLAB Current Directory browser. MATLAB - Introduction course Desktop tools Workspace
MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Current Directory browser. MATLAB - Introduction course Desktop tools Workspace Browser: The MATLAB workspace

Desktop tools

Workspace Browser:

- Introduction course Desktop tools Workspace Browser: The MATLAB workspace consists of the set of variables

The MATLAB workspace consists of the set of variables (named arrays) built up during a MATLAB session and stored in memory. You add variables to the workspace by using functions, running M-files, and loading saved workspaces. To view the workspace and information about each variable, use the Workspace browser.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
use the Workspace browser. MATLAB - Introduction course Desktop tools Workspace Browser: To delete variables from

Desktop tools

Workspace Browser:

To delete variables from the workspace, select the variable and select Delete from the Edit menu. Alternatively, use the clear all function. The workspace is not maintained after you end the MATLAB session.

To save the workspace to a file that can be read during a later MATLAB session, select Save Workspace As from the File menu, or use the save function. This saves the workspace to a file called a MAT-file, which has a .mat extension.

To read in a MAT-file, select Import Data from the File menu, or use the load function.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Desktop tools Workspace Browser (Array Editor): Double-click on a variable in the Workspace browser to

Desktop tools

Workspace Browser (Array Editor):

Desktop tools Workspace Browser (Array Editor): Double-click on a variable in the Workspace browser to see

Double-click on a variable in the Workspace browser to see it in the Array Editor.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
to see it in the Array Editor. MATLAB - Introduction course Desktop tools Create M-Files: •

Desktop tools

Create M-Files:

• To create M-files, select New M-files from the File menu,

which allow to write programs and run MATLAB functions.

We can save the new algorithms in a any directory in a file

called a M-file, which has a .m extension.

• If you just need to view the contents of an M-file, you can display it in the Command Window by using the name of the function or running this function.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
or running this function. MATLAB - Introduction course Chapter 2 Operators for numbers Special functions for

Chapter 2

Operators for numbers

Special functions for numbers

Operators for vectors

Special functions for vectors

Operators for matrices

Special functions for matrices

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Special functions for matrices MATLAB - Introduction course Expressions for numbers Operators for numbers: + Addition

Expressions for numbers

Operators for numbers:

+

Addition

-

Subtraction

*

Multiplication

/

Division

^

Power

Special functions:

pi

3.1415…

sqrt

Square root

i

Imaginary unit

log

Logarithm

Inf

Infinity

exp

Exponentiel

NaN

Not a number

sign

Signe of the number

abs

Absolute value

(=1 if positif and 0 if negatif)

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Special functions Trigonometric functions: sin Sine in radians sind Sine in degrees asin Inverse of

Special functions

Trigonometric functions:

sin

Sine in radians

sind

Sine in degrees

asin

Inverse of the function Sine in radians

asind

Inverse of the function Sine in degrees

cos

Cosine in radians

cosd

Cosine in degrees

acos

Inverse of the function Cosine in radians

acosd Inverse of the function Cosine in degrees

tan

Tangent in radians

cot

Cotangent in radians

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
cot Cotangent in radians MATLAB - Introduction course Complex numbers special functions: abs the magnitude of

Complex numbers

special functions:

abs

the magnitude of the complex number

angle

the phase angle of the complex number

real

the real part of the complex number

imag

the imaginary part of the complex number

conj

the conjugate of the complex number

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
conjugate of the complex number MATLAB - Introduction course Vectors Create a vector: V=[2,3,7] is a

Vectors

Create a vector:

V=[2,3,7]

is a row vector

V=[2;3;7]

is a column vector

V’ column to line.

change the vector from line to column or from

Operators for vectors:

+

-

*

.*

./

Addition

Subtraction

Scalar product Element by element multiplication Element by element division

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Element by element division MATLAB - Introduction course Vectors Colon operator (:) X=1:10 is a row

Vectors

Colon operator (:)

X=1:10

is a row vector containing the integers from 1 to

10. By default the increment here is equal to 1.

For a nonunit spacing, we can specify an increment. For example:

X=100:-7:50 or X=0:pi/4:pi

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Vectors Special functions ones(1,3) is a row vector all components is equal to 1. ones(3,1)

Vectors

Special functions

ones(1,3) is a row vector all components is equal to 1.

ones(3,1) is a column vector all components is equal to 1.

zeros(1,3) is a row vector all components is equal to 0.

zeros(3,1) is a column vector all components is equal to 0.

rand(1,3) is a row vector with random components between

0 and 1.

sum(X) computes the sum of the elements of X.

find(X<3) gives the indexes of the elements of X < 3.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
of the elements of X < 3. MATLAB - Introduction course Matrices Create a Matrix: A=[1

Matrices

Create a Matrix:

A=[1 2 3;4 5 6;7 8 9] A’

is a matrix 3x3 is the transpose of the matrix A

Operators for matrices:

+

Addition

Matrix product

-

Subtraction

*

.*

Element by element multiplication

./

Element by element division

\

division of a matrix by a vector A\b.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
of a matrix by a vector A\b. MATLAB - Introduction course Matrices Special functions ones(3,3) is

Matrices

Special functions

ones(3,3) is a 3x3 matrix all components is equal to 1.

zeros(3,3) is a 3x3 matrix all components is equal to 0.

eye(3,3) is the identity matrix 3x3.

rand(3,3) is a 3x3 matrix with random components between

0 and 1.

sum(A(1,:)) computes the sum of the elements of the first row of A.

sum(A(:,2)) computes the sum of the elements of the second column of A.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
of the second column of A. MATLAB - Introduction course Matrices Special functions sum(A(end,:)) computes the

Matrices

Special functions

sum(A(end,:)) computes the sum of the elements in the last row of A.

sum(A(:,end)) computes the sum of the elements in the last column of A.

find(A<3) gives the indexes of the elements of A < 3.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Matrices Special functions diag(A) computes the diagonal of A. det(A) computes the determinant of A.

Matrices

Special functions

diag(A) computes the diagonal of A.

det(A) computes the determinant of A.

inv(A) computes the inverse of A.

eig(A) computes the eigenvalues of A.

poly(A) computes the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial of A.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
polynomial of A. MATLAB - Introduction course Graphics Plot of the function Sine x=0:pi/100:2*pi;

Graphics

Plot of the function Sine

x=0:pi/100:2*pi;

y=sin(x);

plot(x,y)

We can label the axes and add a title:

xlabel(‘x’)

ylabel(‘Sine of x’)

title(‘Plot of the Sine function’)

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
of the Sine function’) MATLAB - Introduction course Graphics Multiple data sets in one graph x=0:pi/100:2*pi;

Graphics

Multiple data sets in one graph

x=0:pi/100:2*pi;

y1=sin(x); y2=sin(x-0.25); y3=sin(x-0.5);

plot(x,y1,x,y2,x,y3)

The legend command provides an easy way to identify the individual plots:

legend(‘sin(x)’,’sin(x-0.25)’,’sin(x-0.5)’)

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course Graphics Multiple data sets in one graph We can also use

Graphics

Multiple data sets in one graph

We can also use this format:

figure(1);

plot(x,y1);

hold on;

plot(x,y2);

hold on;

plot(x,y3);

legend(‘sin(x)’,’sin(x-0.25)’,’sin(x-0.5)’)

hold off;

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Graphics Controlling the axes By default, MATLAB finds the maxima and the minima of the

Graphics

Controlling the axes

By default, MATLAB finds the maxima and the minima of the data to choose the axis limits. The axis command enables you to specify your own limits:

axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax])

Or for three-dimensional graph:

axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax])

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax]) MATLAB - Introduction course Graphics Multiple plots in one figure The

Graphics

Multiple plots in one figure

The subplot command enables you to display multiple plots in the same window or print them on the same piece of paper. Typing: subplot(m,n,p)

partitions the figure window into an m-by-n matrix of small subplots and selects the pth subplot for the current plot. The plots are numbered along first the top row of the figure window, then the second row, and so on.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
then the second row, and so on. MATLAB - Introduction course Graphics Multiple plots in one
Graphics Multiple plots in one figure
Graphics Multiple plots in one figure

Graphics

Multiple plots in one figure

Graphics Multiple plots in one figure
Graphics Multiple plots in one figure

Example:

subplot(2,2,1)

plot(x,y1);

hold off;

subplot(2,2,2)

plot(x,y2);

hold off;

Subplot(2,2,3)

Plot(x,y3);

hold off;

subplot(2,2,4);

plot(x,y4);

hold off;

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
plot(x,y4); hold off; MATLAB - Introduction course Graphics Saving a figure To save a figure, select

Graphics

Saving a figure

To save a figure, select save from the file menu or click on the save button of the figure.

The figure is then saved as a fig file.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Chapter 3 Programming with MATLAB if statements for loops while loops MATLAB - Introduction course

Chapter 3

Programming with MATLAB

if statements

for loops

while loops

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
for loops while loops MATLAB - Introduction course Chapter 3 if The if statement evaluates a

Chapter 3

if

The if statement evaluates a logical expression and executes a group of statements when the expression is true. The optional elseif and else keywords provide for the execution of alternate groups of statements.

An end keyword, which matches the if, terminates the last group of statements. The groups of statements are delineated by the four keywords – no braces or brackets are involved.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
or brackets are involved. MATLAB - Introduction course Chapter 3 if (example): if a < 0

Chapter 3

if (example):

if a < 0 a = a+1; elseif a == 0

a=0;

else

a=a;

end

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
a == 0 a=0; else a=a; end MATLAB - Introduction course Chapter 3 for The for

Chapter 3

for

The for loop repeats a group of statements a fixed, predetermined number of times.

A matching end delineates the loop.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
Chapter 3 for (example): for i = 1:10 a(i) = i; end MATLAB - Introduction

Chapter 3

for (example):

for i = 1:10 a(i) = i; end

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
for i = 1:10 a(i) = i; end MATLAB - Introduction course Chapter 3 while The

Chapter 3

while

The while loop repeats a group of statements an indefinite number of times under control of a logical conditions.

A matching end delineates the loop.

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
end delineates the loop. MATLAB - Introduction course Chapter 3 while (example): while i < 0

Chapter 3

while (example):

while i < 0 a = i +1; end

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course
while i < 0 a = i +1; end MATLAB - Introduction course Chapter 3 The

Chapter 3

The logical operators in the tests:

Logical operator

MATLAB Symbol

and

&

or

|

equal

==

not equal

~=

Less than

<

Greater than

>

Less or equal to

<=

Greater or equal to

>=

MATLAB - Introduction course
MATLAB - Introduction course