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Amer Hameed, Robert D. Brown, and John G. Hetherington

Abstract. This paper compares the external expansion of a thick-walled test cylinder manufactured from EN1A freecutting, mild steel, when subjected to an internal pressure with that of a simulated autofrettaged thick-walled cylinder cross-section, using finite element (FE) analysis. The results produced by FE are also compared with the conventional approach used for evaluating external strain in a thick-walled cylinder. This paper assumes kinematic material hardening (bilinear and multilinear) characteristics with Bauschinger effect. Comparison of results shows that those results produced by FE analysis are in good agreement with experimental results. The paper also highlights the appearance of Luder's band (stretch marks) on a thick-walled cylinder, due to plastic yielding.
when more and more of the cylinder material is entering the plastic regime, the bore material begins to strain harden. The vessel wall will continue to expand if the internal pressure is increased. When the weakening caused by the yielding exceeds the strengthening caused by strain hardening, the cylinder will fail at maximum or ultimate pressure. The trade-off between the safety factor, tensile strength and wall thickness can be more efficiently optimised if the vessels external strain (expansion) behaviour with respect to pressure is known and predictable. A number of investigators have predicted a pressure versus external expansion model analytically, including the ultimate failure of pressure vessels. Roach & Priddy [1], using a strain-tofailure approach, have developed a model that predicts the maximum pressure and complete through-thickness distribution. In this model, the plastic strength of a cylinder is based on the triaxial stress condition around material voids as they enlarge and eventually lead to failure. This paper compares the experimental strains at the outside diameter of a thick-walled cylinder subjected to autofrettage pressure, with that of a simulated model developed using a numerical finite element technique.


Di = internal diameter; Do = external diameter; Y = yield strength (257.66 MPa for EN1A mild steel); k = (Do/Di) wall ratio of thick-walled cylinder; Dn = diameter of elastic-plastic interface; n = Dn/Di ; Po = autofrettage pressure; Em = Young's modulus (210 GPa for EN1A mild steel); Et = tangent modulus (3.69 GPa for EN1A mild steel); b = correction factor (1.11 determined semi-empirically from the analysis of experimental autofrettage results on gun tubes); Yield strength in Compression Bauschinger effect factor (BEF) = Yield strength in Tension


In mechanical design, some form of strength analysis is usually required as a part of the design process. Traditionally, this has been done by simple engineering calculations, involving the Tresca criterion. Autofrettage is a technique frequently used on gun barrels in order to produce a favourable residual stress field. In gun barrels, a variety of solutions for autofrettage have been developed by simplifying the assumptions used in the development of a mathematical model. Analytical solution of thick-walled cylinders becomes complicated because of the non-linear stress-strain relation. Stress, being an internal phenomenon, is also difficult to interpret in physical terms. More often, it is the strain that is measured physically and then translated in terms of stress to analyse the strength of the structure. Moreover, a gun barrel's strength, or depth of autofrettage, can be estimated from the external expansion of the barrel when pressurised internally. As a thick walled cylinder is pressurised the bore material, which is the most highly stressed part of the cylinder, begins to yield. With further increase in pressure the yield surface begins to propagate through the thickness of the vessel, until it reaches the outer surface. At some stage,

The analysis of an autofrettaged gun barrel is based on an ideal-elastic perfectly-plastic assumption, using a standard yield criterion - normally Tresca with no Bauschinger effect, that is, identical magnitude of strength in tension and compression. The strain or external expansion due to the application of internal pressure is mathematically expressed by Goodall [2] as: Strain at the outer diameter:
eo = bYn 2 Ek 2


Strain at the inner diameter:

e i = bYn 2 (1.3k 2 + 0.7 n 2 ) 2 Ek 2 (2)

Residual strain at the outer diameter:

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