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## MANOVA and MANCOVA (Multivariate Analysis of Variance /

Covariance) (DR SEE KIN HAI) 1. MONOVA / MANCOVA is used to determine the effects of 1 or more independent variables on several dependent variables simultaneously. 2. 1-way ANOVA is used to compare the mean of 3 (for 2 you use t test) or more independent sample groups. To answer null hypothesis H o : All population means are the same. If any pair of mean show a sig difference, use Post-Hoc multiple comparison test to identify which pairs of means show sig difference. 3. 2 or 3-way ANOVA is used for multiple independent variables on 1 dependent variable. Here the main effect and interaction effect of 2 or more independent variables on 1 dependent variable will be examined. 4. ANCOVA is used to covariate out the effect of pretest/ or other variable that you consider may influence the dependent score on posttest scores. Assumptions (before you can use this MANOVA) 1. Samples drawn from normally distributed population. (Use Normality test see Basic 3). 2. Samples are independent and randomly drawn from the population. 3. Data from the sample group is homogeneous (equal variances) - Use Levenes test for equality of variances and p > 0.05 (not sig different). Example An English language teacher wanted to know whether there are significant differences in the mean scores of Year 10 students English test and Attitude score between the male and female students and also among the different levels of students perception towards English. He has administered an English test and an Attitude questionnaire to a group of 30 students consisting of 15 males and 15 females. (Assume that the data met the assumptions above). (The [Data View] and [Variable View] are given below) (You are to test the H o : There are no significant differences in the combine mean scores of English Test scores and Attitude Scores between the male and female and also among the different levels (H,M and L) of students perception towards English .

2
1= High, 2= Medium, 3 = Low Perception 1=Male, 2=Female

How to run MANOVA and MANCOVA 1. [Analyze] then [General Linear Model], then [Multivariate] to open the dialogue box. 2. This study has 2 independent variables Gender (1=Male, 2=Female) and Perception towards English (1=High, 2=Medium, 3=Low) you enter into [Fixed Factors Box] and 2 dependent variables (English test score and Attitude score) you enter into [Dependent variables Box].

3. To covariate out the effect if any e.g. Pretest or IQ you enter into [Covariates Box] for MANCOVA. (In this case you do not have any so is MANOVA)

3 4. Select [Model] to open the sub-dialogue box below. Click on [Full factorial] then [Type III] for Sum of Squares and click on [Continue].

5. Select [Plots] to open the sub-dialogue box. Move [Gender] into [Horizontal Axis] and [Perception] into [Separate Lines] then [Add] and [Continue].

6. Click on [Post Hoc] (only work for a min of 3 levels to determine which levels of the variable are sig different ) to open the [Post Hoc Multiple Comparison] sub-dialogue box.

Move [Perception] into the [Post Hoc for] box and select [Bonferroni], [Tukey] and [Continue]. Note:

7. Select [Options..] to open the dialogue box and select the [Display] shown below then [Continue] and [OK].

Note:

Interpretation of the output (a) Between-Subjects Factors This table shows the Independent variables of Gender (Male and Female2 levels) and 3 levels of Perception (H,M,L) and their sample sizes N

## 6 (b) Descriptive Statistics

For each cell in the model, means, SD and sample size is shown for each dependent variables of English Scores and Attitude scores for Male and Female and 3 levels of perception (H, M and L)

(c) Boxs Test of Equality of Covariance Matrices This tests show that the covariance matrices for the dep variables are not significantly different as p > 0.05. This confirms that all the covariance matrices are not significantly different and thus fulfill the assumption of MANOVA.

## 7 (d) Multivariate Tests

Intercept= remaining variance (error variance)

Intercept

The rows show the tests for each main effects of Gender (no sig effect F2,23 =2.44, p =0.11) and Perception (sig effect on English and Attitude scores with F4,48 = 11.42, p <0.01 ) and the interaction of Gender and Perception (no sig effect on the test scores). Power= ability to detect an effect if there is any from 0 to 1.

Measure of effect size- the degree of association between the main effect (Indep var) with Dep var. This explains how much of the total variance is explained by each Indep var, the interaction and main effects: Eta Square 2 = 0.0099 constitute small effect = 0.0588 medium effect = 0.1379 large effect e.g. Gender explained for 17.5% of the variance in the English and Attitude scores

0.95= 5% chance of failing to detect an effect 0.80 = acceptable range. If power > 0.80 and you do not get aa sig diff then you can reasonably conclude that there is none. e.g. for Gender with effect size of 0.175, there is a 44.0% chance of finding that effect to be significant in this sample of 30 students

## (f) Tests of Between-Subjects Effects

Here English score is significant, so you should interpret your results with caution as p < 0.05. However, F-ratio is not so large so there is no necessity for you to panic just yet. Here the variance for English score is sig different a violation of assumption.

Here, uni-variate F tests on each dependent variables show that there is a significant influence of Gender on the Attitude towards English (

## F1,24 = 5.08, p=0.034), and sig

effects of perceptions on English Test ( F2,24 =60.90, p <0.01) and Perception on Attitude score ( F2,24 = 137.79, p < 0.01). However there is no sig interacting effects of Gender and Perception on the Dep Variables.

## (g) Post Hoc Multiple ComparisonTests

Pairwise comparisons are computed for all combinations of levels of indep variables. E.g. For English and Attitude Score, Perception of H is sig different from M, and M is sig diff from L. Similar results are obtained from Bonferroni test.

Conclusion 1. There is no significant difference in the combined mean score of English and Attitude between the male and female students.

10 2. There is a significant difference in the combined mean score among the different levels of perception of students. This indicates that Perception (H,M,L) has a significant effect on the scores of English and Attitude. 3. The interacting effect of Gender and Perception is not significant on the dependent variables. COURSEWORK A Malay language teacher wanted to know whether there are significant differences in the mean scores of Malay Language Test and Mathematical scores between 30 Year 10 male and female students from her school. (Assuming that you meet all the assumptions to carry out this MANOVA analysis)