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Dallas County Institute of Forensic Sciences Forensic Laboratory

Firearm & Toolmark Unit Firearm & Toolmark Procedures Manual, Version 2.2

Authorized by: Raymond E. Cooper Firearms Section Supervisor Timothy J. Sliter, Ph.D. Chief, Physical Evidence Chris Heartsill Acting Quality Manager

Dallas County Institute of Forensic Sciences Firearm and Toolmark Unit

Firearm & Toolmark Procedures Manual, Version 2.2 Effective Date: 5/29/2008

Summary of Changes from Previous Version Previous version: Current version: Firearm Section Procedure Manual, Version 1.0 Firearm Section Procedure Manual, Version 2.0

1. 2. 3.

Correction of various typographical and grammatical errors. Various non-substantive changes in wording and format to improve clarity. Conversion of the hardcopy manual to an electronic form.

Dallas County Institute of Forensic Sciences Firearm and Toolmark Unit

Firearm & Toolmark Procedures Manual, Version 2.2 Effective Date: 5/29/2008

Revisions & Corrections Firearm & Toolmark Procedures Manual, Version 2.X Effective Date 2/28/2008 Description Changes Version 2.0 to Version 2.1 Revision to SOP 13. Test Firing/Water Recovery Tank 6.11 (pg 34) to clarify the status of test fired ammunition as evidence Changes from Version 2.1 to Version 2.2 Revision of Test Firing Recovery Tank Section 6 to clarify evidence handling procedures related to test fired evidence Revision of Test Firing Cotton Waste Recovery Box Section 6 to clarify evidence handling procedures related to test fired evidence Revision of Test Firing Bullet Trap Section 6 to clarify evidence handling procedures related to test fired evidence Revision of Remote Firing Section 6 to clarify evidence handling procedures related to test fired evidence. Authorized by R. Cooper

5/29/2008

R. Cooper

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Table of Contents

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms. Safe Firearms Handling.. Pre-Firing Safety Examination Trigger Pull Examination Spring Gauge Trigger Pull Examination - Triggerscan System.. Barrel and Overall Length Measurement of a Firearm... Corroded Firearm Examination.. Sound Suppressor Examination. Malfunctioning Firearm Examination. Bore Chamber Casting Firearms Reference File..

4 7 9 12 15 17 19 21 23 27 29

Ammunition Reference Collection.. 31 Test Firing Water Recovery Tank... 33

Test Firing Cotton Waste Recovery Box 35 Test Firing Bullet Trap.. Remote Firing Downloading.. 37 39 41

Primed Cartridge Case / Shotshell. 43 Caliber Determination.. Stereo Microscope Measuring Eyepiece... 45 47

GRC Utilization.. 50

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Table of Contents (continued) 22. 23. 24. 25. Wad Determination. 52 Shot Determination Physical Examination & Classification of Fired Projectiles.. Physical Examination & Classification of Cartridges & Fired Cartridge Cases Physical Examination & Classification of Shotshells and Fired Shotshells 54 57 59

26.

61

27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

Microscopic Comparison... 63 Trace Material Examination.. National Integrated Ballistic Information Network. 65 68

Chronograph 70 Distance Determination Test Examination & Physical Classification Tool Trace Examination- Tool... Test Standards .. Examination & Physical Classification Toolmark.. Trace Material Collection Toolmark. Microscopic Comparison.. Casting. Miscellaneous Cylinder Examination.. Key Examination Lock Set Examination 72 73 75 78 80 82 85 87 89 91 93

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Table of Contents (continued) 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. Polishing. 95

Chemical Restoration 97 Heat. Electrochemical. Fracture Match Comparisons.. Testimony Monitoring... Appendix 1 Range of Conclusions.. Appendix 2 Calibration Standards.. Appendix 3 Work Sheets.. 101 103 105 107 108 109 112

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PHYSICAL EXAMINATION and CLASSIFICATION of FIREARMS


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The initial examination of any firearm will include the completion of a firearm worksheet. This worksheet will include the manufacturers data of the firearm and will serve as a source to document the condition of the firearm as received and any tests performed to or with the firearm. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.2 Pre-Firing Safety Checks 1.2.3 Trigger Pull Examination 1.2.4 Barrel and Overall Length Measurements

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be worn when applicable.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

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6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 6.2 6.2.1 Laboratory Case Number 6.2.2 Dallas Police Department Gun Tag Number 6.2.3 Item Number 6.2.4 Type of Firearm 6.2.5 If the firearm was received loaded 6.2.6 Make 6.2.7 Model 6.2.8 Caliber/Gauge 6.2.9 Serial Number 6.2.10 General Rifling Characteristics 6.2.10.1 Number of Lands and Grooves 6.2.10.2 Direction of Twist 6.2.11 Barrel Length 6.2.12 Location of Examiners Markings 6.2.13 Residue in Bore 6.2.14 Residue in Cylinder (Revolvers) 6.2.15 Cylinder Flare (Revolvers) 6.2.16 Number of Flares (Revolvers) 6.2.17 Description of Firearm Finish 6.2.18 Choke (Shotguns) 6.2.19 Action Type 6.2.20 Safeties 6.2.21 Trigger Pull Single Action and Double Action 6.2.22 Magazine or Cylinder Capacity 6.2.23 Push-Off 6.2.24 If ammunition was furnished with firearm 6.2.25 Test Fire Information 6.2.25.1 Number of test fires 6.2.25.2 Where test fired 6.2.25.3 Ammunition used to test fire from evidence or laboratory 6.2.25.4 Brand of ammunition used to test fire 6.2.25.5 If test fired components were retained 6.2.25.6 General ejection direction 6.2.25.7 Operating Condition 6.2.25.8 Breech Face Marks Description 6.2.25.9 Firing Pin Impression Description 6.2.25.10 Microscopic Description of Firing Pin Impression 6.2.25.11 Firing Pin Drag 6.2.26 Entry into NIBIN 6.2.27 Results of Examination A firearm worksheet should be filled out. The worksheets are dynamic documents and may change as the need arises. However, the worksheet will include noting the following: (if applicable)

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6.3

At the discretion of the examiner observations can include the following: 6.3.1 Any other information the examiner might find useful

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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SAFE FIREARM HANDLING


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Firearms evidence in the laboratory environment is not dangerous if handled correctly, cautiously and safety. Occasionally, loaded firearms are received in evidence for a particular examination. These, of course, need very special handling. All firearms must be treated as though they are loaded. This rule cannot be over stressed and must be followed at all times, whether its in the evidence receiving area, firearms section, test firing area or in court. Safe firearm handling within the laboratory environment corresponds with safe firearm handling in general. The only way to prevent accidents is to practice safety at all times. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Physical Examination and Classification of Firearms 1.2.2 Pre-Firing Safety Checks 1.2.3 Trigger Pull Examination 1.2.4 Barrel and Overall Length Measurements

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be worn when applicable.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

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5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 6.2 The muzzle of the firearm must always be pointed in a safe direction. Prior to any examination, regardless of which section is receiving the firearm, a competent individual must ascertain the loaded or unloaded condition of the firearm. Test firing or any examination of the firearm where ammunition is loaded into a firearm, will only be performed in designated test firing areas. A firearm will not be placed in the evidence vault or returned to any agency in a loaded condition.

6.3 6.4 7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 NONE

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PRE-FIRING SAFETY EXAMINATION


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 It is the responsibility of the firearm examiner to ensure that all appropriate safety function checks are performed on a firearm or item of ammunition prior to test firing. The following is a list of safety checks that should be considered. The examiner must be mindful that individual case situations may require a more extensive function test process than that which is listed here. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be worn when applicable.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

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6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 Deciding Whether Or Not A Firearm Can Be Safely Test Fired From The Normal Hand Held Position. 6.1.1 Is the chamber/bore clear? 6.1.2 Are there any signs of cracks or weaknesses in major parts of the firearm; such as the frame, slide or barrel? 6.1.3 Does the firearm function, lock-up or dry fire as you would expect it to? 6.1.4 Is the correct ammunition being utilized? 6.2 Is it Appropriate To Utilize The Evidence Ammunition? 6.2.1 Are there signs of reloading? If so, reconsider the need to test fire the evidence ammunition. 6.2.2 Are there splits in the cartridge case neck and/or other significant damage to the cartridge case? 6.2.3 Is the ammunition of the correct caliber? This assessment of caliber cannot be based on the head stamp! 6.2.4 Are there existing toolmarks on pertinent surfaces of the ammunition? 6.2.5 Is the ammunition needed for other tests; i.e., range determinations? 6.3 Muzzle Loaders. 6.3.1 Does the chamber/barrel appear sound? 6.3.2 Do the percussion nipples have oversize flash holes? 6.3.3 If a black powder firearm is received in the loaded condition, it should be rendered safe as soon as possible.

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6.4

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.4.1 If any of the above considerations cannot be answered with a clear "yes" or otherwise rectified and test firing is necessary, that firearm must be remote fired.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 Work Sheets

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TRIGGER PULL EXAMINATION SPRING GAUGE


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 One of the routine examinations conducted in a firearms identification examination is determining the trigger pull of a firearm. Trigger pull is defined as the amount of force which must be applied to the trigger of a firearm to cause sear release. This examination can provide vital information regarding the mechanical operating condition of the firearm. The trigger pull of a firearm can be obtained utilizing a spring gauge which makes contact with the trigger at a point where the trigger finger would normally rest. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Physical Examination & Classification of Firearms 1.2.2 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.3 Trigger Pull Examination TriggerScanTM System

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be worn when applicable.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 Spring Gauge

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5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 6.2 There is a remote possibility that the firearm may be damaged during this examination. SINGLE ACTION TRIGGER PULL 6.2.1 Insure that the firearm is unloaded 6.2.2 Cock the firearm 6.2.3 Hold the firearm where the muzzle is parallel to the spring gauge. 6.2.4 Insure the Spring Gauge indicator is zeroed 6.2.5 Rest the trigger hook of the Spring Gauge on the trigger where the trigger finger would normally rest. Make sure it is not touching any other part of the firearm and the Spring Gauge is parallel to the bore of the firearm. 6.2.6 Apply pressure to the Spring Gauge, until the sear releases 6.2.7 Check two or three times, resetting the sear connection after each attempt 6.2.8 Record the lightest and heaviest weights necessary for sear release 6.2.9 It should be noted that measuring the trigger pull of a rimfire firearm must not be performed on an empty chamber. A dummy cartridge must be used. The examiner must also take into consideration the potential for damage of a centerfire firearm and may wish to use a dummy cartridge in this instance as well.

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6.3

DOUBLE ACTION TRIGGER PULL 6.3.1 Insure that the firearm is unloaded. 6.3.2 Hold the firearm where the muzzle is parallel to the spring gauge. 6.3.3 Insure the Spring Gauge indicator is zeroed. 6.3.4 Rest the trigger hook of the Spring Gauge on the trigger where the trigger finger would normally rest. Make sure it is not touching any other part of the firearm and the Spring Gauge is parallel to the bore of the firearm. 6.3.5 Apply pressure to the Spring Gauge, until the sear releases. 6.3.6 Check two or three times, resetting the sear connection after each attempt. 6.3.7 Record the lightest and heaviest weights necessary for sear release. 6.3.8 It should be noted that measuring the trigger pull of a rimfire firearm must not be performed on an empty chamber. A dummy cartridge must be used. The examiner must also take into consideration the potential for damage of a centerfire firearm and may wish to use a dummy cartridge in this instance as well.

6.4

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 6.4.1 The results acquired are only an approximation and a different technique may lead to a different trigger pull weight. The trigger pull is normally recorded to the nearest weight increment.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 7.2 Appendix 2 Calibration Standards Appendix 3 Work Sheets

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TRIGGER PULL EXAMINATION TriggerScanTM System


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 One of the routine examinations conducted in a firearms identification examination is determining the trigger pull of a firearm. Trigger pull is defined as the amount of force which must be applied to the trigger of a firearm to cause sear release. This examination can provide vital information regarding the mechanical operating condition of the firearm. The trigger pull of a firearm can be obtained utilizing a computerized TriggerScanTM system. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Physical Examination & Classification of Firearms 1.2.2 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.3 Trigger Pull Examination Spring Gauge

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be worn when applicable.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 TriggerScanTM System

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5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 The TriggerScanTM System Procedures manual should be followed in order to measure the trigger pull force using this system. 6.1.1 6.1.2 Check two or three times, resetting the sear connection after each attempt. It should be noted that measuring the trigger pull of a rimfire firearm must not be performed on an empty chamber. A dummy cartridge must be used. The examiner must also take into consideration the potential for damage of a centerfire firearm and may wish to use a dummy cartridge in this instance as well.

6.2

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 6.2.1 The results acquired are only an approximation and a different technique may lead to a different trigger pull weight. The trigger pull is recorded to the nearest weight increment measured in pounds.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 7.2 Appendix 2 Calibration Standards Appendix 3 Work Sheets

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BARREL and OVERALL LENGTH MEASUREMENT of a FIREARM


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 One of the routine procedures conducted in a firearms identification examination is determining the barrel length and in some cases the overall length of a firearm. Barrel length is defined as the distance between the end of the barrel and the face of the closed breechblock or bolt for firearms other than revolvers. On revolvers, it is the overall length of the barrel including the threaded portion within the frame. Barrel length normally should include compensators, flash suppressor, etc., if permanently affixed. Overall length of a firearm is defined as the dimension measured parallel to the axis of the bore from muzzle to a line at right angles to the axis and tangent at the rearmost point of the butt plate or grip. Removable barrel extensions, poly chokes, flash suppressors, etc., are not part of the measured barrel length or overall length. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Physical Examination & Classification of Firearms

1.2 2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be worn when applicable.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 4.2 4.3 Ruler (and/or) Tape Measurer (and/or) Non-marring Dowel

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS

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6.1 6.2

Care must be taken if any object is placed down the barrel to help expedite the measurement. Only a non-marring item may be placed down the barrel. BARREL LENGTH: 6.2.1 REVOLVERS: 6.2.1.1 Measure the distance from the muzzle to the breech end of the barrel, excluding the cylinder. This measurement can be done directly or by placing a non-marring item down the barrel, marking the distance from the muzzle to the breech end of the barrel and measuring this item. This measurement will be recorded in inches.

6.2.1.2

6.2.2 FIREARMS OTHER THAN REVOLVERS: 6.2.2.1 Measure the distance from the muzzle to the breech face in a closed and locked position. This measurement can be done directly or by placing a non-marring item down the barrel, marking the distance from the muzzle to the breech end of the barrel and measuring this item. This measurement will be recorded in inches.

6.2.2.2 6.3

OVERALL LENGTH: 6.3.1 Measure the distance from the butt to the muzzle. Measurement shall be made parallel to the bore and record in inches.

6.4

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.4.1 Measurements obtained should be considered approximations given the accuracy limitations of most measuring devices.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 7.2 Appendix 2 Calibration Standards Appendix 3 Work Sheets

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CORRODED FIREARM EXAMINATION


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Corroded firearms or those found in water, etc. may be submitted for examination. Immediate attention must be given to these firearms to prevent further damage to the firearm. The examiner should instruct an agency recovering the firearm in a fluid such as water, to submit the firearm in a container of the fluid. If this is not practical, the firearm can be sprayed with a product that displaces water. It should be noted that the firearm might be too rusted to be functional. It is the examiners discretion to test fire a firearm based on its condition. The firearm will be test fired only if the examiner determines it is safe to do so. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.2 Physical Examination & Classification of Firearms

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be worn when applicable. Any firearm that cannot be unloaded must be examined in an area designated for firing firearms (preferably a range).

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

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4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 Determine if the firearm is loaded and if it is, unload the firearm. If it can not be readily verified to be unloaded it must be examined in an area designated for the firing of firearms. An examiner must take all necessary steps to insure that the firearm is unloaded. This may include the necessity of cutting the firearm apart. The examiner must determine to what extent restoring the firearm is necessary (i.e., for test firing, for recovering manufacturer information, serial number, etc.). Soak the firearm in penetrating oil, de-rusting solvents or similar material. Periodically check the firearm until the firearm functions, or the desired information is recovered. Clean the firearm with gun cleaning solvent and cleaning patches. Care must be taken if any object is placed down the barrel that may impart marks to the interior surface.

6.2 6.3

6.4 6.5 6.6

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 Work Sheets

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SOUND SUPPRESSOR EXAMINATION


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 A sound suppressor is any device attached to the barrel of a firearm designed to reduce the noise of discharge. Sound suppressors can be commercially produced or homemade. They are typically tubular metal devices, but may vary in shape or form. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.2 Physical Examination & Classification of Firearms

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be worn when applicable.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 Examine device to determine if it is, or is characteristic of, a sound suppressor device.

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6.2

Examiner will document and record his/her findings. After an initial examination, a report can be issued that the device is, or is characteristic of, a sound suppression device. Testing of a firearm and firearm/sound suppressor combination must be conducted in an appropriate setting, usually a range. The examiner should test-fire the firearm with the sound suppressor affixed and with it removed to compare the sounds produced.

6.3 6.4 7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 Work Sheets

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MALFUNCTIONING FIREARM EXAMINATION


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 A firearms examiner may be called upon to examine a firearm to determine if it will malfunction. Many of these cases deal with the question "Will the firearm fire without pulling the trigger?" In these examinations, it is the goal of the examiner to acquire a detailed account of the incident, thereafter thoroughly examining and testing the firearm. Examinations can include external and internal observations, x-ray examinations, or striking or dropping the firearm in attempts to duplicate the incident as reported. The examiner should attempt to conduct his/her examinations in a manner so as not to alter the gun. However, there may be times when damage may occur. Any change to the gun must be specifically documented in the examiners notes. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.1 Primed Cases

1.2 2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be worn when applicable.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

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4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 No one procedure can sufficiently outline the steps necessary to examine all firearms for any malfunction. However, the following list of examinations should serve as a guideline (not mandatory) for the examiner: 6.1.1 Physical Check (Condition of Firearm as Received): 6.1.1.1 Cocked/uncocked 6.1.1.2 Safety position 6.1.1.3 Loaded/unloaded 6.1.1.4 Cartridge position 6.1.1.5 Stuck cartridges/discharged cartridge cases 6.1.1.6 Presence and/or location of cylinder flare(s) 6.1.1.7 If the firearm is to be x-rayed, this may be the time to do it. 6.1.2 Visual Abnormalities: 6.1.2.1 Barrel (loose, etc.) 6.1.2.2 Receiver (condition) 6.1.2.3 Slide (condition) 6.1.2.4 Parts broken or missing especially: firing pin, ejector or extractor 6.1.2.5 Screws (loose or missing) 6.1.2.6 Alterations or adaptations 6.1.2.7 Sights

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6.1.3 Action (External): 6.1.3.1 Are the relationships of the action parts correct? 6.1.3.2 Is the assembly correct? 6.1.3.3 Does the action lock normally on closing? 6.1.3.4 Cylinder rotation (securely locks). 6.1.3.5 Hand relationship to the ratchet (worn). 6.1.3.6 Trigger (not returning, sticks, broken spring, etc.) 6.1.3.7 Check the trigger pull (single action, double action) and striking of hammer. 6.1.4 Safeties: 6.1.4.1 , , full cock, seating check (any false seating positions, push off, etc.) 6.1.4.2 Grip, magazine, disconnector: function 6.1.4.3 Thumb/finger - note positions when firearm will fire 6.1.4.4 Rebound hammer or inertia firing pin 6.1.4.4.1 Will firing pin ride on primers? 6.1.4.4.2 Is firing pin frozen or bent? 6.1.4.4.3 (Drop hammer several times to check above safeties.) 6.1.4.5 Does the slide or bolt have to be completely closed to fire? 6.1.4.6 Can the safeties be bypassed? 6.1.4.6.1 Will dropping hammer bypass safeties? (This may require primed cartridge tests.) 6.1.4.6.2 Will a light blow with a non-marring tool on the rear of the hammer, when it is in battery, discharge the primer? 6.1.4.6.3 Is the firing pin impression off center (both single action and double action operation)? 6.1.5 Action Check: 6.1.5.1 Check feeding 6.1.5.1.1 magazine 6.1.5.1.2 carrier or lifter 6.1.5.1.3 feed ramp 6.1.5.1.4 magazine lips, etc. 6.1.5.2 Will a cartridge fire on closing of the bolt or slide? 6.1.5.3 Extractor and/or ejector markings on evidence cartridges/discharged cartridge cases consistent with what is expected? 6.1.5.4 Unusual marks exhibited on the cartridges/discharged cartridge cases. 6.1.6 Check for any inherent "quirks" known about the particular firearm based on literature or case data. 6.1.7 Test Fire Firearm (note operation, misfires, etc.): 6.1.7.1 Note any operational problems.
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6.1.7.2 6.1.7.3

Ammunition involved (proper cartridge, type, reloads, etc.). Check consistency of the impression on test and evidence.

6.1.8 Special Situational Tests: 6.1.8.1 Discretion should be considered in situational testing if the force needed could disturb the internal action and/or cause changes which might prevent determining the exact cause of the malfunction. 6.1.9 Action (Internal) 6.1.9.1 Hammer notch(s) 6.1.9.1.1 Worn 6.1.9.1.2 Burrs 6.1.9.1.3 Dirt, etc. 6.1.9.2 Sear 6.1.9.2.1 Worn 6.1.9.2.2 Broken 6.1.9.2.3 Burrs, etc 6.1.9.3 Safeties (relationships and general parts relationship). 6.1.9.4 Springs 6.1.9.4.1 Weak 6.1.9.4.2 Broken 6.1.9.4.3 Altered, etc 6.1.9.5 Signs of any tampering or faulty assembly. 7.0 APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 Work Sheets

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BORE CHAMBER CASTING


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Occasionally, firearms are received for which the caliber may not be known or may be different than is designated on the firearm and in the literature. In order to facilitate firing of test shots that are of the correct caliber for a particular firearm, it may be necessary to make a bore and/or chamber cast. Then, by measuring the cast, the correct cartridge can be selected for test firing. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling

1.2 2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be worn when applicable.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

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6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 Casts can be made using various casting materials such as low melting point metals and silicone rubber compounds. The procedure below is for Mikrosil. 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.4 6.1.5 6.1.6 6.1.7 6.1.8 Insure that the firearm is unloaded Open the action and remove the bolt or bolt assembly Check the bore to make sure it is clear Push a cleaning patch in the barrel, from muzzle end, until it is inch to inch from the beginning of the chamber Lubricate the chamber with gun oil, silicone spray or some other similar substance such as WD-40 Mix Mikrosil as per manufacture instructions and carefully pour into the chamber until full Do not allow casting material to flow into breech. It will make extraction difficult. When casting material is set or cool, depending on type used, gently tap end of cleaning rod to loosen cast from the chamber and remove from the breech. Mikrosil has to be pushed/forced out and is not reusable. Therefore, it is undesirable to let any more of the casting material than necessary go into the barrel.

6.1.9

6.1.10 The same steps may be used in the casting of the bore. However in bore casting, only the last three (3) inches of the bore need to be cast. 6.2 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.2.1 The correct caliber of the firearm can be determined by measuring the mouth, base, overall length, rim (if pertinent) and shoulder length of the cast.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 NONE

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FIREARMS REFERENCE FILE


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 A Firearms Reference File or Library is maintained by the laboratory for various scientific reasons, to include: 1.1.1 To identify the make, model and source of evidence firearms. 1.1.2 To provide exemplar firearms for various scientific testing purposes which might otherwise compromise an evidence firearm. 1.1.3 To provide an exemplar resource for training purposes. 1.1.4 To provide a source of firearms parts for the temporary repair of evidence firearms for test-firing purposes. 1.1.5 To provide a resource for the identification of firearms parts recovered at a crime scene. 1.1.6 To provide a resource for the location and style of firearm serial numbers. 1.2 OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.2 Ammunition Reference File

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered.

3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

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4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 A Firearms Reference File must be controlled. 6.1.1 When a gun is donated to the Firearm Reference Library, it must be accompanied by appropriate paperwork releasing it to the laboratory. 6.1.2 The gun is then given a Firearm Reference Number, entered into the database, tagged, and stored in the Firearm Reference Library. 6.1.3 In the event that a firearm is required to be returned to the submitting agency, a release form must be generated.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 NONE

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AMMUNITION REFERENCE COLLECTION


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Ammunition Reference Collection is defined as a collection or cataloging of both cartridges and components utilized for various scientific reasons, to include: 1.1.1 To identify the manufacturers cartridge designation and source of evidence ammunition or component parts thereof. 1.1.2 To provide an exemplar resource for training purposes. 1.1.3 To provide a resource for the identification of ammunition components recovered at a crime scene and autopsies. 1.2 OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.2 Firearms Reference Collection

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered.

3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 When handgun and rifle ammunition is purchased for the reference file, if a specific cartridge type is not represented in the file, one will be broken down into its components and placed in the file. The container for the remaining ammunition will then be labeled to correspond with the placement of the represented cartridge in the reference file. 31 Firearm & Toolmark Procedures Manual, Version 2.2
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6.1.1 The numeric code on the ammunition packaging will be in the following format: 010203 The first two digits, 01, refers to the file drawer number The second set of digits,02, refers to the box number within the drawer. The third set of digits, 03, refers to the quadrant within the box. 6.2 When shotgun ammunition is purchased for the reference file, if a specific shotshell type is not represented in the file, one will be broken down into its components and placed in the file. The container for the remaining ammunition will then be labeled to correspond with the placement of the represented shotshell in the reference file. 6.2.1 The alphanumeric code on the ammunition packaging will be in the following format: SG14 The letters SG refers to shotgun and the numeric portion 14 refers to the placement of the specimen in the file which is organized in numeric order.

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TEST FIRING WATER RECOVERY TANK


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 In order to perform a microscopic comparison of test shots from a submitted firearm, a suggestion of two (2) test shots should be fired and recovered. Recovery methods include the water tank and the cotton waste recovery box. The type of firearm and ammunition tested will usually dictate the type of recovery method used. The water recovery tank is usually used to recover bullets from handguns and rifles. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.2 Remote Firing 1.2.3 Downloading 1.2.4 Primed Cases

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be used. One should be aware of the maximum velocity of the projectile that can be fired into a particular water tank, as well as the proper water depth needed for firing.

2.2 2.3

3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

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6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 When possible the examiner will mark the bullet and cartridge case of each test shot with: 6.1.1 the laboratory case number and/or 6.1.2 the item number and/or 6.1.3 the examiner's markings If direct marking of the item is not possible (eg. due to size or condition) then the packaging of the item will be labeled Test fires will be designated as TF in the evidence numbering system; e.g., 1TF-1 and 1TF-2 would be two test fires from item 1. The examiner should consider indexing and sequencing each shot and perform these functions if necessary. Proper hearing and eye protection must be worn. Ensure that the water level is appropriate. Ensure that all lids or doors of the water recovery tank are closed. Ensure all available warning and ventilation systems are activated. The examiner should consider loading no more than two (2) cartridges into the firearm during the initial testing of the firearm. Fire the firearm through the shooting port. If the firearm is capable of firing both single and double action modes, a minimum of one (1) shot per mode may be obtained at the examiners discretion. Recover the bullets using the appropriate device. Ejected cartridge cases must be retrieved. Any recovered bullets or cartridge cases used in test firing a firearm will be returned to the investigating agency. All test fires will be considered evidence and will be tracked using the Physical Evidence Section Chain of Custody form.

6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10

6.11 6.12 6.13

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 NONE

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TEST FIRING COTTON WASTE RECOVERY BOX


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 In order to perform a microscopic comparison of test shots from a submitted firearm, a suggestion of two (2) test shots will be fired and recovered. Recovery methods include the water tank and the cotton waste recovery box. The type of firearm and ammunition tested will usually dictate the type of recovery method used. The cotton waste recovery box is usually used to recover bullets from handguns, rifles and slugs fired from shotguns. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.2 Remote Firing 1.2.3 Downloading 1.2.4 Primed Cases

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be used. One should be aware of the capabilities of the particular cotton waste recovery box being used.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS

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6.1

When possible the examiner will mark the bullet and cartridge case of each test shot with: 6.1.1 the laboratory case number and/or 6.1.2 the item number and/or 6.1.3 the examiner's markings If direct marking of the item is not possible (eg. due to size or condition) then the packaging of the item will be labeled Test fires will be designated as TF in the evidence numbering system; e.g., 1TF-1 and 1TF-2 would be two test fires from item 1.

6.2 6.3

6.4 6.5 6.6

The examiner should consider indexing and sequencing each shot and perform these functions if necessary. Proper hearing and eye protection must be worn. The examiner should consider the placement of paper partitions at various points in box to ensure tracking of the test shot, as well as insuring that the cotton is packed down so as not to retain previous bullet paths. Ensure that all lids or doors of the box are closed. Ensure all available warning and ventilation systems are activated. The examiner should consider loading no more than two (2) cartridges into the firearm during the initial testing of the firearm. Fire the firearm through the shooting port. If the firearm is capable of firing both single and double action modes, a minimum of one (1) shot per mode may be obtained at the examiners discretion. Bullets should be recovered by searching through cotton, using partitions as guides. Ejected cartridge cases must be retrieved. Any recovered bullets or cartridge cases used in test firing a firearm will be returned to the investigating agency. All test fires will be considered evidence and will be tracked using the Physical Evidence Section Chain of Custody form.

6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10

6.11 6.12 6.13

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 NONE

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TEST FIRING BULLET TRAP


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 In order to perform a microscopic comparison of a submitted firearm, a suggestion of two (2) test shots should be fired and recovered. Recovery methods include the water tank and the cotton waste recovery box. The type of firearm and ammunition tested will usually dictate the type of recovery method used. The bullet trap is usually used to test fire firearms when the recovery of the fired projectile(s) is not necessary. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.2 Remote Firing 1.2.3 Downloading 1.2.4 Primed Cases

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be used. One should be aware of the capabilities of the particular bullet trap being used.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

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4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 When possible the examiner will mark the bullet and cartridge case of each test shot with: 6.1.1 the laboratory case number and/or 6.1.2 the item number and/or 6.1.3 the examiner's markings If direct marking of the item is not possible (eg. due to size or condition) then the packaging of the item will be labeled Test fires will be designated as TF in the evidence numbering system; e.g., 1TF-1 and 1TF-2 would be two test fires from item 1. The examiner should consider indexing and sequencing each shot and perform these functions if necessary. Proper hearing and eye protection must be worn. Ensure all available warning and ventilation systems are activated. The examiner should consider loading no more than two (2) cartridges into the firearm during the initial testing of the firearm. Fire the firearm into the front of the trap. If the firearm is capable of firing both single and double action modes, a minimum of one (1) shot per mode may be obtained at the examiners discretion. Ejected cartridge cases must be retrieved. Any recovered bullets or cartridge cases used in test firing a firearm will be returned to the investigating agency. All test fires will be considered evidence and will be tracked using the Physical Evidence Section Chain of Custody form.

6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8

6.9 6.10

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 NONE

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REMOTE FIRING
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 During the course of examining a firearm, it may be determined that it would be unsafe for the examiner to fire the firearm by holding it as designed. If it is necessary to obtain test standards from this firearm, the firearm should be fired remotely. The Zero-One (or a similar device) can be utilized for firing long arms and some handguns, while the Ransom Rest (or a similar device) can be utilized for firing handguns. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.2 Downloading 1.2.3 Primed Cases

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be used. The examiner must follow all safety recommendations set forth by the manufacturer of the shooting device used. Due to the potential hazard of the firearm malfunctioning or undergoing a catastrophic failure, the examiner must be stationed behind a protective shield or at a safe distance from the firearm when discharging the firearm.

2.2 2.3 2.4

3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS

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5.1 6.0

NONE

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 When possible the examiner will mark the bullet and cartridge case of each test shot with: 6.1.1 the laboratory case number and/or 6.1.2 the item number and/or 6.1.3 the examiner's markings If direct marking of the item is not possible (eg. due to size or condition) then the packaging of the item will be labeled Test fires will be designated as TF in the evidence numbering system; e.g., 1TF-1 and 1TF-2 would be two test fires from item 1. The examiner should consider indexing and sequencing each shot and perform these functions if necessary. Proper hearing and eye protection must be worn. Set up the chosen remote firing device, as per guidelines set forth by the manufacturer, in front of the appropriate recovery system. Place firearm in device. It is recommended that the examiner first dry-fire the firearm in the remote firing device before using live ammunition. Ensure all available warning and ventilation systems are activated. The examiner should consider loading no more than one (1) cartridge into the firearm during the initial testing of the firearm. Activate the remote device while standing behind a protective shield or while standing at a safe distance away from the firearm. Obtain fired tests. Any recovered bullets or cartridge cases used in test firing a firearm will be returned to the investigating agency. All test fires will be considered evidence and will be tracked using the Physical Evidence Section Chain of Custody form.

6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 NONE

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DOWNLOADING
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Due to the limitations of the firearms section bullet recovery devices, it may be necessary to reduce or change the powder load of the cartridge in order to obtain a velocity suitable for safely collecting test standards for comparison purposes. Even with a reduced load, it may be necessary to fire the firearm remotely. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.2 Remote Firing 1.2.3 Primed Cases 1.2.4 Water Tank Recovery 1.2.5 Cotton Waste Recovery Box 1.2.6 Bullet Trap

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be used.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 BALANCE/SCALE

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5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 Pull the bullet of the cartridge using an inertia bullet puller or a reloading press. Remove existing powder. Weigh the pulled bullet. Consult a reloading manual, such as Lyman, and obtain the powder charge for the weight of the pulled bullet and the new velocity needed. Weigh out the appropriate powder charge and place in existing cartridge case. Loosely pack a small piece of tissue or other similar material into the case to fill the gap between the bullet and powder. Seat the bullet back into the cartridge case using a rubber mallet or a reloading press. If appropriate powder is not available, a reduced load using 50% of the original powder can be used. It should be noted that great care must be taken when performing this type of downloading. 50% downloading CAN NOT be used with slow burning powders. 50% downloading CANNOT be used with many non-canister powders. When utilizing downloaded ammunition it is imperative that the examiner check the barrel for obstructions between each firing. The bullet, cartridge case, or shotshell of each test shot should be marked appropriately.

6.9

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards

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PRIMED CARTRIDGE CASE/SHOTSHELL


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 During the course of examining a firearm, it may be determined that it would be unsafe for the examiner to fire the firearm as designed. If it is not necessary to obtain test standards for comparison purposes, the firing condition of the firearm can be tested using a primed empty cartridge case or shotshell. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Safe Firearm Handling 1.2.2 Bullet Trap

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Appropriate hearing and eye protection must be used.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

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6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 Obtain a primed empty cartridge case in the desired caliber or pull the bullet of a cartridge using an inertia bullet puller or reloading press, retaining only the primed cartridge case. 6.1.1 For shotguns, obtain a primed empty shotshell in the desired gauge or cut open a shotshell removing all components, retaining only the primed shotshell. A commercial firing pin testing device may be used for shotguns. 6.1.2 For rimfire firearms, obtain a primed empty cartridge case in the desired caliber or using pliers, remove the bullet from the cartridge case, retaining only the primed cartridge case. 6.2 6.3 6.4 Proper hearing and eye protection must be worn. Ensure all available warning and ventilation systems are activated. Load the primed empty cartridge case, primed empty shotshell or commercial firing pin testing device into the chamber of the firearm and test fire in a safe direction. Any recovered cartridge cases used in test firing a firearm will be returned with that firearm to the investigating agency. The tests are not considered evidence and evidence vouchers are not required.

6.5

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 NONE

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CALIBER DETERMINATION
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Caliber, or the base diameter, is one of the class characteristics of a fired bullet. The determination of caliber will aid the examiner during the identification or elimination of a suspect firearm. If no firearm is submitted, the bullet's caliber may be used in determining the General Rifling Characteristics of the firearm involved. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Trace Material Examination 1.2.2 GRC Utilization

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 4.2 4.3 Comparison Microscope Stereo Microscope Calipers/Micrometer

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5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 The following may be utilized to determine the caliber of any fired bullet. The condition of the bullet will determine which steps can be used. 6.1.1 Compare the base diameter of the evidence bullet directly with known test standards. 6.1.2 Measure the base diameter of the evidence bullet using a measuring device and compare this measurement with known measurements published in reference literature. 6.1.3 Determine the number and widths of the land and groove signatures and compare to Appendix G, Table 6, of the AFTE Glossary or use a mathematical formula. 6.1.4 Physical characteristics of the evidence bullet, such as weight, bullet shape, composition, nose configuration, and number and placement of cannelures, may aid in caliber determination. 6.2 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.2.1 Caliber is written as a numerical term without the decimal point. If the base is mutilated, the examiner may only be able to determine that the evidence is consistent with a range of calibers or that the caliber cannot be determined.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 7.2 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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STEREO MICROSCOPE MEASURING EYEPIECE


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 One of the class characteristics used in the discipline of firearms identification is the width of the land impressions and groove impressions. These measurements aid the examiner during the identification or elimination of a suspect firearm. If no firearm is submitted, these measurements will be used in determining the General Rifling Characteristics of the firearm involved. Several instruments can be used to obtain these measurements. The stereo microscope measuring eyepiece procedure utilizes a stereo microscope equipped with a measuring eyepiece. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Trace Material Examination 1.2.2 GRC Utilization

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

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4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 Stereo Microscope

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 In measuring a fired bullet to determine the width of the land impression or the groove impression, it is paramount that the points used for beginning and ending a measurement comply with the discipline-wide practice. This practice utilizes the anchor points shown below.

6.1.1 The fired bullet in question is either held or mounted on a steady surface beneath the stereo microscope. 6.1.2 The land impression of the fired bullet is placed in a vertical position with both of the anchor points corresponding to points on the alignment grid and record the measurement to the nearest hundredth or thousandth of an inch or appropriate measurement. 6.1.3 Repeat the above utilizing the groove impression.

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6.2

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.2.1 It may be necessary to measure several of each land and groove impression in order to record a reliable measurement.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 7.2 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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GRC UTILIZATION
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The data from the FBI's General Rifling Characteristics File can be utilized when attempting to determine a list of possible firearms that could have fired an evidence bullet when the correct firearm was not submitted. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Trace Material Examination 1.2.2 Stereo Microscope Measuring Eyepiece

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

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5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 6.2 6.3 The General Rifling Characteristics File can be accessed using various PC software or the current printout of the file. Follow the operating instructions listed specifically within each of the above systems utilizing the caliber and rifling characteristics of the evidence bullet. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.3.1 The GRC File is an investigative aid and should not be construed as an all-inclusive list of firearms available with those particular rifling characteristics.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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WAD DETERMINATION
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 By examining wad, the examiner may be able to determine the gauge, manufacture, and if the wad contains markings suitable for comparison. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Trace Material Examination 1.2.2 Stereo Microscope Measuring Eyepiece

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 4.2 4.3 Comparison Microscope Stereo Microscope Caliper

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 Determine gauge by;

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6.1.1 Directly comparing evidence to known laboratory standards of similar manufacture or composition by comparing the base of evidence to the bases of the standards until a similar size is found. 6.1.2 Gauge can also be determined by measuring the base diameter of the wad and comparing these measurements to known measurements. 6.2 Measurements may be obtained by utilizing a; 6.2.1 Caliper 6.2.2 The stereo microscope with measuring eyepiece Manufacturers data can be determined by locating information stamped into the wad or by comparing the wad to known laboratory standards. Microscopic examination may reveal striations suitable for identification of the wad back to the shotgun that fired it. If evidence shotshells are submitted, it may be necessary to disassemble one in order to determine the characteristics of the internal components. Record all information on the appropriate worksheet. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.7.1 If the wad is mutilated or soaked with blood or other body fluids, the examiner may not be able to specifically determine gauge size. The examiner should also recognize that some manufacturers may duplicate the design of another manufacturer.

6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 7.2 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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SHOT DETERMINATION
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 By examining recovered shot, the examiner may be able to determine the actual shot size. The determined size can then be compared to the shot size loaded in submitted unfired shotshells or to the size that the submitted shotshell casing was marked to have contained. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Trace Material Examination 1.2.2 Stereo Microscope Measuring Eyepiece

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Comparison Microscope Stereo Microscope Caliper Scale/Balance

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS

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6.1

The examiner may use one or all of the below techniques to determine shot size. 6.1.1 Visual/Microscopic Comparison 6.1.1.1 6.1.1.2 6.1.1.3 Determine the total number of pellets received. Determine the composition of the pellets. Determine the number of pellets suitable for comparison purposes. Make note if pellet sizes all appear to be similar in size. If several different sizes are present, determine each specific size. Compare laboratory standards of known shot sizes side by side with the evidence pellets until a known shot size is determined. A stereo microscope may aid in this determination. This should be done one size at a time to avoid errors. Record findings on worksheet.

6.1.1.4

6.1.1.5

6.1.2 Comparison by Weight 6.1.2.1 6.1.2.2 6.1.2.3 Record the total number of pellets received. Determine the composition of the pellets. Determine the number of pellets suitable for weighing. Make note if pellet sizes all appear similar. If several sizes present, determine each specific size. Weigh the pellets in grains. Divide weight of pellets by total number weighed. Consult known pellet weight charts and determine shot size which corresponds to evidence shot. Record findings on appropriate worksheet. The weight of the evidence pellets can also be directly compared to weight of standards using the same number of pellets until a similar known weight is obtained.

6.1.2.4 6.1.2.5 6.1.2.6 6.1.2.7 6.1.2.8

6.1.3 Measuring Pellet Size

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6.1.3.1 6.1.3.2 6.1.3.3

Determine the total number of pellets received. Determine the composition of the pellets. Determine the number of pellets suitable for comparison purposes. Make note if pellet sizes all appear to be similar in size. If several different sizes are present, determine each specific size. Choose the best specimen and measure the diameter. Record in hundredths or thousandths of an inch or the appropriate measurement. Consult known pellet size charts and determine shot size which corresponds to evidence shot.

6.1.3.4

6.1.3.5 7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 7.2 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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PHYSICAL EXAMINATION & CLASSIFICATION OF FIRED PROJECTILES


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The initial examination of projectile evidence will include the completion of a worksheet. These worksheets will include the physical description of the projectile(s) and will serve as a source to document the condition of the evidence as received and any tests or comparisons performed. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Trace Material Examination 1.2.2 Stereo Microscope Measuring Eyepiece 1.2.3 Caliber Determination

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Comparison Microscope Stereo Microscope Caliper Scale/Balance

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS

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6.1

A worksheet will be completed on all projectiles. This will include noting the following: 6.1.1 Laboratory Case Number 6.1.2 Item Number 6.1.3 Package Description 6.1.4 Physical Description and Condition of the Projectile(s) 6.1.5 Number of projectile pieces 6.1.6 Projectile Caliber/Shot Size/Wad Size 6.1.7 Projectile(s) Weight 6.1.8 Number of cannelures and style (if present) 6.1.9 Projectile type and style 6.1.10 Base description 6.1.11 Brand of ammunition 6.1.12 General Rifling Characteristics 6.1.12.1 Number of lands and grooves on fired projectile 6.1.12.2 Direction of twist 6.1.12.3 How many characteristics seen 6.1.12.4 How class characteristics determined 6.1.12.5 Measured width of the land impressions when no firearm is submitted as evidence or bullet does not match test fired bullets from the submitted gun 6.1.12.6 Measured width of the groove impressions when no firearm is submitted as evidence or bullet does not match test fired bullets from the submitted gun 6.1.13 Where projectile marked by examiner 6.1.14 Description of and placement of other investigators markings on projectile 6.1.15 Trace evidence observed or collected 6.1.16 If the projectile was bent for examination 6.1.17 If the projectile was cleaned for examination 6.1.18 Examiners Initials 6.1.19 Date of Examination 6.1.20 At the discretion of the examiner, any additional information that might be useful can be documented.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 7.2 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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PHYSICAL EXAMINATION & CLASSIFICATION OF CARTRIDGES & FIRED CARTRIDGE CASES


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The initial examination of any cartridge or fired cartridge case evidence will include the completion of a worksheet. These worksheets will include the physical description of the cartridge or fired cartridge case and will serve as a source to document the condition of the evidence as received and any tests or comparisons performed. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Trace Material Examination 1.2.2 Stereo Microscope Measuring Eyepiece 1.2.3 Caliber Determination

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Comparison Microscope Stereo Microscope Caliper Scale/Balance

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS

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5.1 6.0

NONE

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 A worksheet will be completed on all cartridges and fired cartridge cases. This will include noting the following if applicable: 6.1.1 Laboratory Case Number 6.1.2 Item Number 6.1.3 Package Description 6.1.4 If any trace material is present 6.1.5 Caliber 6.1.6 Cartridge Case Composition 6.1.7 Head Stamp Information 6.1.8 Brand of Ammunition 6.1.9 Where evidence is marked by examiner 6.1.10 Whether the evidence was entered into NIBIN 6.1.11 Breech Face Marks Description 6.1.12 Firing Pin Impression Shape Description 6.1.13 Microscopic Description of Firing Pin Impression 6.1.14 If Firing Pin Drag is Present 6.1.15 The Examiners Initials 6.1.16 Date of Examination 6.2

At the discretion of the examiner, observations can include the following: 6.2.1 Extractor 6.2.2 Ejector 6.2.3 Resizing Marks 6.2.4 Chamber Marks 6.2.5 Anvil Marks 6.2.6 Magazine Marks 6.2.7 Ejection Port Markings 6.2.8 Other Marks 6.2.9 Condition of cartridge case 6.2.10 Any other information the examiner might find useful

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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PHYSICAL EXAMINATION & CLASSIFICATION OF SHOTSHELLS AND FIRED SHOTSHELLS


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The initial examination of any shotshell or fired shotshell evidence will include the completion of a worksheet. These worksheets will include the physical description of the shotshell or fired shotshell and will serve as a source to document the condition of the evidence as received and any tests or comparisons performed. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Trace Material Examination 1.2.2 Stereo Microscope Measuring Eyepiece 1.2.3 Caliber Determination

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Comparison Microscope Stereo Microscope Caliper Scale/Balance

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS

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5.1 6.0

NONE

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 A worksheet will be completed on all shotshells and fired shotshells. This will include noting the following if applicable: 6.1.1 Laboratory Case Number 6.1.2 Item Number 6.1.3 Package Description 6.1.4 If any trace material is present 6.1.5 Gauge/Caliber 6.1.6 Shotshell or Fired Shotshell Composition 6.1.7 Head Stamp Information 6.1.8 Brand of Ammunition 6.1.9 Where evidence is marked by examiner 6.1.10 Whether the evidence was entered into NIBIN 6.1.11 Breech Face Marks Description 6.1.12 Firing Pin Impression Shape Description 6.1.13 Microscopic Description of Firing Pin Impression 6.1.14 If Firing Pin Drag is Present 6.1.15 The Examiners Initials 6.1.16 Date of Examination 6.2 At the discretion of the examiner observations can include the following: 6.2.1 Breech Face Markings 6.2.2 Extractor 6.2.3 Ejector 6.2.4 Resizing Marks 6.2.5 Chamber Marks 6.2.6 Anvil Marks 6.2.7 Magazine Marks 6.2.8 Ejection Port Markings 6.2.9 Other Marks 6.2.10 Condition of cartridge case 6.2.11 Any other information the examiner might find useful

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

MICROSCOPIC COMPARISON
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1.0

INTRODUCTION 1.1 In order for an examiner to identify an item of fired evidence back to the firearm that produced it, a microscopic comparison utilizing a comparison microscope must be performed. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Examination and Physical Classification of Fired Evidence 1.2.2 Examination and Physical Classification of Fired Cartridge Cases 1.2.3 Examination and Physical Classification of Fired Shotshells 1.2.4 Trace Material Examination

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 4.2 Comparison Microscope Stereo Microscope

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS

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6.1

The procedure steps below do not have to be performed in the order listed; however, all steps must be considered and/or addressed: 6.1.1 Select the correct objective (magnification) setting and ensure that the objectives are locked in place. 6.1.2 Select the correct set of oculars (eyepieces). 6.1.3 The illumination (lights) used must be properly adjusted. Oblique lighting is usually preferred. 6.1.4 Compare unknown fired evidence to either another piece of unknown fired evidence or a known standard by placing the unknown fired evidence on one stage and the other piece of unknown fired evidence or known standard on the other stage. 6.1.5 All of the evidence should be considered. 6.1.6 If an identification is not initially made, the examiner should consider the following factors: 6.1.6.1 Angle of lights 6.1.6.2 Type of lights 6.1.6.3 The need for additional known standards 6.1.6.4 The position of the evidence, the tests or both 6.1.6.5 The possibility of cleaning the firearm and test firing again 6.1.6.6 The possibility that the firearm itself has changed

6.2

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.2.1 The range of possible results is contained within Appendix 1. 6.2.2 A second examiner, if available, must verify all identifications. 6.2.3 The identification(s) must be documented by using a representative photograph, sketch or a narrative.

6.3

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 6.3.1 Appendix 1 Range of Conclusions 6.3.2 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards 6.3.3 Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

TRACE MATERIAL EXAMINATION


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1.0

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Fired Evidence recovered during an investigation may contain trace material transferred from the crime scene. This trace material may be in the form of blood, tissue, plaster, paint, hairs, fibers, glass, etc. The examiner needs to evaluate the importance of this evidence and, if further examination of the trace material is necessary, a member of the appropriate discipline should remove and preserve a sample of the trace material present. Removal of trace material may also be necessary to allow the proper examination of the fired evidence. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Examination and Physical Classification of Fired Evidence 1.2.2 Examination and Physical Classification of Fired Cartridge Cases 1.2.3 Examination and Physical Classification of Fired Shotshells 1.2.4 Microscopic Comparison

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. NFPA Listings NFPA LISTING CHEMICAL
10% Bleach Acetone
HEALTH HAZARD FLAMMABILITY HAZARD REACTIVITY HAZARD CONTACT HAZARD

2.2 2.3

2 1

0 3

1 0

2.4

Chemical Warnings

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2.4.1 WARNING! Acetone is flammable and can pose a SEVERE FLAMMABILITY HAZARD. 2.5 3.0 The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

PREPARATION 3.1 10% Bleach Solution: 3.1.1 Prepare a 10% Bleach Solution utilizing Bleach and water.

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 4.2 Scale/Balance Stereo Microscope

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 6.2 Examine the fired evidence visually and microscopically for any trace material and record in notes. Determine if further examination of trace material is necessary. 6.2.1 If further examination or collection of trace material is necessary; 6.2.1.1 If necessary, consult the appropriate section prior to the removal of any trace evidence to determine who will collect the sample. 6.2.1.2 Remove material being careful not to damage the fired evidence. 6.2.1.3 Place the removed trace material in a suitable container/packaging for submission to the appropriate section or storage. 6.2.2 If the trace material is not going to be retained for further examination, proceed with the following steps that are applicable. 6.2.2.1 For evidence containing blood, tissue or other biohazards, soak the evidence for at least one (1) minute in a 10% bleach solution. 6.2.2.2 Remove loose material by rinsing the fired evidence with acetone or water.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES

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7.1 7.2

Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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NATIONAL INTEGRATED BALLISTIC INFORMATION NETWORK


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The National Integrated Ballistic Information Network (NIBIN) is a program which utilizes a computerized system (IBIS) for acquiring and storing the images of unidentified bullets and cartridge cases, as well as test fired bullets and cartridge cases. Refer to the training course manual provided by Forensic Technology for additional information. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Examination and Physical Classification of Fired Evidence 1.2.2 Examination and Physical Classification of Fired Cartridge Cases 1.2.3 Examination and Physical Classification of Fired Shotshells 1.2.4 Microscopic Comparison

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NIBIN System

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS

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6.1 6.2 6.3

The NIBIN Procedures manual should be followed in order to make entries into the system. The firearms examiner should insure suitability of the items being entered. The examiner must therefore insure that: 6.3.1 This Laboratory is currently not entering bullets into NIBIN. However, should this policy change then any evidence bullet selected for entry into NIBIN must have at least one clear and distinct land engraved area and must have sufficient individual characteristics to be able to effect a match. 6.3.2 Any evidence cartridge case selected for entry into NIBIN must have sufficient individual characteristics within the firing pin impression and/or within the breech face marks on the primer to effect a match. 6.3.3 If there are more than one matching evidence bullets and/or cartridge cases suitable for entry into NIBIN, the examiner should select the best one for entry or, if necessary, more than one if different individual characteristics reproduce better on different tests.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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CHRONOGRAPH
1.0 1.1 INTRODUCTION The Oehler Model 34 Chronotach is designed for use with the Oehler Model 55 Photoelectric Ballistic Screens. With both chronograph and screens using 120 vac power, the Model 34/55 combination is ideal for velocity measurements in indoor ranges. In the Model 34, time is measured by counting ticks of an electronic clock. The clock ticks at the rate of one million pulses per second. As a bullet passes the first screen, a signal is sent to the chronotach telling it to start counting the pulses. When the bullet passes the second screen, a signal is sent to stop counting the pulses. The time is displayed or time and distance is converted to velocity and displayed. The Model 34 automatically uses the data from each valid round to compute velocity statistics for a test lot.

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered.

3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 4.2 Model 34 Chronotach or similar device Model 55 Photoelectric Ballistic Screens or similar device

5.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 5.1 The Model 34 must know how far apart the two model 55 screens have been set. You must use a screen spacing of at least 1 foot for each 1000 feet per second of expected velocity. For example, a spacing of four feet between the screens will accommodate velocities up to 4000 feet per second. To set the distance switch remove the top cover of the model 34 (Disconnect power supply before removing cover).

5.2

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shows in little windows as you view the switch from the rear of the unit. Rotating the switch elements using the knurled grip showing just above the numbers can readily change the setting. Set the numbers to your spacing in feet, 04 for 4 ft., 05 for 5 ft., etc. The numbers refer to the distance between the centers of the light slots of each screen. 5.3 5.4 Replace the cover before plugging in the power cord. When the power switch is turned on the display should read 0 00. After the Model 55 screens have been set up at the desired spacing, connect the screens to the Model 34 with the coaxial cables. The screen closest to the muzzle is connected to the start input and the farther most screen is connected to the stop input. Position the Model 34 where it will not be subjected to muzzle blast. The distance from muzzle to the first screen is typically 10 feet. The distance is not critical. With the power switches of the Model 34 and both Model 55 screens on, you are ready to shoot. After the first shot, the display should show two numbers such as 1370 01. In this case 1370 represents the velocity and 01 indicates it was the first round recorded. Refer to the instruction manual of the Model 34 Chronotach and the Model 55 Ballistic Screens for more information.

5.5

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DISTANCE DETERMINATION TEST


Please refer to the Trace Evidence Section for Procedures on Distance Determination.

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EXAMINATION AND PHYSICAL CLASSIFICATION TOOL


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1. The initial examination of a tool will include the completion of a general laboratory worksheet. This worksheet will include the physical description of the tool. It will also serve as a source to document the condition of the evidence as received and any tests or comparisons performed with the tool. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1. Trace Material Examination 1.2.2. Test Standards

1.2.

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1. This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2. 2.3. 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1. NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1. Stereo Microscope

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1. NONE

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6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1. A laboratory worksheet should be completed. This may include noting the following. 6.1.1. 6.1.2. 6.1.3. 6.1.4. 6.1.5. 6.1.6. 6.1.7. 6.1.8. If any trace material is present. The class characteristics of the tool The type of tool The brand name of tool The size of the tool The condition of the tool Type of tests conducted (if any) The medium used for testing

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1. Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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TRACE MATERIAL EXAMINATION - TOOL


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Tools recovered during an investigation may contain trace material transferred from the crime scene. This trace material may be in the form of blood, tissue, plaster, paint, hairs, fibers, glass, etc. The examiner needs to evaluate the importance of this evidence and, if further examination of the trace material is necessary, a member of the appropriate discipline will remove and preserve a sample of the trace material present. Removal of trace material may also be necessary to allow the proper examination and testing of a tool. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Examination and Physical Classification - Tool

1.2 2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards. NFPA Codes CHEMICAL
10% Bleach Acetone
HEALTH HAZARD FLAMMABILITY HAZARD REACTIVITY HAZARD CONTACT HAZARD

2.2 2.3 2.4

2 1

0 3

1 0

2.5

Chemical Warnings

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2.5.1 WARNING! Acetone is flammable and can pose a SEVERE FLAMMABILITY HAZARD 2.6 3.0 The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

PREPARATION 3.1 10% Bleach Solution: 3.1.1 Prepare a 10% Bleach Solution utilizing Bleach and water

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 Scale/Balance

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 6.2 Examine the tool visually and microscopically for any trace material and record in notes. Determine if further examination or collection of trace material is necessary. 6.2.1 If further examination or collection of trace material is necessary; 6.2.1.1 If necessary, consult the appropriate section prior to the removal of any trace evidence to determine who will collect the sample. Remove material being careful not to damage the tool. Place the removed trace material in a suitable container/packaging for submission to the appropriate section or storage.

6.2.1.2 6.2.1.3

6.2.2 If the trace material is not going to be retained for further examination, proceed with the following steps that are applicable.

6.2.2.1

For evidence containing blood, tissue or other biohazards, soak the evidence for at least one (1) minute in a 10% bleach solution.

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6.2.2.2

Remove loose material by rinsing the tool with acetone or water.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 7.2 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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TEST STANDARDS
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 In order to compare a questioned toolmark with a suspect tool, test standards or marks are usually made with the suspect tool. The basic objective in preparing test standards is to attempt to duplicate the manner in which the tool was used to produce the evidence or questioned toolmark. Test standards from tools used for identification will be returned with the tool to the investigating agency. The tests are not considered evidence and evidence vouchers are not required. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Examination and Physical Classification Tool 1.2.2 Trace Material Examination-Tool 1.2.3 Physical Examination & Classification-Toolmark 1.2.4 Trace Material Examination-Toolmark 1.2.5 Evidence Evaluation

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards. The examiner should use eye protection.

2.2 2.3 2.4 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 Test Media: 3.1.1 The initial test media must be soft enough to prevent alterations of the tools working surface.

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4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 A systematic approach should be used for the production of test marks or standards. Consideration should be given to: 6.1.1 Areas of recent use on the tool in question 6.1.2 Direction of use 6.1.3 Indexing of test standards/ marks 6.2 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.2.1 See Microscopic Comparison Procedure

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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EXAMINATION AND PHYSICAL CLASSIFICATION TOOLMARK


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 In order to compare a questioned toolmark with a suspect tool, it is necessary to evaluate the toolmark. This evaluation will consist of a physical evaluation and classification of the toolmark. This evaluation will help determine what course the rest of the examination should take. The basic objective in evaluating a questioned toolmark is to determine the suitability and classification of the toolmark. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Examination and Physical Classification Tool 1.2.2 Trace Material Examination-Tool 1.2.3 Test Standards 1.2.4 Trace Material Examination-Toolmark

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 Stereo Microscope

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS

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6.1

A systematic approach should be used for the physical examination and classification of questioned toolmark. Consideration should be given to: 6.1.1 6.1.2 6.1.3 6.1.4 The suitability of the toolmark for comparison purposes Class of tool that made the toolmark Physical characteristics of toolmark Direction of toolmark

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 7.2 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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TRACE MATERIAL COLLECTION - TOOLMARK


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Toolmarks recovered during an investigation may contain trace material transferred from the crime scene. This trace material may be in the form of blood, tissue, plaster, paint, hairs, fibers, glass, etc. The examiner needs to evaluate the importance of this evidence and, if further examination of the trace material is necessary, a member of the appropriate discipline will remove and preserve a sample of the trace material present. Removal of trace material may also be necessary to allow the proper examination and testing of a toolmark. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1 Examination and Physical Classification Toolmark 1.2.2 Microscopic Comparison

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards. NFPA Codes CHEMICAL
10% Bleach Acetone
HEALTH HAZARD FLAMMABILITY HAZARD REACTIVITY HAZARD CONTACT HAZARD

2.2 2.3 2.4

2 1

0 3

1 0

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2.5

Chemical Warnings 2.5.1 WARNING! Acetone is flammable and can pose a SEVERE FLAMMABILITY HAZARD

2.4 3.0

The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

PREPARATION 3.1 10% Bleach Solution: 3.1.1 Prepare a 10% Bleach Solution utilizing Bleach and water

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 4.2 Scale/Balance Stereomicroscope

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 6.2 Examine the tool visually and microscopically for any trace material and record in notes. Determine if further examination or collection of trace material is necessary. 6.2.1 If further examination or collection of trace material is necessary; 6.2.1.1 If necessary, consult the appropriate section prior to the removal of any trace evidence to determine who will collect the sample. Remove material being careful not to damage the toolmark. Place the removed trace material in a suitable container/packaging for submission to the appropriate section or storage.

6.2.1.2 6.2.1.3

6.2.2 If the trace material is not going to be retained for further examination, proceed with the following steps that are applicable.

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6.2.2.1

For evidence containing blood, tissue or other biohazards, soak the evidence for at least one (1) minute in a 10% bleach solution. Remove loose material by rinsing the tool with acetone or water.

6.2.2.2 7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 7.2 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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MICROSCOPIC COMPARISON
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1. In order for an examiner to identify a toolmark back to the tool that produced it, a microscopic comparison utilizing a comparison microscope must be performed. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES 1.2.1. Examination and Physical Classification 1.2.2. Trace Material Examination 1.2.3. Test Standards

1.2.

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1. This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards. The examiner should consider using eye protection.

2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1. NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1. Comparison Microscope

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1. NONE

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6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1. The procedure steps below do not have to be performed in the order listed; however, all steps should be considered and/or addressed: 6.1.1. Select the correct objective (magnification) setting and ensure that the objectives are locked in place. Select the correct set of oculars (eyepieces). The illumination (lights) used must be properly adjusted. Oblique lighting is usually preferred. Compare the unknown toolmark to either another unknown toolmark or a known standard. The entire toolmark must be considered. If an identification is not initially made, the examiner should consider the following factors: 6.1.5.1. Angle of lights 6.1.5.2. Type of lights 6.1.5.3. The need for additional known standards 6.1.5.4. The position of the evidence, the tests or both 6.1.5.5. The possibility of using magnesium smoke 6.1.5.6. The possibility of cleaning the tool and making additional known standards 6.1.5.7. The possibility that the tool itself has changed

6.1.2. 6.1.3. 6.1.4. 6.1.5.

6.2.

INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.2.1. 6.2.2. 6.2.3. The range of possible results is contained within Appendix 1. A second examiner, if available, must verify all identifications. Taking photographs of comparisons is at the discretion of each examiner.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1. 7.2. 7.3. Appendix 1 - Range of Conclusions Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

CASTING
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1.0

INTRODUCTION 1.1 If an item received for a toolmark examination is too large to be conveniently placed on the microscopes stages, a silicon rubber cast can be made of the toolmarks in question. At the discretion of the individual examiner, items may be altered to allow it to be placed on the comparison microscope. There are also occasions when a cast of a toolmark might be received as evidence. In either case, any test standards made will also have to be cast in order to perform a comparison. Mikrosil, Duplicast, or other types of casting material are acceptable. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES: 1.2.1 Test Standards 1.2.2 Microscopic Comparison

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS

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6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 7.0

Prepare the casting material as per manufacturers specifications Cascade the casting material over the toolmark to be cast Allow the cast the appropriate amount of time to cure Gently lift the cast off the toolmark Consideration must be given to placing identifying marks, as well as orientation marks on the cast

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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MISCELLANEOUS CYLINDER EXAMINATION


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The forensic application of locksmithing can play an important part in criminal investigations and yield a wealth of valuable toolmark evidence. The examination of physical security devices (locks) may lead the investigators to new avenues of investigation in their case. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES: 1.2.1 Lock Set Examination Procedure 1.2.2 Key Examination Procedure

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure may involve hazardous materials, operations and/or equipment. Some component parts of a cylinder and/or lock are under spring tension and may present a missile hazard. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards. The examiner should consider using eye protection.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 Stereo Microscope

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS (These procedures serve as a guideline for the examiner.) 6.1 MISCELLANEOUS CYLINDER EXTERNAL EXAMINATION: 6.1.1 Examine and note the overall condition of the cylinder (photographs may be used to document)

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6.1.2 Examine and note the threaded area of the cylinder and any cylinder retaining screw marks in the retaining groove 6.1.3 Examine the cylinder face and edge 6.1.4 Note the position of the cam 6.1.5 Examine the plug face and the keyway entrance 6.1.6 If a key is submitted with the cylinder, check and note the operating condition of the cylinder 6.2 MISCELLANEOUS CYLINDER INTERNAL EXAMINATION: 6.2.1 Disassemble cylinder 6.2.2 Microscopically examine the combination pins 6.2.3 Microscopically examine the plug 6.3 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.3.1 Inappropriate marks on the combination pins would indicate that an instrument other than a key had been used 6.3.2 Inappropriate marks in the plug would indicate that an instrument other than a key had been used 6.3.3 The presence of master pins in the cylinder would indicate that the cylinder is part of a master system 6.3.4 The presence of pick resistant driver(s) would indicate that the cylinder would be harder to compromise

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards

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KEY EXAMINATION
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The forensic application of locksmithing can play an important part in criminal investigations and yield a wealth of valuable toolmark evidence. The examination of physical security devices (locks) may lead the investigators to new avenues of investigation in their case. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES: 1.2.1 Lock Set Examination 1.2.2 Miscellaneous Lock Cylinder Examination

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure may involve hazardous materials, operations and/or equipment. Some component parts of a cylinder and/or lock are under spring tension and may present a missile hazard. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards. The examiner should consider using eye protection.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 Stereo Microscope

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

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6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS (These procedures serve as a guideline for the examiner.) 6.1 KEY EXAMINATION 6.1.1 Examine and note the overall condition of the key 6.1.2 Examine and note any signs of key fatigue 6.1.3 Note whether the key is a duplicate or an original 6.1.4 Note the information on the key bow 6.1.5 Examine and note number of combination cuts 6.1.6 Examine and note what type of machine made the combination cuts 6.2 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.2.1 The condition of the key may indicate the amount of use the key has been exposed to 6.2.2 The information stamped on the bow of a duplicated key may indicate the name and location of the cutter 6.2.3 If a punch type cutting machine is used, striae may be compared with other key(s) or with the cutter

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards

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LOCK SET EXAMINATION


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The forensic application of locksmithing can play an important part in criminal investigations and yield a wealth of valuable toolmark evidence. The examination of physical security devices (locks) may lead the investigators to new avenues of investigation in their case. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES: 1.2.1 Key Examination 1.2.2 Miscellaneous Lock Cylinder Examination

1.2

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure may involve hazardous materials, operations and/or equipment. Some component parts of a cylinder and/or lock are under spring tension and may present a missile hazard. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards. The examiner should consider using eye protection.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 Stereo Microscope

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS (These procedures serve as a guideline for the examiner.) 6.1 LOCKSET EXTERNAL EXAMINATION: 6.1.1 Examine and note the overall condition of the lockset

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6.1.2 Examine and note all the functions of the lockset 6.1.3 Examine and note the wear on the bolt, spring bolt, anti-shim device, or anti-friction device 6.2 LOCKSET INTERNAL EXAMINATION: 6.2.1 Examine and note the overall condition of the interior of the lockset 6.2.2 Examine and note worn, altered, damaged, or missing parts 6.2.3 Examine and note the operation of the lockset to see if it functions as designed 7.0 APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 2 - Calibration Standards

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POLISHING
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Many valuable items manufactured today have serial numbers for identification. These numbers are usually die stamped. This process produces a compression zone of the metal or plastic in the area immediately surrounding and a short distance below the penetration of the die. Serial numbers are removed and/or obliterated in a variety of ways. The serial number may be restored if the removal/obliteration is not taken past the previously mentioned compression zone. It is desirable to remove (polish) the grinding and filing scratches introduced during obliteration. The polishing procedure can be effective independently, but is more often used in conjunction with various chemical or heat restoration procedures. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES: 1.3.1 Chemical 1.3.2 Electro-Chemical 1.3.3 Heat

1.2

1.3

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to hazardous conditions.

3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 NONE

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS

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6.1 6.2

Note and record any visible characters prior to polishing Polish the area of the obliteration using either a: 6.2.1 Dremel type tool with a sanding/polishing disc 6.2.2 Fine grit sandpaper Depending on the extent of the obliteration, continue polishing until the surface is mirror-like. If the obliteration is severe, it may not be possible to remove all the scratches. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.4.1 If any characters become visible, note these characters 6.4.2 If characters do not become visible, proceed to the appropriate chemical or heat restoration procedure

6.3

6.4

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 - Worksheets

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CHEMICAL RESTORATION
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Many valuable items manufactured today have serial numbers for identification. These numbers are usually die stamped. This process produces a compression zone of the metal or plastic in the area immediately surrounding and a short distance below the penetration of the die. Serial numbers are removed and/or obliterated in a variety of ways. The serial number may be restored if the removal/obliteration is not taken past the previously mentioned compression zone. The chemical restoration procedure or sometimes referred to as the chemical etching procedure is suitable for restoration of serial numbers in metal. The die stamping process is a form of cold-working metal. A side effect of cold-working is the decrease of that items ability to resist chemical attack. Therefore, the utilization of chemical etching will affect the compressed area of the obliterated number faster and to a greater degree than the non cold-worked area surrounding it. This procedure, in conjunction with the polishing procedure, is an effective way to restore an obliterated serial number in metal. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES: 1.3.1 Polishing 1.3.2 Electro-Chemical 1.3.3 Heat

1.2

1.3

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to hazardous conditions. Consult the appropriate MSDS for each chemical prior to use.

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2.2

NFPA Codes

Cupric Chloride Hydrochloric Acid Ethyl Alcohol Nitric Acid Ferric Chloride Sodium Hydroxide

HEALTH HAZARD 3 3 0 3 2 3

FLAMMABILITY HAZARD 0 0 3 0 0 0

REACTIVITY HAZARD 0 0 0 0 0 1

CONTACT HAZARD

OXY

2.3

Chemical Warnings 2.3.1 WARNING! Chloride is toxic and can pose a SEVERE HEALTH HAZARD. 2.3.2 WARNING! Hydrochloric Acid is toxic and can pose a SEVERE HEALTH HAZARD. 2.3.3 WARNING! Nitric Acid is toxic and can pose a SEVERE HEALTH HAZARD. 2.3.4 WARNING! Nitric Acid is a strong solvent possessing oxidizing properties that can pose a SEVERE HEALTH HAZARD. 2.3.5 WARNING! Sodium Hydroxide is toxic and can pose a SEVERE HEALTH HAZARD. 2.3.6 WARNING! Ethyl Alcohol is highly flammable and can pose a SEVERE SAFETY HAZARD.

2.4 3.0

The examiner should refer to the current routine use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) located in the Environmental Health and Safety Manual.

PREPARATION 3.1 The following list is a sample of possible reagents that may be used. This is not an all inclusive list. The reagents may be found in the Handbook of Methods for the Restoration of Obliterated Serial Numbers or the B.A.T.F. Laboratory Serial Number Restoration Course Guide. NOTE: ALWAYS ADD ACID TO WATER. NEVER ADD WATER TO ACID.

3.2

3.3

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3.3.1 90 grams Cupric Chloride (CuCl2) 3.3.2 120 ml Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) 3.3.3 100 ml distilled water (H20) 3.4 Turners Reagent 3.4.1 2.5 grams Cupric Chloride (CuCl2) 3.4.2 40 ml Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) 3.4.3 25 ml Ethel Alcohol 3.4.4 30 ml distilled water (H20) Davis Reagent 3.5.1 5 grams Cupric Chloride (CuCl2) 3.5.2 50 ml Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) 3.5.3 50 ml distilled water (H20) 25% Nitric Acid 3.6.1 25 ml Nitric Acid (HNO3) 3.6.2 75 ml distilled water (H20) Acidic Ferric Chloride 3.7.1 25 grams Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) 3.7.2 25 grams Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) 3.7.3 100 ml distilled water (H20) Ferric Chloride 3.8.1 25 grams Ferric Chloride (FeCl3) 3.8.2 100 ml distilled water (H20) 10% Sodium Hydroxide 3.9.1 10 grams Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) 3.9.2 100 ml distilled water (H2O)

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 Scale/Balance

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS

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6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 7.0

Inspect the serial number area for coatings, trace material or any character remnants, as well as possibly determining the method of obliteration Utilize the Polishing Procedure if necessary Determine the serial number mediums physical properties, i.e. nonmagnetic Utilize the appropriate chemical reagent Apply the chemical solution to the area of obliteration utilizing cotton tip applicators or swabs that have been moistened with the chemical solution INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.6.1 If any characters become visible note these characters

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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HEAT
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Many valuable items manufactured today have serial numbers for identification. These numbers are usually die stamped. This process produces a compression zone of the metal or plastic in the area immediately surrounding and a short distance below the penetration of the die. Serial numbers are removed and/or obliterated in a variety of ways. The serial number may be restored if the removal/obliteration is not taken past the previously mentioned compression zone. The Heat procedure is suitable for restoration of serial numbers in plastic. The die stamping or embossing process is a form of cold-working plastic. A side effect of cold-working is the decrease of that items ability to resist heat. Therefore the utilization of this procedure will affect the compressed area of the obliterated number faster and to a greater degree than the non cold-worked area surrounding it. This procedure, in conjunction with the polishing procedure, is an effective way to restore an obliterated serial number in plastic. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES: 1.3.1 Polishing 1.3.2 Electro-Chemical 1.3.3 Chemical

1.2

1.3

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to hazardous conditions. Consult the appropriate MSDS for each chemical prior to use.

3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION

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4.1 5.0

NONE

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 6.2 6.3 Apply heat to the area of obliteration utilizing a high intensity lamp. Continue the application of heat until the characters appear or the plastic in the obliterated area starts to liquefy. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.3.1 If any characters become visible, note these characters.

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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ELECTROCHEMICAL
1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Many valuable items manufactured today have serial numbers for identification. These numbers are usually die stamped. This process produces a compression zone of the metal or plastic in the area immediately surrounding and a short distance below the penetration of the die. Serial numbers are removed and/or obliterated in a variety of ways. The serial number may be restored if the removal/obliteration is not taken past the previously mentioned compression zone. The electrochemical technique using the standard chemical etchants is an enhanced form of chemical restoration, in which the application of a voltage potential assists the oxidation of the specimen. The die stamping process is a form of cold-working metal. A side effect of cold-working is the decrease of that items ability to resist chemical attack. Therefore, the utilization of this method will affect the compressed area of the obliterated number faster and to a greater degree than the non cold-worked area surrounding it. This procedure, in conjunction with the polishing procedure, is an effective way to restore an obliterated serial number in magnetic metal. OTHER RELATED PROCEDURES: 1.3.1 Polishing 1.3.2 Heat 1.3.3 Chemical

1.2

1.3

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to hazardous conditions. Consult the appropriate MSDS for each chemical prior to use. The examiner should refer to the current routine use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) located in the Environmental Health and Safety Manual.

2.2 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION

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4.1 5.0

Power source

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 6.2 Attach the specimen to the positive terminal of the power supply. Thoroughly soak the cotton tip of an applicator with the appropriate chemical etchant and attach this to the negative terminal of the power supply via an alligator clip, being certain to do so on a moistened area at the base of the cotton tip. Turn on the power supply and adjust the voltage. Wipe the area of obliteration, being careful to not touch the surface of the specimen with the wire. INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS: 6.5.1 Note any characters that become visible prior to proceeding with each step, as well as during the wiping process.

6.3 6.4 6.5

7.0

APPROPRIATE APPENDICES 7.1 Appendix 3 - Work Sheets

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FRACTURE MATCH COMPARISONS


1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 The process of matching two or more objects either through physical, optical, microscopic, or photographic means, which permits one to conclude whether the objects were either one entity that was broken, torn, or separated, or were held or bonded together in a unique arrangement constitutes a fracture match. The examination may determine whether or not two or more objects were at one time joined and were a part of the same unit. Other related procedures include casting, and microscopic comparison.

2.0

SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS 2.1 This procedure involves hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This procedure does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the individual examiner to practice the appropriate safety and health practices. Proper caution must be exercised and the use of personal protective equipment must be considered. Proper caution to include strict adherence to Universal Precautions and the Blood Borne Pathogen Plan must be exercised. The use of personal protective equipment must be considered to avoid exposure to any potential hazards.

2.2 2.3 3.0

PREPARATION 3.1 NONE

4.0

INSTRUMENTATION 4.1 4.2 Stereo Microscope Comparison Microscope.

5.0

MINIMUM ANALYTICAL STANDARDS and CONTROLS 5.1 NONE

6.0

PROCEDURE or ANALYSIS 6.1 6.2 A systematic approach should be used for the fracture match examination, with recording of findings and observations in the notes by documenting and/or photographing the separated items. Note any trace evidence

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6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7

If necessary, remove and save the material or contact the appropriate section for an examiner to remove and take custody of the material Visually examine the items submitted to determine if they can be physically oriented with one another Microscopically examiner the oriented edges using a stereo microscope and comparison microscope, as appropriate, looking for the presence of corresponding irregularities in the oriented edges Based on the microscopic evaluation of the objects, determine whether or not sufficient microscopic correspondence exists between the objects to identify them as having been joined at one time as one unit A cast of one of the separated edges can be made for comparison with the other separated edge using a comparison microscope

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TESTIMONY MONITORING
A Supervisor, another Firearms Examiner, Prosecutor, Judge or Defense Attorney will monitor Court testimony once a year as outlined in the Dallas County Southwestern Institute of Forensic Sciences, Forensic Laboratory Quality Management Program.

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APPENDIX 1 RANGE OF CONCLUSIONS


There may be some variation in the conclusions reached by the examiner on a case by case basis. 1.0 Firearms 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2.0 Identification Elimination Inconclusive Unsuitable

Toolmarks 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Identification Elimination Inconclusive Unsuitable

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APPENDIX 2 CALIBRATION STANDARDS


1.0 All instruments/equipment should be properly calibrated and calibration records maintained for these instruments. User maintenance will consist of routine dusting and minor cleaning. If major maintenance is required, it will be scheduled in accordance with Dallas County policy. COMPARISON MICROSCOPE 2.1 ANNUALLY 2.1.1 The comparison microscopes calibration will be checked utilizing stage micrometers. This will be done annually or as determined by an examiner. 2.1.1.1 To check calibration, place stage micrometers on examination surfaces such that the scales read perpendicular to the examiner 2.1.1.2 Utilizing the 10x objective, bring the scales into focus 2.1.1.3 Align the scales to their corresponding tick marks 2.1.1.4 If the tick marks align, move on to the next objective until all objectives have been checked 2.1.2 If a comparison microscope is found to be out of calibration it will be returned to the manufacturer for repair. Calibration checks will be documented in the calibration/maintenance log book. 3.0 STEREO MICROSCOPES (Measuring Eyepiece) 3.1 ANNUALLY 3.1.1 The measuring eyepieces on all stereo microscopes will be calibrated utilizing the stage micrometer or a NIST ruler. This will be done at least annually or prior to any measurements when there has been a change in magnification. 3.1.1.1 Place stage micrometer or NIST ruler on examination surface 3.1.1.2 Align the stage micrometer scale or NIST ruler with the measuring eyepiece scale 3.1.1.3 Manipulate the magnification until the scales match one another 3.1.2 This calibration will be documented in the particular instruments calibration/maintenance log book.

2.0

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4.0

ELECTRONIC SCALES 4.1 ANNUALLY 4.1.1 The electronic scales will be calibrated annually by an outside source. Periodic calibration checks will be performed as determined by the examiner. The manufacturers calibration procedure, found in the calibration logbook, will be followed using certified weights. 4.1.2 This calibration will be documented in the particular instruments calibration/maintenance log book

5.0

TRIGGER PULL DEVICES 5.1 SPRING MEASURING DEVICE 5.1.1 ANNUALLY 5.1.1.1 5.1.1.2 5.2 The spring measuring device will be calibrated annually or as determined by the examiner utilizing a certified weight This will be documented in the particular equipments calibration/maintenance log book

TRIGGERSCAN 5.2.1 ANNUALLY 5.2.1.1 The Triggerscan measuring device will be calibrated annually or as determined by an examiner by referring to the Triggerscan manual This will be documented in the particular equipments calibration/maintenance log book

5.2.1.2 6.0

CALIPERS 6.1 ANNUALLY 6.1.1 The calipers will be calibrated annually or as determined by the examiner utilizing the certified gauge blocks 6.1.2 This will be documented in the particular equipments calibration/maintenance log book.

7.0

CALIBRATION LOGS

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7.1

The main calibration log book will hold calibration log sheets for equipment used by the entire Firearms Section. The most current log sheets for individual equipment will be maintained by each examiner. Log sheets for equipment assigned to individual examiners will be placed in the main log book once all available log entries have been used.

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APPENDIX 3 WORK SHEETS


1.0 Laboratory work sheets serve several purposes. These include: 1.1 1.2 1.3 2.0 Documenting the work done Guiding the examination Archiving for future reference

The case notes and records of observation are subject to subpoena or discovery; they must be of a permanent nature. Handwritten notes and observations must be in ink, not pencil. Any corrections to notes must be made by an initialed single strike out. Nothing in the handwritten information should be obliterated or erased. FIREARM WORK SHEETS: 3.1 A firearm worksheet may take on many forms but should include the following information: 3.1.1 Laboratory Case Number 3.1.2 Item Number 3.1.3 Dallas Police Department Tag Number, (if applicable) 3.1.4 Packaging description 3.1.5 Type of Firearm 3.1.6 If the firearm was received loaded 3.1.7 Make 3.1.8 Model 3.1.9 Caliber/Gauge 3.1.10 Additional information 3.1.11 Safety 3.1.12 Bolt/Slide 3.1.13 Serial Number 3.1.14 General Rifling Characteristics (If Applicable) 3.1.14.1 Number of Lands and Grooves 3.1.14.2 Direction of Twist 3.1.15 Barrel Length 3.1.16 Over All Length of Modified Long Guns 3.1.17 Location of Examiners Markings 3.1.18 Residue in Bore 3.1.19 Residue in Cylinder (Revolvers) 3.1.20 Cylinder Flare (Revolvers) 3.1.21 Number of Flares (Revolvers) 3.1.22 Description of Firearm Finish 3.1.23 Choke (Shotguns) 3.1.24 Action Type 3.1.25 Safeties 3.1.26 Trigger Pull Single Action and Double Action (If Applicable) 112 Firearm & Toolmark Procedures Manual, Version 2.2
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3.1.27 Magazine or Cylinder Capacity 3.1.28 Push-Off 3.1.29 Test Fire Information 3.1.29.1 Number of test fires 3.1.29.2 Where test fired 3.1.29.3 Ammunition used to test fire from evidence or laboratory 3.1.29.4 Brand of ammunition used to test fire 3.1.29.5 If test fired components were retained 3.1.30 General ejection direction 3.1.31 Operating Condition 3.1.32 Breech Face Marks Description 3.1.33 Firing Pin Impression Description 3.1.34 Microscopic Description of Firing Pin Impression 3.1.35 Firing Pin Drag 3.1.36 Test fire standards used 3.1.37 Entry into NIBIN 3.1.38 Results of Examination 3.1.39 Examiners initials 3.1.40 Date of examination 3.1.41 Any other information the examiner might find useful 3.2 COPY OF FIREARM WORK SHEET (Next Page)

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FIREARM WORKSHEET
Case #
DPD Gun Tag #: Container Outer: SCR Inner: Type: SCR N/A Recd Attached Attached by Examiner Removed

* *

Item #

Unsealed Unsealed

Envelope Envelope Rifle

Plastic Bag Plastic Bag Shotgun

Paper Bag Paper Bag Derringer

Zip Lock Zip Lock

Gun Box Gun Box

Other: ________________________________________ N/A Other:_________________________________ Firearm Loaded: Yes No

Revolver

Pistol

Other: ___________________________

Make: ________________________________________________________ Additional: _____________________________________________ N/A Caliber / Gauge: _____________________ Undetermined Serial #: Cylinder Flare: Yes No N/A Finish: Blued Stainless Choke: Full Action Type: Modified

Model: _________________________________________________________ Manual Safety: On Off N/A Bolt/Slide: Forward / To the Rear N/A

Rifling: ___________

Residue in Barrel : Y N Location: _____________________________________________ Rotation: L R N/A

Firearm Marked: CN, Item #, IN # of Flares ___________ Undetermined

Residue in Cylinder : Y N N/A

Nickel Chrome Tenifer Parkerized Anodized Paint Other: ______________________________________________________ Improved Cylinder Cylinder Bore Adjustable Swing Open Break Open Pin Type Bolt Action Sawed-off Other: ______________________________________________ N/A Single Barrel Double Barrel Other: Glock Safety Group Trigger Firing Pin Drop Sigarms Safety Group

Int Extr Hammer Striker Single Action Double Action

Auto Loading Lever Action Pump Action Loading Gate

Safeties: Manual: Yes No Blocks: Hammer Sear Slide Firing Pin Trigger Grip Decocking Lever Disconnector Trigger Lock Magazine Cock Auto Firing Pin Block Firing Pin Lock Hammer Block Rebound Transfer Bar Two Piece Firing Pin Safety Intercept Notch Other: ______________________________________________________________________ Capacity: Magazine: _____________ N/A Test Fired: (additional) Test Fired: Cylinder: _____________ N/A From: Lab - Evid From: Lab - Evid Derringer: ______________ N/A

Push Off: Yes No N/A Retained: Yes No Retained: Yes No

# _______INTO: H20 - Box - Trap # _______INTO: H20 - Box - Trap

Make: _________________________________ Make: _________________________________

Functional: Yes No BFM: P A C G S X

General Ejection Direction: Right Left Top Forward Lateral Rearward N/A FPI Shape: H C E R W Other: ______________ FPI Micro: C G S P FP Drag: Y N

TF Std(s) for Comp: Cart. Case #: ____________________ N/A Trigger Pull: Trigger Scan / Spring Gauge

Bul. #: ____________________ N/A

NIBIN Entry: Yes: _______ No Not Suitable Auto: ________________ N/A

SA: ___________________ N/A

DA: __________________ N/A

Barrel Length: _______________

Modified Firearm Over-all Length: _______________ N/A

Notes: *

Revised 07/13/2004

Examiner/Date:

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4.1

A projectile work sheet may take on many forms but should include the following information: 4.1.1 Laboratory Case Number 4.1.2 Item Number 4.1.3 Packaging description 4.1.4 Trace evidence observed or collected 4.1.5 Physical Description and Condition of the Projectile(s) 4.1.6 Projectile Caliber/Shot Size/Wad Size 4.1.7 Projectile(s) Weight 4.1.8 Number of cannelures and style (if present) 4.1.9 Projectile type and style 4.1.10 Base description 4.1.11 Brand of ammunition 4.1.12 General Rifling Characteristics 4.1.12.1 Number of lands and grooves on fired projectile 4.1.12.2 Direction of twist 4.1.12.3 How many characteristics seen 4.1.12.4 How class characteristics determined 4.1.12.5 Measured width of the land impressions 4.1.12.6 Measured width of the groove impressions 4.1.12.7 Possible Firearms 4.1.13 Where projectile marked by examiner 4.1.14 Description of and placement of other markings on projectile 4.1.15 If the projectile was bent for examination 4.1.16 If the projectile was cleaned for examination 4.1.17 Conclusions 4.1.18 Examiners Initials 4.1.19 Date of Examination 4.1.20 Any other information the examiner might find useful COPY OF PROJECTILE WORK SHEET (Next Page)

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PROJECTILE WORKSHEET
Case # Item # Container Sealed Outer: Inner:
Sealed Unsealed Envelope Unsealed Envelope None Glass Plastic bag Plastic bag Paper bag Paper bag Box Box Zip Lock Bag Zip Lock Bag Biologicals Glass Vial Glass Vial Fibers Film Container Film Container Other ____________________________ N/A Other ________________________

* *

Trace Evidence: Description:

Wood Plaster Paint _________________ Bullet Jacket

Other _________________________________________________ Metal Fragment Rifled Slug Undetermined Wad ____

Bullet

Bullet Fragment

Bullet Jacket Fragment Pb Core Wad ___________ Mushroomed

Pb Fragment

Shot Size ________ Buck Shot Size _________

Other ____________________________________ Fragmented

Condition:

Whole

Flattened

Deformed .

Damaged

Total Pieces: ____

Jacket ____ Lead ____

Description of condition: Number of Cannelures: Type:


FMJ TMJ SJ

See Photo Below

Caliber/Gauge:
Knurled Pb

___________________ Undetermined Crimp Cu N/A Brass Open Flat Y N

Weight:

_____________________ Grains

______ N/A Jacketed Steel

Style:
Al Brass

Plain

Plated/Coated: Base:
Closed

Wad __________ Undetermined N/A Concave Convex Undetermined Y N N/A

Style: RN Brand:

FN HP SP SWC WC

TRUNC SHOT

UNK N/A

Possible Firearms: See Printout N/A Where Other: How Marked by Examiner ________________________ : Ogive Base Lead _____________________________________________ Where Other: Other ID Marks: None ___________________________ : Ogive Base Lead _____________________________________________ To Which Item(s)?: Phase Color: Results: ID Elim N/N NoValue N/A __________________________________ ________________ Item# ______ Used as Bullet ID Made Location Standard Using: L.S. G.S. N/A : Base Middle Nose N/A N/A Other Information:

____________________________________________________________________ Parts of how Class Characteristics: ________ Undetermined Many Visible: ________ N/A N/A Measurements: (L.S) ______________________________ N/A (G.S.) ______________________________ N/A

Bent:

Cleaned:

Determined by:

Count Estimation Calculation

Comparison N/A

Revised 7/14/2004

Examiners Initials/Date

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5.0

CARTRIDGE/CARTRIDGE CASE/SHOTSHELL WORKSHEET: 5.1 A cartridge/case/shotshell work sheet may take on many forms but should include the following information: 5.1.1 Laboratory Case Number 5.1.2 Item Number 5.1.3 Packaging description 5.1.4 Caliber/Gauge 5.1.5 Description 5.1.6 Case type 5.1.7 Shotshell brass 5.1.8 Primer type 5.1.9 Sealant/Color 5.1.10 Bullet type/Style 5.1.11 Brand of Ammunition 5.1.12 How/Where evidence is marked by examiner 5.1.13 Conclusions 5.1.14 NIBIN entry 5.1.15 Breech Face Marks Description 5.1.16 Firing Pin Impression Shape Description 5.1.17 Microscopic Description of Firing Pin Impression 5.1.18 If Firing Pin Drag is Present 5.1.19 Examiners initials 5.1.20 Date of Examination 5.1.21 Any other information the examiner might find useful 5.2 COPY OF CARTRIDGE/ CARTRIDGE CASE/SHOTSHELL WORKSHEET (Next Page)

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CARTRIDGE / CARTRIDGE CASE / SHOTSHELL WORKSHEET


Case # Item(s) #
Container Sealed Outer: Inner: Unsealed Envelope Plastic Bag Paper Bag Box Zip Lock Glass Vial Film Container Film Container

* *

Other: ___________________

Sealed

Unsealed

Envelope

Plastic Bag

Paper Bag

Box

Zip Lock

Glass Vial

N/A

Other: _____________

Trace Evidence:

None

Glass

Wood

Plaster

Paint:__________

Biologicals

Fibers

Other:______________________________ Shotshell Casing(s): ______

Caliber / Gauge: ____________ Case Material: Shotshell: Bullet Type: Brass Steel

Description: Ni Al

Cartridge(s): ______ N/A Primer: Paper

Cartridge Case(s): ______ Ni Cu N/A

Shotshell(s): ______ Sealant: Y N Low N/A

Brass

Color: ______________ N/A Primer: Brass Brass Ni Ni Cu Cu N/A N/A

Material:

Plastic/Color: _____________

Ribbed N/A

Brass: High

FMJ TMJ SJ Jacketed Lead Steel Al Brass

Other: _____________________

Plated / Coated:

Style:

RN

FN

HP

SP

WC

SWC

TRUNC

SHOT

Other: _____________________________________________________ N/A

Brand: ___________________________________________________________________________________ Undetermined How Marked: CN, Item #, IN Results: ID ELIM N/N BF Where: body NO VALUE Ejector N/A ext groove top of brass other: ___________________________________________________ Color/Location:_________/____________ Chamber (Base Middle Mouth) N/A

To Which Item: _____________________N/A Anvil Ejection Port FP Drag FP Aperture Shear N/A

ID made using: FP

Extractor N/A

Item #: ________ used as standard BFM: Parallel Arcs Circular

NIBIN Entry: Smooth

Yes:________ No

Not Suitable

Granular

Cross Hatch

Other: __________________________ N/A Other: _______________________ N/A

FPI Shape: Hemispherical FPI Micro: Circular FP Drag: Yes No

Circular

Elliptical N/A Yes

Rectangular

Wedge

Granular N/A

Smooth

Cleaned:

No

Other Information:

Revised 07/13/2004

Examiner/Date:

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6.0

SERIAL NUMBER RESTORATION WORKSHEET: 6.1 A serial number restoration worksheet may take on many forms but should include the following information: 6.1.1 Laboratory Case Number 6.1.2 Item Number 6.1.3 Description of item with obliterated serial number 6.1.4 Parts of serial number visible 6.1.5 Location of serial number 6.1.6 Metal Type 6.1.7 Process used to restore serial number 6.1.8 List reagents used for restoration (If used) 6.1.9 Photograph of objects obliterated serial number as received (Optional) 6.1.10 Written and/or photographic result of serial number restoration 6.1.11 Verification 6.1.12 Any other information the examiner might find useful

6.2

COPY OF SERIAL NUMBER RESTORATION WORKSHEET (Next Page)

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SERIAL NUMBER RESTORATION WORKSHEET


Case # Item # Description of item obliterated: __________________________________________ Parts of S/N Visible: ______________________________________ Metal Type: Process Used: Ferrous Polished: Reagents Used Which Reagent Used: Frys Non-Ferrous Yes Yes No No Davis Location: ____________________________________________ * *

Other ______________________________________ Sandpaper Used: QC: 10% Nitric Acid 10% HCL Pass Yes Fail Acidic Ferric Chloride 10% NaOH Aqua Regia No

Turners

25% Nitric Acid 25% HCL

Ferric Chloride

Phosphoric/Nitric Acid

Other: ______________________________________________________________________________________ Restored S/N: ________________________________________ Picture as Received Verified by: ____________________________________________ After Restoration

Revised 7/14/2004

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7.1

A case summary worksheet may take on many forms but should include the following information: 7.1.1 Laboratory Case Number 7.1.2 Case start date 7.1.3 Case completion date 7.1.4 Examinations Requested 7.1.5 Conclusions 7.1.6 Verification 7.1.7 Photos representative of Identifications made (Optional) 7.1.8 Examiners Initials 7.1.9 Date of examination 7.1.10 Any other information the examiner might find useful COPY OF CASE SUMMARY WORKSHEET (Next Page)

7.2

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CASE SUMMARY WORKSHEET


Case # Case Start Date: * Examinations Requested: * Conclusions: * Comparisons Verified By: ___________________ N/A Photos of Representative Identifications Made: N/A * Case Completion Date: *

Revised 10/31/07

Examiners Initials/Date:

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8.0

GENERAL WORKSHEET: 8.1 A general worksheet may take on many forms but should include the following information: 8.1.1 Laboratory Case Number 8.1.2 Item number 8.1.3 Packaging description 8.1.4 Trace evidence observed or collected 8.1.5 Description of and placement of other markings on evidence 8.1.6 Results 8.1.7 Any other information the examiner might find useful 8.1.8 Examiners Initials 8.1.9 Date of examination COPY OF GENERAL WORKSHEET (Next Page)

8.2

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GENERAL WORKSHEET
Case # Item # Container Sealed Outer: Inner:
Sealed Unsealed Envelope Unsealed Envelope None Glass Plastic bag Plastic bag Paper bag Paper bag Box Box Zip Lock Bag Zip Lock Bag Biologicals Glass Vial Glass Vial Fibers Film Container Film Container Other ____________________________ N/A Other ________________________

* *

Trace Evidence: Description:

Wood Plaster Paint _________________

Other _________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ CN, Item #, IN

How Marked by Examiner Other ID Marks: Results:


ID Elim

Where: Where:

Ogive Base Ogive Base

Lead Lead

Other: _____________________________________________ Other: _____________________________________________

None ___________________________ N/N NoValue N/A

To Which Item(s)?:

__________________________________

Phase Color:

________________

Other Information:

Revised 10/31/07

Examiners Initials/Date

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9.0

GLOSSARY OF WORKSHEET ABBREVIATIONS 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6 9.7 9.8 9.9 9.10 9.11 9.12 9.13 9.14 9.15 9.16 9.17 9.18 9.19 9.20 9.21 9.22 9.23 9.24 9.25 9.26 9.27 9.28 9.29 9.30 9.31 9.32 9.33 9.34 9.35 9.36 9.37 9.38 9.39 9.40 9.41 9.42 9.43 9.44 9.45 9.46

or

Approximately equal to

AL Aluminum Ag Gold BBL - Barrel BF Breech Face BFM Breech Face Marks BOX Cotton Waste Recovery Box Br - Brass BUL - Bullet CART Cartridge CC Cartridge Case CCS Cartridge Cases CHEM Chemical CMC Charles M. Clow CN Case Number Comp - Comparison Cu Copper CW Consistent With C/W Consistent With DA Double Action DE Dustin Engel DPD Dallas Police Department EJT - Ejector ELIM Eliminate EVID Evidence EX# Exhibit Number (Item Number) EXTR External EXT Extractor FA - Firearm FB Forensic Biology FMJ Full Metal Jacket FN Flat Nose FP Firing Pin FPI Firing Pin Impression FRAG Fragment Ga Gauge GS Groove Signature HCL Hydrochloric Acid H2O Water Recovery Tank HP Hollow-Point HRT Heather Thomas ID Identification IN - Initials INT Internal L - Left LF Laura Fleming 125 Firearm & Toolmark Procedures Manual, Version 2.2
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9.47 9.48 9.49 9.50 9.51 9.52 9.53 9.54 9.55 9.56 9.57 9.58 9.59 9.60 9.61 9.62 9.63 9.64 9.65 9.66 9.67 9.68 9.69 9.70 9.71 9.72 9.73 9.74 9.75 9.76 9.77 9.78 9.79 9.80 9.81 9.82 9.83 9.84 9.85 9.86 9.87 9.88 9.89 9.90 9.91 9.92

LGE Lannie G. Emanuel LMG leucho malacite green LS Land Signature MICRO Microscopic Description N - No NA Not Applicable N/A Not Applicable NIBIN National Integrated Ballistic Information Network Ni Nickel N/N Neither/Nor No Val No Value Pb Lead POLY - Polygonal QCD Quality Controlled R - Right RAP - Robert A. Poole RC Raymond E. Cooper RECD Received RN Round Nose SA - Single Action SBA Susan B. Allen SCR Sealed Container Received SCRCNI Sealed Container Received Contents Not Inventoried SJ Semi-Jacketed SN Serial Number SNR Serial Number Restoration SP Soft-Point STD - Standard SWC Semi Wad Cutter T - Test TF Test Fired TRAP Bullet Trap TS Travis Spinder TMJ Total Metal Jacket TRUNC Truncated Unk Unknown Unsuit - unsuitable WC Wad Cutter Y Yes Zn - Zinc

- therefore - plus or minus or / - divide - not equal to @ - at - greater than or equal to


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9.93 9.94 9.95

- less than or equal to = - equals - pi

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