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1. Decimal Fractions: Fractions in which denominators are powers of 10 are known as decimal fractions. 1 = 1 hundredth = .

01; 100 99 7 = 99 hundredths = .99; = 7 thousandths = .007, etc.; 100 1000 Thus, 2. Conversion of a Decimal into Vulgar Fraction: Put 1 in the denominator under the decimal point and annex with it as many zeros as is the number of digits after the decimal point. Now, remove the decimal point and reduce the fraction to its lowest terms. Thus, 0.25 = 25 1 = ; 100 4 2.008 = 2008 251 = . 1000 125 1 = 1 tenth = .1; 10

3. Annexing Zeros and Removing Decimal Signs: Annexing zeros to the extreme right of a decimal fraction does not change its value. Thus, 0.8 = 0.80 = 0.800, etc. If numerator and denominator of a fraction contain the same number of decimal places, then we remove the decimal sign. Thus, 1.84 184 8 = = . 2.99 299 13

4. Operations on Decimal Fractions: i. Addition and Subtraction of Decimal Fractions: The given numbers are so placed under each other that the decimal points lie in one column. The numbers so arranged can now be added or subtracted in the usual way. ii. Multiplication of a Decimal Fraction By a Power of 10: Shift the decimal point to the right by as many places as is the power of 10. Thus, 5.9632 x 100 = 596.32; 0.073 x 10000 = 730. iii. Multiplication of Decimal Fractions: Multiply the given numbers considering them without decimal point. Now, in the product, the decimal point is marked off to obtain as many places of decimal as is the sum of the number of decimal places in the given numbers. Suppose we have to find the product (.2 x 0.02 x .002). Now, 2 x 2 x 2 = 8. Sum of decimal places = (1 + 2 + 3) = 6.

.2 x .02 x .002 = .000008 iv. Dividing a Decimal Fraction By a Counting Number: Divide the given number without considering the decimal point, by the given counting number. Now, in the quotient, put the decimal point to give as many places of decimal as there are in the dividend. Suppose we have to find the quotient (0.0204 17). Now, 204 17 = 12. Dividend contains 4 places of decimal. So, 0.0204 17 = 0.0012 v. Dividing a Decimal Fraction By a Decimal Fraction: Multiply both the dividend and the divisor by a suitable power of 10 to make divisor a whole number. Now, proceed as above. Thus, 0.00066 0.00066 x 100 0.066 = = = .006 0.11 0.11 x 100 11

5. Comparison of Fractions: Suppose some fractions are to be arranged in ascending or descending order of magnitude, then convert each one of the given fractions in the decimal form, and arrange them accordingly. 36 7 Let us to arrange the fractions , and in descending order. 57 9 3 6 7 Now, = 0.6, = 0.857, = 0.777... 5 7 9 6 7 3 Since, 0.857 > 0.777... > 0.6. So, > > . 7 9 5 6. Recurring Decimal: If in a decimal fraction, a figure or a set of figures is repeated continuously, then such a number is called a recurring decimal. n a recurring decimal, if a single figure is repeated, then it is expressed by putting a dot on it. If a set of figures is repeated, it is expressed by putting a bar on the set. 1 22 Thus, = 0.333... = 0.3; = 3.142857142857.... = 3.142857. 3 7 Pure Recurring Decimal: A decimal fraction, in which all the figures after the decimal point are repeated, is called a pure recurring decimal.

Converting a Pure Recurring Decimal into Vulgar Fraction: Write the repeated figures only once in the numerator and take as many nines in the denominator as is the number of repeating figures. 5 53 67 Thus, 0.5 = ; 0.53 = ; 0.067 = , etc. 9 99 999 Mixed Recurring Decimal: A decimal fraction in which some figures do not repeat and some of them are repeated, is called a mixed recurring decimal. Eg. 0.1733333.. = 0.173. Converting a Mixed Recurring Decimal Into Vulgar Fraction: In the numerator, take the difference between the number formed by all the digits after decimal point (taking repeated digits only once) and that formed by the digits which are not repeated. In the denominator, take the number formed by as many nines as there are repeating digits followed by as many zeros as is the number of non-repeating digits. Thus, 0.16 = 16 - 1 15 1 2273 - 22 2251 = = ; 0.2273 = = . 90 90 6 9900 9900

7. Some Basic Formulae: i. (a + b)(a - b) = (a2 + b2) ii. (a + b)2 = (a2 + b2 + 2ab) iii. (a - b)2 = (a2 + b2 - 2ab) iv. (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca) v. (a3 + b3) = (a + b)(a2 - ab + b2) vi. (a3 - b3) = (a - b)(a2 + ab + b2) vii. (a3 + b3 + c3 - 3abc) = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 - ab - bc - ac) viii. When a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc. 6. When 0.232323..... is converted into a fraction, then the result is: 1 2 A. B. 5 9 23 23 C. D. 99 100 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: 23 99 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 8. 0.232323... = 0.23 =

7. .009 = .01 ? A..0009 C. .9 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation:

B. .09 D.9

.009 .009 .9 = .01; Then x = = = .9 x .01 1 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 9. 8. The expression (11.98 x 11.98 + 11.98 x x + 0.02 x 0.02) will be a perfect square for x equal to: A.0.02 B. 0.2 C. 0.04 D.0.4 Answer & Explanation Let Answer: Option C Explanation: Given expression = (11.98)2 + (0.02)2 + 11.98 x x. For the given expression to be a perfect square, we must have 11.98 x x = 2 x 11.98 x 0.02 or x = 0.04 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 10. 9. (0.1667)(0.8333)(0.3333) is approximately equal to: (0.2222)(0.6667)(0.1250) A.2 B. 2.40 C. 2.43 D.2.50 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: Given expression= (0.3333) (0.1667)(0.8333) x (0.2222) (0.6667)(0.1250) 1 5 =3333x x 6 6

2 125 x 3 1000 3 1 5 3 = x x x x8 2 6 6 2 5 = 2 = 2.50 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 11. 10. 3889 + 12.952 - ? = 3854.002 A.47.095 B. 47.752 C. 47.932 D.47.95 Answer & Explanation 2222 Answer: Option D Explanation: Let 3889 + 12.952 - x = 3854.002. Then x = (3889 + 12.952) - 3854.002 = 3901.952 - 3854.002 = 47.95. (2.39)2 - (1.61)2 Evaluate : 2.39 - 1.61 A.2 C. 6 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: a2 - b2 (a + b)(a - b) Given Expression = = = (a + b) = (2.39 + 1.61) = 4. a-b (a - b) View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 2. What decimal of an hour is a second ? A..0025 C. .00027 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C

1.

B. 4 D.8

B. .0256 D..000126

Explanation: 1 1 = = .00027 60 x 60 3600 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum Required decimal = 3. The value of (0.96)3 - (0.1)3 is: (0.96)2 + 0.096 + (0.1)2 B. 0.95 D.1.06

A.0.86 C. 0.97 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: Given expression=

(0.96)3 - (0.1)3 (0.96)2 + (0.96 x 0.1) + (0.1)2 a3 - b3 = 2 a + ab + b2 = (a - b) = (0.96 - 0.1) = 0.86

View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 4. 0.1 x 0.1 x 0.1 + 0.02 x 0.02 x 0.02 is: 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.2 + 0.04 x 0.04 x 0.04 A.0.0125 B. 0.125 C. 0.25 D.0.5 Answer & Explanation The value of Answer: Option B Explanation: (0.1)3 + (0.02)3 1 = = 0.125 2 [(0.1)3 + (0.02)3] 8 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum Given expression =
3

5. If 2994 14.5 = 172, then 29.94 1.45 = ? A.0.172 C. 17.2 Answer & Explanation

B. 1.72 D.172

Answer: Option C Explanation: 29.94 299.4 = 1.45 14.5 2994 1 = x [ Here, Substitute 172 in the place of 2994/14.5 ] 14.5 10 172 = 10 = 17.2 11. 0.04 x 0.0162 is equal to: A.6.48 x 10-3 C. 6.48 x 10-5 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: 4 x 162 = 648. Sum of decimal places = 6. So, 0.04 x 0.0162 = 0.000648 = 6.48 x 10-4 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 12. 4.2 x 4.2 - 1.9 x 1.9 is equal to: 2.3 x 6.1 A.0.5 C. 20 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: (a2 - b2) (a2 - b2) Given Expression = = 2 2 = 1. (a + b)(a - b) (a - b ) View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 13. 144 14.4 = , then the value of x is: 0.144 x A.0.0144 C. 14.4 Answer & Explanation If

B. 6.48 x 10-4 D.6.48 x 10-6

B. 1.0 D.22

B. 1.44 D.144

Answer: Option A Explanation: 144 14.4 = 0.144 x 144 x 1000 14.4 = 144 x 14.4 x= = 0.0144 1000 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 14. The price of commodity X increases by 40 paise every year, while the price of commodity Y increases by 15 paise every year. If in 2001, the price of commodity X was Rs. 4.20 and that of Y was Rs. 6.30, in which year commodity X will cost 40 paise more than the commodity Y ? A.2010 B. 2011 C. 2012 D.2013 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Suppose commodity X will cost 40 paise more than Y after z years. Then, (4.20 + 0.40z) - (6.30 + 0.15z) = 0.40 0.25z = 0.40 + 2.10 z= 2.50 250 = = 10. 0.25 25

X will cost 40 paise more than Y 10 years after 2001 i.e., 2011. 15. Which of the following are in descending order of their value ? 123456 123456 [A]. , , , , , [B]. , , , , , 357567 355767 123456 654321 [C]. , , , , , [D]. , , , , , 355677 765753 Answer: Option D Explanation:

No answer description available for this question. Workspace Report error


Alekhya said: (Mon, Jul 5, 2010 08:30:51 AM)

Please explain answer.

Amit Kumar said: (Wed, Jul 21, 2010 12:45:40 PM)

I think these types of question solved by an easy trick. Plz tell me about that trick. Thanks for creating this fabulous site. I love this site.

Dipti said: (Sat, Jul 24, 2010 09:42:50 AM)

First take LCM of denominators. Here it s 210. Then multiply with multiplier that makes denominators 210. By doing this. First becomes 70/210, 84/210 and soon. Hence ans D.

Rangarajan said: (Thu, Aug 12, 2010 09:21:43 AM)

For the first 3 options, check the first two numbers. 1/3 = 0.3333 and 2/5 = 0.4 which is in ascending order. Hence answer is Option(D) by elimination

Indira said: (Thu, Sep 9, 2010 01:34:45 AM)

Tell me about the trick in this problem. I know to multiply with hcf in the denominator and finding decending order but I think their is trick for it.

Please tell me the trick.

Sivakumar said: (Fri, Sep 17, 2010 03:53:09 AM)

Converting each of given fractions into decimal form Ex: 6/7=0.85, 5/6=0.83 and so on That is the trick. Second Method find out HCF of denominator and LCM of numerator.

Jijo said: (Thu, Dec 16, 2010 02:06:00 AM)

Find the LCM of denominators. Then we get 210. Multiply it with current value (eg: 210*1/3 = 70) and find all values. Then you can find which one is the correct answer. Here the answer is option D.

Satya said: (Wed, Dec 22, 2010 06:54:14 AM)

Yes good right answer.

Aparna said: (Sat, Jan 29, 2011 12:23:17 AM)

The fastest method of solving this prblm is converting each fraction into decimal. Instead of finding LCM, it consumes lot of time. And as terms if fraction are easy we can solve orally in few seconds.

Pabitra said: (Tue, Feb 1, 2011 05:09:44 AM)

First take the LCM of the denominators and the LCM is 210. Which is taken to common denominator do the numerators equal to 210 by multiplying the required numbers. By comparing we get the answers. Thanks for creating this site this helps me very much.

Amit_Inder said: (Thu, Feb 24, 2011 07:00:56 AM)

By taking the LCM of denominator ie 3, 5, 6, 7 in this way we get the right series of descending.

Kopila Singh said: (Wed, Mar 2, 2011 01:32:32 AM)

Find out the decimal fraction of each sum and then you can easily determine the largest and the smallest digit and find out the answer.

Krishna said: (Mon, Mar 21, 2011 03:26:06 AM)

For the first 3 options, check the first two numbers. 1/3 = 0.3333 and 2/5 = 0.4 which is in ascending order. Hence answer is Option(D).

Shahid said: (Fri, May 20, 2011 06:57:01 AM)

These type of problems can be solved by Cross Multiplication principle. I will try to explain with the present problem scenario Consider (1/3) and (2/5) STEP 1: Multiply numerator of 1st with denominator of 2nd Multiply denominator of 1st with numerator of 2nd STEP 2: The result is (1*5) and (3*2) i.e.., 5 and 6 Now Check which number is greater of the two. In this case 6>5 STEP 3: Check which fraction's numerator is part of the product that results in greater number(6) In this case 6 has numerator of 2nd fraction (2/5) So we can say that (2/5) >(1/3) SO ON WITH THE NEXT FRACTIONS ALSO

Bhuban said: (Sat, Jun 4, 2011 03:15:14 AM)

Product of 2nd number denominator with 1st number numerator is more than pr of 1st number deno with 2nd number numo then 1st number is greater , Here in d option 36>35(6*6 > 7*5)

Karan said: (Sat, Aug 27, 2011 04:17:04 PM)

Use LCM method to get same denominator and solve.

3 5 Which of the following fractions is greater than and less than ? 4 6 1 2 A. B. 2 3 4 9 C. D. 5 10 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: 3 5 1 2 4 9 = 0.75, = 0.833, = 0.5, = 0.66, = 0.8, = 0.9. 4 6 2 3 5 10 Clearly, 0.8 lies between 0.75 and 0.833. 4 3 5 lies between and . 5 4 6 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 17. The rational number for recurring decimal 0.125125.... is: 63 119 A. B. 487 993 125 C. D.None of these 999 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: 125 999 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 0.125125... = 0.125 = 18. 617 + 6.017 + 0.617 + 6.0017 = ? A.6.2963 C. 629.6357 Answer & Explanation

B. 62.965 D.None of these

Answer: Option C Explanation:


617.00 6.017 0.617 + 6.0017 -------629.6357 ---------

View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 19. 489.1375 x 0.0483 x 1.956 is closet to: 0.0873 x 92.581 x 99.749 A.0.006 B. 0.06 C. 0.6 D.6 Answer & Explanation The value of Answer: Option B Explanation: 489.1375 x 0.0483 x 1.956 0.0873 x 92.581 x 99.749 489 = 9 x 93 x 10 163 1 = x 279 10 0.58 = 10 = 0.058 0.06. 489 x 0.05 x 2 0.09 x 93 x 100

View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 20. 0.002 x 0.5 = ? A.0.0001 C. 0.01 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: 2 x 5 = 10.

B. 0.001 D.0.1

Sum of decimal places = 4 0.002 x 0.5 = 0.001 21. 34.95 + 240.016 + 23.98 = ? A.298.0946 C. 298.946 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation:
34.95 240.016 + 23.98 -------298.946 --------

B. 298.111 D.299.09

View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 22. Which of the following is equal to 3.14 x 106 ? A.314 B. 3140 C. 3140000 D.None of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: 3.14 x 106 = 3.14 x 1000000 = 3140000. View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 23. The least among the following is: A.0.2 C. 0.2 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: 1 0.2 = 1 10 = = 5; 0.2 2

B. 1 0.2 D.(0.2)2

0.2 = 0.222...;

(0.2)2 = 0.04. 0.04 < 0.2 < 0.22....<5. Since 0.04 is the least, so (0.2)2 is the least. View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 24. 5 x 1.6 - 2 x 1.4 =? 1.3 A.0.4 C. 1.4 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: 8 - 2.8 5.2 52 Given Expression = = = = 4. 1.3 1.3 13 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 25. How many digits will be there to the right of the decimal point in the product of 95.75 and .02554 ? A.5 B. 6 C. 7 D.None of these Answer & Explanation Answer: Option B Explanation: Sum of decimal places = 7. Since the last digit to the extreme right will be zero (since 5 x 4 = 20), so there will be 6 significant digits to the right of the decimal point. 26. The correct expression of 6.46 in the fractional form is: 646 64640 A. B. 99 1000 640 640 C. D. 100 99 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D

B. 1.2 D.4

Explanation: 46 594 + 46 640 = = . 99 99 99 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 6.46 = 6 + 0.46 = 6 + 27. The fraction 101 27 in decimal for is: 100000 B. .10127 D.101.000027

A..01027 C. 101.00027 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation:

27 27 101 = 101 + = 101 + .00027 = 101.00027 100000 100000 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 28. 0.0203 x 2.92 =? 0.0073 x 14.5 x 0.7 A.0.8 C. 2.40 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option A Explanation: 0.0203 x 2.92 203 x 292 4 = = = 0.8 0.0073 x 14.5 x 0.7 73 x 145 x 7 5 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum 29. 4.036 divided by 0.04 gives : A.1.009 C. 100.9 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option C Explanation: 4.036 403.6 = = 100.9 0.04 4 View Answer Workspace Report Discuss in Forum

B. 1.45 D.3.25

B. 10.09 D.None of these

30. 3.87 - 2.59 = ? A.1.20 C. 1.27 Answer & Explanation Answer: Option D Explanation: 3.87 - 2.59 = (3 + 0.87) - (2 + 0.59) 87 59 - 2+ 99 99 87 59 =1+ 99 99 28 =1+ 99 = 3+ = 1.28.

B. 1.2 D.1.28

What is a cube number? A cube number (or a cube) is a number you can write as a product of three equal factors of natural numbers. Formula: k=a*a*a=a (k and a stand for integers.)

On the other hand a cube number results by multiplying an integer by itself three times. Formula: a*a*a=a=k (a and k stand for integers.) The same factor is called the base. After this a negative number like (-2)= -8 or a fraction number like (2/3)=8/27 are suspended. If it is appropriate, the number 0 is also a cubic number. These are the first 100 cube numbers.

You can illustrate the name cube number by the following drawings. If a is the side of a cube, the volume is a.

...1... 8 27 The picture pairs make a 3-D view possible.

Cube Root top It is easy to find a cube number. It is more difficult, to find the base of a cube number. This procedure is called extracting the cube root of n. The cube root of a natural number can be written as 1 Computation with the calculator In former times you found cube numbers by ready-reckoners, today there are calculators. You act with the TI30 like this: After entering the number you press the keys yx , (1/3) and finally = . Example: [2299968] -- [yx] -- [(1/3)] -- [=] . You get 22999681/3 =132. It is even simpler to give in 2299968^(1/3) into the searching field of Google or Bing. The cube root appears after pressing the enter key. 2 Determination by nested intervals 22999681/3 The number must be between 100 and 200 (100=1000000 and 200=4000000). It must be between 130 and 140 (130=2197000 and 140=2744000). It must be near 130 and 8 is on the ones place. Then 132 comes into consideration. Result: 22999681/3=132 3 Determination by factorization 22999681/3 You write the number in factors and develop the cube number this way. 2299968 = 8*287496 = 8*27*10648 = 8*27*8*1331=8*27*8*11*121=8*8*27*11=(2*2*3*11)=132. Result: 22999681/3 = 132. .

Cube Roots of Negative Numbers? top There is (-2)=-8. You could think that then (-8)1/3=-2 is. In former times this notation was common in schools, too. Today you demand that a1/3 is only defined for a>0 or a=0. The term (8)1/3 ist not allowed. Thus you avoid conflicts as the following calculations show.

There is (-8)1/3=(-8)2/6=[(-8)2]1/6=(64)1/6=(26 )1/6=2. That means that (-8)1/3 would be ambiguous. You would get two results depending on the way of calculation.

This is possible. The equation (-2)=-8 is changed to -(81/3)=-2. Generally x=a leads to x=-(-a)1/3 for a<0.

Sequences and Series top Series of the cube numbers There is a series to each sequence and this is the sequence of the partial sums. For cube numbers this is the sequence sn= 1+2+3+...+n. 1+2+3+...+n=[n(n+1)/2] is given.

Proof by mathematical induction >The statement holds for n=1: s1=[1*(1+1)/2]=1. >Assume that the formula holds for all natural numbers n: sn=[n(n+1)/2]. >You must show that then the formula also holds for n+1: sn+1 = [(n+1)(n+2)/2]. Calculation: Convert the product [(n+1)(n+2)] into a sum at first. [(n+1)(n+2)]=(n+3n+2)=n4+(3n+2)+2n(3n+2)=n4+(9n+12n+4)+(6n+4n)=n4+6n+12n+12 n+4 There is sn+1 = sn+(n+1) = [n(n+1)/2]+(n+1) = [n(n+1)+4(n+1)]/4 = [n(n+2n+1)+(4n+12n+12n+4)]/4 = (n4+6n+13n+12n+4)/4 = [(n+1)(n+2)]/4 = [(n+1)(n+2)/2], qed..

The formula 1+2+3+...+n=[n(n+1)/2] contains the series of the natural numbers, because the sum can be written as 1+2+3+ ...+n=n(n+1)/2. Thus there is the formula 1+2+3+...+n = (1+2+3+...+n), which is illustrated on the right. Interpretation as an arithmetic series of third order The sequence of the cube numbers is also an arithmetic series of third order. A figure follows to explain this.

In every new row you find the difference of two numbers a row higher. The feature is that you reach a constant difference 6 after three steps. There are formulas for these sequences, so that you can prove the formula 1+2+3+...+n=[n(n+1)/2] in another way. You can read this on Steffen Weber's (URL below) German web site. Series of odd numbers There is 1=1, 2=3+5, 3=7+9+11, 4=13+15+17+19, ... and 1+2+3+4+... = 1+3+5+7+9+11+13+15+17+19+... Series of the reciprocal cube numbers There is another series of cube numbers, the one of the reciprocal cube numbers: 1/1+1/2+1/3+...+1/n. It is convergent. You find the limit, the Riemann's zeta-function for 3, on the Wikipedia page 1729 (number). Series of the centered hexagonal numbers The sequence of the centered hexagonal numbers is 1, 7, 19, 37, 61, 91, 127, 169, 217, 271, 331, ...

The formula is an=3n-3n+1. There is 1, 1+7=8, 1+7+19=27, 1+7+19+37=64, ... The series to the sequence of the centered hexagonal numbers is the sequence of the cube numbers. Calculation for proving:

The formulas 1+2+3+...+n=(1/6)n(n+1)(2n+1) and 1+2+3+...+n=(1/2)n(n+1) are used. Sequence of the centered cube numbers The sequence of the centered cube numbers is 1, 9, 35, 91, 189, 341, 559, 855, 1241,...

...1... 9

35 The picture pairs make a 3-D view possible. The formula is an=2n-3n+3n-1. If you add two consecutive cube numbers, the centered cube numbers develop. This is given by 2n-3n+3n-1=n+(n -1). Sequence of the perfect numbers T.L. Heath (1861-1940) proved that every even perfect number - except 6 - is the sum of 2(n-1)/2 cube numbers, for example 28=1+3, 496=1+3+5+7, 8128=1+3+5+7+9+11+13+15. Source (3), page 14f.

Waring's Problem top The English mathematician Eduard Waring (1734-1798) maintained the following statement among others. "Every natural number is either a cube number or the sum of 2,3,4,5,6,7,8 or 9 cube numbers." (2), page 37ff.

That means that 9 is a smallest number. It can be more than 9 as the following sum of 180 with 64 (!) cubic numbers shows. 180 = 6+7+8+...+67+68+69 (1). Already 4 summands will do, 180=1+3+3+5. The first numbers 1=1 2=1+1 3=1+1+1 4=1+1+1+1 5=1+1+1+1+1 6=1+1+1+1+1+1 7=1+1+1+1+1+1+1

15=2+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 23=2+2+1+1+1+1+1+1+1 Dissection of the numbers <= 100, found by a simple computer program The smallest number of the summands is determined. >The numbers 2, 9, 16, 28, 35, 54, 65, 72, 91 have sums with 2 cubes at least: 2, 9, 16, 28, 35, 54, 65, 72, 91 >Sums with 3 cubes: 3, 10, 17, 24, 29, 36, 43, 55, 62, 66, 73, 80, 81, 92, 99 >Sums with 4 cubes:4, 11, 18, 25, 30, 32, 37, 44, 51, 56, 63, 67, 70, 74, 82, 88, 89, 93, 100 >Sums with 5 cubes: 5, 12, 19, 26, 31, 33, 38, 40, 45, 52, 57, 59, 68, 71, 75, 78, 83, 90, 94, 96, 97 >Sums with 6 cubes: 6, 13, 20, 27, 34, 39, 41, 46, 48, 53, 58, 60, 69, 76, 79, 84, 86, 95, 98 >Sums with 7 cubes: 7, 14, 21, 42, 47, 49, 61, 77, 85, 87 >Sums with 8 cubes: 15, 22, 50 (All numbers are 15, 22, 50, 114, 167, 175, 186, 212, 231, 238, 303, 364, 420, 428, 454.) >Sums with 9 cubes for 23, (and 239 only) >8, 27, 64 are the cube numbers < 100.

There is an anecdote to the sums 1729=1 + 12 and 1729= 9 + 10, which you can read on the German Wikipedia site Tausendsiebenhundertneunundzwanzig (URL below). Sum of cubes The equation x+y=z leads to the Pythagorean triples (more on my German page 3-4-5Dreieck) The more general equation xn+yn=zn has no solution for n>2. This is the famous Fermat's Last Theorem. Andrew Wiles und Richard Taylor proved the theorem not until 1993/95. I recommend the fascinating story in Simon Singh's bestseller Fermat's Last Theorem (5). If you cannot write a cube number as a sum of two cubes, you can look for sums with three or more cubes. A nice example is 3+4+5=6, particularly, because there are four consecutive numbers. There are more examples in the chapter Playings with Numbers below.

Special Cube Numbers top Square numbers among the cubes There are cubes, which also are squares. You can construct them step by step by squaring cube numbers. 23 leads to 26=64, 33 to 36=729, 4 to 46=4 096, ...

The next cube numbers and at the same time square numbers upto 1 million are 15 625, 46 656, 117 649, 262 144 und 531 441. I must not forget 1.

Palindromes among the cube numbers 343=7 131=11, 1030301=101, 1003003001=1001, ... 1367631=111, 1030607060301=10101, 1003006007006003001=1001001, ... 1334996994331=11011, 1331399339931331=110011, ... 1033394994933301=1011010, ... It is noticed that all bases are also palindromes. The only palindrome with a non-palindrome base is 10662526601 = 2201 according to Martin Gardner. Source: Patrick De Geest (World!of numbers)

Playing with Numbers top I show results of Lietzmann's book (1) from 1948 among other things in this chapter, extended and controlled by my computer.

A cube number is the third power of its digit sum. 512=8=(5+1+2) 4913=17=(4+9+1+3) 5832=18=(5+8+3+2) 17576=26=(1+7+5+7+6) 19683=17=(1+9+6+8+3) A number is the sum of the third power of its digits. for x=0 to 9 153=1+5+3 for y=0 to 9 370=3+5+0 for z=0 to 9 371=3+5+1 if x*x*x+y*y*y+z*z*z=1000*x+100*y+z then print 407=4+0+7 x,y,z next z The simple program on the right found next y this. next x Variations 22+2=2+2+2 12*3=1+2+3 32*5=3+2+5 50*5=5+0+5 51*3=5+1+3

151+3=1+5+1+3 und 153+1 370+1=3+7+0+1 371+1=3+7+1+1 400+7=4+0+0+7 401+7=4+0+1+7 und 407+1=4+0+1+7 464+5=4+6+4+5 und 465+4=4+6+4+5

12+32=1+2+3+2 20+23=2+0+2+3 21+23=2+1+2+3 30+32=3+0+3+2 31+32=3+1+3+2

624+7=6+2+4+7 und 627+4=6+2+4+7 643+7=6+4+3+7 und 647+3=6+4+3+7 733+7=7+3+3+7 und 737+3=7+3+3+7 773+4=7+7+3+4 und 774+3=7+7+3+4 914+5=9+1+4+5 und 915+4=9+1+4+5 Terms with equal digits 3+7=37*(3+7) 4+8=48*(4+8) 14+7=147*(14+7) 14+8=148*(14+8) Cube numbers are written in the digits 1 to 9. No digit is twice or more. 125*438976=380 8*24137569=578 8*32461759=628 Two numbers with common features Example 24=13824 and 76=438976 25=15625 and 75=421875 49=117649 and 51=132651 125=1953 125 and 875=669921875 251=15813251 and 749=420189749 0624 = 242970624 and 9376 = 824238309376 0625 = 244140625 and 9375 = 823974609 375 21952 = (6+8+5+9) and 6859 = (2+1+9+5+2)

107*8=1+0+7+8 180*3=1+8+0+3 989*2=9+8+9+2 18*30=1+8+3+0

Explanation 24+76=100, 13824 and 438976 25+75=100, 15625 and 421875 49+51=100, 117649 and 132651 125+875=1000, 1953125 and 669921875 251+749=1000, 15813251 and 420189749 0624+9376=10000, 242970624 and 824238309 376 0625+9375=10000, 244140625 and 823974609 375 21952 and 2+1+9+5+2, plus 6+8+5+9 and 6859

The bases form an arithmetic progression 180 = 6+7+8+...+67+68+69 540 = 34+35+ ... +158 2856 = 213+214+ ... +555 5544 = 406+407+ ... +917 16834 = 1134+1135+ ... +2133 3990 = 290+293+ ... +935 29880 = 2108+2111+ ... +4292 408 = 149+256+363 440 = 230+243+265+269+282 1155 = 435+506+577+648+719+790 2128 = 553+710+867+1024+1181+1338+1475

168 = 28+41+54+67+80+93+106+119 64085 = 935+5868+10801+15734+20667+25600+30533+35466+40399+45332 495 = 15+52+89+126+163+200+237+274+311+248


CUBE UPTO 25 1x1x1=1 2x2x2=8 3x3x3=27 4x4x4=64 5x5x5=125 6x6x6=216 7x7x7=343 8x8x8=512 9x9x9=729 10x10x10=1000 11x11x11=1331 12x12x12=1728 13x13x13=2197 14x14x14=2744 15x15x15=3375 16x16x16=4096 17x17x17=4913 18x18x18=5832 19x19x19=6859 20x20x20=8000 21x21x21=9261 Cube Formula

Finding the answer using (a+b)^3 formula Choose two numbers which you are comfortable with and whose sum is 25. In this case we can take 20 & 5 since (20+5)=25 (a+b)^3 = a^3 + b^3 +3ab(a+b) taking a=20 and b=5 the formula can be rewrriten in this way (20+5)^3 = 20^3 + 5^3 +3*20*5(20+5) 20^3 = 8000 and 5^3= 125

= 8000+125+300(25) = 8000+125+7500 = 15,625


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TRAINS SHORTCUTS FOR QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE


TRAINS SHORTCUTS FOR QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE 1. When a train passes a stationary point, the distance covered (in the passing) is the length of the train. Eg 1: What is the time taken by a train of length 360m to cross a pole at a speed of 72 kmph ? Ans: Time taken by the train to cross the pole = Length of the train / Speed of the train Speed of the train is given in kmph, whereas the length of the train is given in mts. So the speed of the train is to be expressed in m/sec. Speed of the train ( in mts/sec) = 72 x (5/18) = 20 mts/sec Time taken by the train to cross the pole = 360/20 = 18 seconds. 2. If the train is crossing a platform or a bridge, the distance covered by the train is equal to the length of the train plus the length of the platform or a bridge. Eg 2: How long will a train 200 m long travelling at a speed of 54 kmph take to cross a platform of length 100 m? Ans: Distance covered by the train = Length of the train + Length of the platform = 200 + 100 = 300 m Speed of the train is given in kmph, whereas the distance covered by the train is given in mts. So speed of the train is to be expressed in mts / sec. Speed of the train = 54 x (5/18) = 15 mts/ sec Time taken by the train = 300/15 = 20 seconds. 3. If two trains pass each other ( travelling in the same direction or in opposite directions) , the total distance covered ( in the crossing/ overtaking as the case may be) is equal to the sum of the lengths of the two trains. Eg3: Two trains 121 mts and 99 mts in length respectively are running in opposite directions, one at the rate of 40 kmph and the other at the rate of 32 kmph. In what time will they be completely clear of each other from the moment they meet? Ans: As the trains are moving in opposite directions their relative speed = 40 + 32 km/hr. = 72 km/hr. The length to be travelled by the trains = 121 + 99 = 220 mts.

The speed of the train is given in Kmph, whereas the length is given in mts. Hence, the relative speed of the trains is to be expressed in mts/sec. The relative speed in mts/sec = 72 x (5/18) = 20 mts /sec Time required to completely clear of each other from the moment they meet = 220 / 20 = 11 secs. 4. If two bodies are moving in the same direction at speeds S1 and S2 respectively, then the relative speed is: Relative speed = S1 - S2 5. If two bodies are moving in opposite direction at speeds S1 and S2 respectively, then the relative speed is: Relative speed = S1+ S2. 6. Two trains of length 'p' m and 'q' m respectively run on parallel lines of rails. When running in the same direction the faster train passes the slower one in 'a' seconds, but when they are running in opposite directions with the same speeds as earlier, they pass each other in 'b' seconds. Then, Speed of the faster train = [( p + q)/ 2] x [ ( a+b) / (a x b)] Speed of the slower train = [(p-q) / 2] x [ (a-b) / (a x b)] Note : The speeds obtained using the above formula are in mts/ sec, if the speeds are to be expressed in kmph, they have to be multiplied by 18/5. Eg 4: Two trains of length 100 m and 250 m run on parallel lines. When they run in the same direction it will take 70 seconds to cross each other and when they run in opposite direction, they take 10 seconds to cross each other. Find the speeds of the two trains? Ans: Speed of the faster train = [(100 + 250) / 2] [ (70 + 10) / ( 70 x 10) ]. = 175 x (8 /70) = 20 m/sec. Speed of the slower train = [ ( 100 + 250) / 2] [ ( 70-10) / (70 x 10) ] = 175 x ( 6/ 70) = 15 m/ sec. Therefore, speeds of the trains are 72 kmph (20 x 18 /5) and 54 kmph ( 15 x 18/5) respectively. 6. If a train passes by a stationary man in 'p' seconds and passes by a platform / bridge, the length of which is 'm' mts, completely in 'q' sec. Then Length of the train = (m x p) / (q-p). Eg 5: A train crosses by a stationary man standing on the platform in 7 seconds and passes by the platform completely in 28 seconds. If the length of the platform is 330 meters, what is the length of the train? Ans: Length of the train = ( 330 x 7) / ( 28-7) = 330x 7 / 21 = 110 mts.

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Elementary Mensuration SHORTCUTS FOR QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE Areas of plane figures: Area of Rectangle = l *b (where l = length, b = Breadth) Area of square = A *A (where a is side of the square ) Area of triangle = 1/2 * h * b(where h is height , b is measure of base) Area of Parllelogram = b * h(where b is base , h is height) Area of Trapezium = 1/2(sum of parallel sides *perpendicular distance between them) = 1/2 (a+b)h {where a & b are parallel sides and h is the perpendicular distance between them} Area of Circle = r2 where r is the radius of the circle Circumference of the circle = 2r(where r is radius of the circle) Area of Equilateral Triangle =3 /4 a2 A.rectangle 1] [ diagonal]2 = [length]2+[breadth]2 2] perimeter= 2[l+b]

B.square
1] area=[side]2=1/2 [diagonal]2. 2] perimeter =4 x side C.area of four walls= 2 x [ l+b]xh D.area of //gram=base x height E.area of an equlateral triangle= sq. root 3 xside2 4 F.perimeter of an equilateral triangle=3x side G.if a,b and c are side of a triangle and s=[a+b+c]/2 then area of triangle= sq. root of [ s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)] H. circumference of a circle=2r I.area of a circle=r2 mensuration Q1.the length of garden is 120 m and breadth is 80 m. the perimeter will be? sol. l=120 m b= 80 m

perimeter = 2(l+b)=2(120+80)=400 m Q2. the length and breadth of a courtyard are 15m and 12m. find the number of tiles which are 50cmx40cm in size? sol. area of the court yard= lxb=15x12=180 sq.m area of tile = 50/100 x 40/100=1/5 sq m. number of tiles = area of court yard/ area of a tile=180/(1/5)=900 tiles. Q3. the lenght ,breadth and heigth of a room are respectively 12 m,8m and 5 m. if all the four walls of it are to be pastedwith paper 80 cm wide. find the length of the paper? sol.area of four walls= 2(l+b)x h=2(12+8)x5=200 sq m the length of the paper =200/(80/100)=250 m Q4.three sides of a triangle are 13cm,14cm and 15 cm. the area of a triangle will be? sol. a=13 b=14 c= 15 semiperimeter of triangle=(13+14+15)/2=21 area of the triangle= sq.root of [ s(s-a)(s-b)(s-c)] = sq.root of [ 21(21-13)(21-14)(21-15)] =sq .root of 7056=84 sq.cm Q5.a wheel covers the distance 220 m in one round . the radius of the wheel is? sol. circumference of the wheel=>2r=220 m,solving this radius of the wheel comes=35 cm Q6:the area of the circle is 616 sq cm. what is its radius ? sol. given, r2 =616 r=sq.root of 616/(22/7)=14 cm. Q7: the radius of the cylinder is 14 cm and the height 50 cm.the area of the whole surface is? sol. the whole surface area of a cylinder is =2 rh+2r putting the respective data here we get the answer=5632 sq m Q8.the radius of the sphere is 7 cm.the area of its surface will be? sol: area of surface of a sphere = 4r2 = 4 x (22/7)x 7x7=616 sq m Q9:the side of the cube is 10 cm. the area of all the surfaces is? sol: area of all surfaces=6x(side)2 =6x 10x10 = 600 sq cm

Q 10:a rectangle is 24 cm x 6 cm. what is the perimeter of a square with equal area? sol: area of the rectangle=24x6=144 sq.cm=area of square. area of square=side2 =144 side = 12 cm now, perimeter of square = 4x side =4x12=48 cm Q11:the area of a square garden is 576 sq m. what is the area of a path 2m around it? sol. side of the square = sq root of 576=24 m. side including the path= 24+4=28 m area including path= 28x28=784 sq m area of the path= 784-576=208 sq m Q12.if the side of the square is doubled ,its area is increased by what %? sol.present side =a A=a2 when side is doubled, A=(2a)2 =4a2 so increase in area = 3a2 so increase percentage =(3a2/a2 )x100= 300% Q13. the largest possible square inscribed in a circle of radius 7cm.find the area of the square? sol: when the largest square is inscribed inside the circle its diagonal is equal to the diameter of the circle. therefore, d=14 cm area of the square =d2/2=196/2=98 sq cm Q14: the length, breadth and height of a tank are 4m, 3m and 1.5 m.how many litres of water it will contain? sol: volume of tank=4x3x1.5=18 m3 now since ,1m3=1000ltr so, 18 m3 = 18000 litres
For example to show one of my methods: To square a two digit number, say 74. 7^2=49 (7*4)2=56 4^2=16 now add the digit other than the ones digit with previous number. 1. 49 cant be added with a previous number.

2. add the 5 of 56 with 49, 49+5=54 then simply attach the ones digit.becomes 546. 3. similarly add 1 of 16 with 546 and attach 6. you get 5476. this is the square of 74. i.e. 74^2=5476 :-) :-) :-) :-) :-) :-)