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Recruitment Plan (2009-2020) for Indian Police Service

Final Report

Kamal Kumar, IPS (Retd.)

Ministry of Home Affairs Government of India

October 2009

Contents

Chapter 1.

Introduction

 

1.

The Genesis

1

  • 1.2. Scope of Study

1

 
  • 1.3. Methodology

2

 
  • 1.4. Consultation with HR Expert

3

1.

5.

Obtaining Data from the States

4

  • 1.6. Organisation of the Report

4

Chapter 2.

Causes leading to Shortages of IPS manpower

  • 2.3. Low intake of Direct Recruits over Several Years

5

  • 2.4. Unscientific process of Fixation of Cadre Strength

6

2.4.2.

Current Guidelines

8

  • 2.5. Existence of Large Number of ‘Ex-cadre’ Posts

9

  • 2.6. Periodicity of Cadre Review

12

Chapter 3.

Realistic Status of Shortage of IPS Strength

  • 3.1. Large-scale Vacancies against the Authorized Strength

15

  • 3.2. Shortages on account of ‘Ex-cadre’ posts

15

  • 3.3. Urgent need for Encadrement of many ‘Ex-cadre’ Posts

16

  • 3.4. Expansion Plans of State Police Organisations

17

  • 3.5. Net Shortages

17

Chapter 4.

Measures to Fill Posts in Direct Recruitment Quota

  • 4.1. Need to Stagger Recruitment

19

  • 4.2. Range of Options

19

  • 4.3. Preferable Options

21

  • 4.3.2. Augmentation of Intake through Civil Services Examination

22

  • 4.3.3. Appointment of Professionals on Contract/Deputation Basis for Specialized Jobs

22

  • 4.3.4. Induction through Limited Competitive Examination (LCE)

23

Chapter 5.

Recruitment Plan for Direct Recruitment Quota for 2009-2020

  • 5.1. Broad principles followed

24

  • 5.2. Induction through Civil Services Examination

25

  • 5.3. Recruitment through Limited Competitive Examination

26

  • 5.4. Appointment of Professionals for Specialized Jobs

27

Chapter 6.

Promotion Quota Vacancies

  • 6.1. Extent of Vacancies

28

  • 6.2. Existing Process of Filling up Promotion Quota Vacancies

28

  • 6.3. National Police Commission’s View on Filling Promotion Quota Vacancies

31

i

 
  • 6.4. Second Administrative Reforms Commission’s Recommendation

32

  • 6.5. UPSC’s proposal

32

  • 6.6. What needs to be done?

34

Chapter 7.

Training and Change Management Needs

  • 7.1. Training Needs

36

  • 7.2. Change Management Needs

37

Chapter 8.

Requirement of IPS Officers for Central Police Organisations

  • 8.2. Existing Extent of Vacancies in CPOs

39

  • 8.3. Expansion Plans

40

  • 8.4. Total Realistic Requirement of CPOs

40

  • 8.5. Adequacy or Otherwise of Central Deputation Reserve

41

  • 8.6. Reasons for the Existing Shortages in CPOs

42

  • 8.7. What needs to be done?

43

Chapter 9.

Policy Issues

 
  • 9.2 Determination of Cadre Strength for IPS

46

  • 9.3 Resignations and Voluntary Retirements

47

  • 9.4 Perennial Shortage of IPS Officers in some NE States

47

  • 9.5 Compliance of IPS (Cadre) Rules by States

48

Chapter 10.

Summary of Recommendations

  • 10.2 Process of Determining the IPS Cadre Strength

49

  • 10.3 Recruitment Plan

50

  • 10.4 Filling up Promotion Quota Vacancies

52

  • 10.5 Training and Change Management Needs

54

  • 10.6 Requirement of IPS Officers for CPOs

55

 
  • 10.7 Policy Issues

57

Annexure I

:

Extent of vacancies in the authorized cadre strength of IPS (as per Civil List as on 01.01.2009)

63

Annexure II

:

Summary of Recommendations of the Workshop held on May 22, 2009 at National Police Academy, Hyderabad

64

Annexure III

:

HR Issues relating to the Project – Report of HR Consultant, Prof S. Ramnarayan

67

Annexure IV

:

List of posts being operated under 'State Deputation Reserve' (including 'Ex-cadre/'Non-cadre' posts) in different States

84

ii

Annexure V

:

Latest Cadre Review Notifications with dates of different State Cadres issued by DoPT

95

Annexure VI

:

Latest Position of shortages of IPS Officers in different State Cadres (As obtained from the States)

96

Annexure VII

:

List of Ex-cadre Posts for Immediate Encadrement

97

Annexure VIII :

List of Posts Required under Expansion Plans

116

Annexure IX

:

No. of IPS Officers (Regular Recruits) due to retire from Service during 2009-2020 (As per Civil List of 01.01.2009)

122

Annexure X

:

List of Participants in Focussed Group Discussions held at various Regional Centres

123

Annexure XI

:

List of Participants of the Workshop held at Delhi on 01.10.09 to discuss & validate findings & tentative recommendations

126

iii

  • 1.1. The Genesis

Chapter – 1

Introduction

  • 1.1. The existence of a large number of vacancies 1 in the Indian Police Service (IPS), in

different States as well as various Central Police Organisations (CPOs), has become a matter of serious concern, particularly in view of the increasingly exacting demands of the current day internal security situation of the country. Vacancies exist largely at the crucial cutting- edge levels of SPs and DIGs, affecting the smooth functioning of most of our internal security agencies. The Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India, therefore, initiated this study project aimed at making a realistic assessment of shortages existing in the different cadres of the Service as also the growing needs of IPS strength in view of the expansion plans of the various State and Central Police Organisations, and drawing up a Recruitment Plan for IPS for the period 2009 to 2020 based on such assessment. The project was entrusted to the undersigned, and was undertaken with the assistance of Prof. S. Ramnarayan of the Indian School of Business (ISB), Hyderabad as HR Consultant.

  • 1.2. Scope of study

    • 1. To ascertain the exact extent of shortages of vacancies existing in the different State Cadres of the Service vis-à-vis the current authorized strength of each Cadre.

    • 2. To make a realistic assessment of the number of officers that would be required over the next 10-11 years (2009-20) to man the various senior positions in the State Cadres and the Central Police Organizations, duly taking into consideration:

      • (i) a large number of ‘ex-cadre’ posts already being operated by the various States in their respective cadre structures of the IPS

(ii) the expansion plans of different States and CPOs.

  • 3. To assess the status of utilization of the Central Deputation Reserve (CDR) component of the IPS cadre strength, including identifying problems, if any, in administering the same and to figure out measures to redress such problems.

1 The actual extent of vacancies in the authorized cadre strength of IPS, existing on 01.01.2009, as per Civil List-2009, published by MHA, may be seen in Annexure-I.

1

4.

Similarly, to assess the status of utilization of the ‘State Deputation Reserve’ (SDR).

  • 5. On the basis of all the above, elaborate a ‘Recruitment Plan’ for the period 2009-20, duly suggesting the measures required to be taken in the immediate, medium as well as long terms.

  • 6. To review the status of occupancy of the Promotion Posts and suggest measures for filling up all such vacant posts with due urgency.

  • 7. To identify the various factors contributing to accumulation of vacancies in the cadre strength of the IPS (in direct recruitment as well as promotion quota components) and figure out means and measures to obviate them in future.

  • 8. To review the existing policy framework for its adequacy in meeting the quantitative as well as qualitative requirements of manpower for the IPS, in keeping with the exacting demands of the emerging internal security scenario.

1.3. Methodology

  • 1.3.1. The methodology for the study included the following components:

    • 1. Data collection from the States / CPOs on the existing ground situation of shortages as well as their expansion plans, and its analysis.

    • 2. Review of the existing literature and available models for perspectives and practices of some other organizations, including the corporate sector, in dealing with challenges of a similar nature.

    • 3. A Workshop with some known thought leaders and HR experts from different organizations in public and private sectors and select senior officers of States / CPOs, to evolve the possible short, medium and long-term solutions to the problem. The Workshop was held on May 22, 2009 at the National Police Academy, Hyderabad. A summary of recommendations of the Workshop is placed in Annexure-II.

    • 4. Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) with select officers of the State Governments on their expansion plans and the desirable cadre structures, for each State or group of States, which were held at various regional hubs (Guwahati, Bhopal, Chandigarh, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai and Hyderabad).

2

5.

Finally, a Workshop with senior officers of CPOs to discuss and validate the findings of the study and recommendations, held on October 1, 2009 at Delhi.

1.4. Consultation with HR Expert

1.4.1.

Valuable

advice

and

assistance

was

provided

by

the

HR

Consultant,

Prof.

S.

Ramnarayan of ISB, Hyderabad, in:

  • 1. Identifying the different dimensions of the problem and the range of possible solutions.

  • 2. Examining the models, experiences and practices of other organizations, including the various public and private sector establishments, in dealing with problems of a similar nature.

  • 3. Reviewing the existing HR literature for any concepts or models that may provide a framework for solving the problem. The Consultant’s report is placed in Annexure-III.

  • 4. Designing and facilitating the proposed Workshop with known thought leaders and HR experts, and select officers of States / CPOs, for evolving the possible short, medium and long-term solutions to the problem. This included:

    • (a) identification of the right individuals from public and private sector organizations for participation in the Workshop

    • (b) framing lead questions to facilitate maximal tapping of the expert potential of the group

    • (c) devising the Workshop methodology aimed at convergence on creative and practical ways of dealing with the problem and arriving at the right choices of alternatives.

  • 5. Identifying the change management aspects that may need to be addressed, upon implementation of the findings and recommendations of the study, and devising strategies to deal with the same. The Consultant’s report and recommendations are incorporated in Annexure-III.

  • 3

    1.5. Obtaining data from the States

    • 1.5.1. To obtain the basic information and data relating to vacancies and shortages from the

    States, a questionnaire was sent to the Chief Secretaries through a D.O. letter addressed by the Home Secretary on April 1, 2009. The response from most of them was less than prompt and the data could be obtained only after several D.O. reminders. In respect of the defaulting States, the data was sought to be collected with the help of Accountant Generals also, but reply was received from only one A.G. The discrepancies in the data received from many States were resolved through correspondence and finally in the meetings held with the State officials, at various regional hubs. From the State of Uttar Pradesh, no reply was received till the end, and the project had to rely only upon whatever information was available with MHA.

    1.6. Organisation of the Report

    • 1.6.1. This report presents the findings of the study, including an assessment of the extent of

    shortages with reference not just to the present authorized strength of various State cadres but also taking into consideration a substantially large number of ‘ex-cadre’ posts created, over the years, to man very many important jobs in mainstream police work, in different States. The assessment also takes into account, from the expansion plans of the state police organizations, such of the posts that are urgently needed to meet the pressing demands of the emerging internal security challenges. The report, after recommending a Recruitment Plan to fill up the vacancies in the direct recruitment quota, briefly suggests certain concomitant measures relating to training of new inductees and the change management aspects that would need to be addressed once the principal recommendations relating to filling up large-scale vacancies are implemented.

    • 1.6.2. It thereafter goes on to deal with the measures to ensure expeditious filling up of

    promotion quota vacancies in a separate chapter. Besides identifying and analyzing the various causative factors leading to the current levels of shortages in IPS cadre and suggesting measures to obviate the same in future, the report separately examines the reasons for shortages in the central police organizations and their requirements of IPS officers, duly

    recommending the necessary measures to liquidate the shortages.

    4

    Chapter – 2

    Causes leading to Shortages in IPS manpower

    • 2.1. Manpower planning for internal security organizations is always a challenging task

    since internal security management more often than not involves an uncertain future as also discontinuous changes in environment and, thus, defies the usual strategies of assessment of futuristic requirements of personnel. In the case of IPS, the problem has been further compounded by inadequacies and inefficacies of the processes adopted for determining as well as meeting the manpower demands.

    • 2.2. The study has highlighted the following as some of the major factors contributing to

    the present situation of shortages:

    Lower intake of direct recruits than required, over several years in the past

    Inexactitude in the process of working out the annual requirement of induction of

    direct recruits Unscientific processes of fixation of cadre strength

    Confusion caused by the provision for creation of ‘ex-cadre posts’ in IPS (Cadre)

    Rules Dilatory process of filling up the vacancies in ‘promotion quota’

    • 2.3. Low intake of Direct Recruits over several years

    2.3.1. The number of officers inducted into the Service through the channel of direct recruitment has, for quite a few years in the past, been unrealistically low, defying even broad arithmetical calculations. For instance, in 1998, the total cadre strength of IPS was 3442 and the authorized strength of direct recruitment quota was 2564. Given the average length of service (30 years at that time) of directly recruited IPS officers, the average rate of attrition due to superannuation itself would work out to a little over 85. Thus, even if further expansions were not to be considered, the intake of direct recruits to the Service should, in the normal course, have been to the tune of at least 85 officers per annum. Then, there were also 394 carried over vacancies in the direct recruitment quota existing at that time. Therefore, the quantum of intake should have been even higher than 85, considering the need to dissolve the large number of vacancies that already existed. However, though only 84 officers were

    5

    actually recruited in 1998 (Civil Services Examination 1997), the intake was, for inexplicable reasons, reduced to just 36 each, for the 1999 to 2002 batches. For 2003 batch, the number was increased to 56, though just in an ad hoc manner obviously. It was only in 2004 batch that the intake was restored to the level of 88.

    • 2.3.2. Another problem in the process of working out the requirement for intake of direct

    recruits has been that the number of dropouts (either initially itself or during the course of training) from among those offered appointment to the Service in a particular year is not being taken into consideration in arriving at the requirement of induction in the subsequent years. This has happened year after year and, thus, led to a further shortfall in the actual strength of the Service. The following figures would show the magnitude of shortfall so created year by

    year:

    Year of CSE

    Batch

    Total Intake

    Actual Intake

    Drop-outs

    2002

    2003

    56

    49

    7

    2003

    2004

    88

    77

    11

    2004

    2005

    88

    80

    8

    2005

    2006

     
    • 103 13

    90

     

    2006

    2007

     
    • 103 14

    89

     

    Total

       
    • 438 53

    385

     

    2.4. Unscientific process of fixation of cadre strength

    • 2.4.1. Under the extant rules, the authorized composition and strength of IPS cadres for each

    State is supposed to be reviewed by the Central Government once every 5 years 1 , based on a

    proposal of the State Government concerned. The cardinal principles to be observed in the cadre review process are enunciated in details in the IPS (Cadre) Rules and the Government of India’s decisions and instructions thereon, notified from time to time. The salient ones among them are extracted below:

    1) The adequacy of recruitment rate for the All India Services is vital to the proper functioning of the government. Two measures needed to ensure this are: (a) prompt

    1 The prescribed period, under the original rules, was 3 years but was revised to 5 years in 1995

    6

    encadrement of new posts likely to last over an extended period, and (b) assessment of future needs in advance on the basis of the past experience and the future plans. A failure in either of the two requirements will affect the adequacy of the cadre strength, thus leading to strains and stresses in cadre management.

    2) Once the cadre strength has been determined at the triennial 2 review which can, if required, be made more frequent, the rate of annual recruitment must be adequate to fill up all the posts within the next two or three years.

    3)

    All posts in the State which are required on a long-term basis should be included in the cadre. Only by including all the needed posts in the permanent cadre, the States will be able to correctly assess their needs for recruitment.

    4)

    At the time of the triennial review, a realistic estimate should be made of the new posts required in the next 4 to 6 years on the basis of the previous rate of expansion of the cadre and of the additional posts required in connection with the growing business of the government and the cadre strength should be fixed after taking these needs into consideration.

    5) The Deputation Reserve is intended to provide a cushion to the State Government for its temporary and unforeseen demands of cadre officers for manning such ex-cadre posts which are required temporarily for short periods and which do not qualify for

    inclusion in the regular cadre strength. It is intended to cover short-term needs; long- term posts being brought into the regular strength of the cadre as soon as it is known that they would continue over a period of time.

    6)

    There should be no long-term ex-cadre posts. If there are any, they ought to go into the cadre.

    7) The state governments should sponsor their triennial cadre review proposals after taking into consideration their requirements of at least 3 years to avoid frequent proposals for amendments to the cadre schedule. However, where changes in the cadre are considered unavoidable and cannot be delayed till the next triennial cadre review, in such circumstances, proposals may be made once in a year, i.e., in the month of January.

    2 Now quinquennial

    7

    2.4.2. Current guidelines

    2.4.2.1. However, these principles seem to have been observed, of late, more in breach than compliance. The exercise of cadre review, both at the levels of formulation of proposals as well as final decisions on those proposals, has, somehow, come to be perceived by all concerned, more as something merely aimed at improvement of promotional prospects of officers rather than a serious and realistic review of manpower requirements to meet the growing needs of police organizations. Indeed, some of the extraneous yardsticks prescribed, in the recent past, for processing the cadre review proposals of the State Governments are quite in contrast to the rules and instructions issued from time to time earlier. This is borne out by the following illustrative examples of some of the recent guidelines:

    1)

    Normally, the ex-cadre posts proposed to be encadred should have been in existence for the previous three years.

    2)

    It should also be considered whether similar posts exist in the cadres of other States.

    3)

    It should not be assumed that every State Cadre has to grow in size at every cadre review.

    4) The increase in the cadre strength should be minimal. The total cadre strength should normally not be allowed to increase in any State. The effort should be to make such adjustments between posts at various levels as to ensure that the overall strength of the cadre is not exceeded.

    5)

    In the cases of recently bifurcated States, if there is any increase in the cadre strength due to creation of new posts in the new State, then there should be a corresponding decrease effected in the cadre strength of the parent State.

    6)

    The level of recruitment should be pegged between 2.75 – 3.25% of the SDP (Senior Duty Posts) every year.

    • 2.4.2.2. In current practice, there is almost religious adherence being observed to these recent

    guidelines, and the cadre review exercises have been reduced to a mere ritual aimed at maintaining as much status quo in the cadre strength as possible, with the issue of assessment of the growing needs of the cadre being accorded the least priority.

    8

    2.4.2.3.

    The net result is that the authorized IPS cadre strength in most States falls far too

    short of the actual ground level requirements. The authorized strength of a State cadre bears no

    correlation with the volume of crime or internal security problems in the State, not even with the overall strength of police manpower, providing control, direction and supervision over whose work is the primary purpose of the IPS. The following table exemplifies the scenario:

    Inequitable distribution of IPS cadre strength

    State

    Total strength of

    Authorised IPS

    police manpower *

    strength

    Madhya Pradesh

    76,826

    231

    Maharashtra

    2,01,251

    236

    Tamil Nadu

    1,02,421

    236

    West Bengal

    83,377

    278

    Rajasthan

    72,626

    184

    Punjab

    71,869

    144

    Delhi

    79,450

    92

    * Source: BPR&D – Data on Police Organisations as on 01.01.2008

    • 2.4.2.4. Even the guidelines on restricting the level of recruitment to 2.75 – 3.25% of the

    number of senior duty posts, annually, on the face of it, seems flawed. The total authorized strength of a State cadre works out to 1.85 times the number of senior duty posts and if the

    annual recruitment is to be pegged at 2.75 – 3.25% of only the senior duty posts, we are obviously ignoring the requirements of Central Deputation Reserve, State Deputation Reserve, Leave Reserve etc. which are all essential components of the total cadre strength, in determining the recruitment rate. These recent guidelines have, thus, proved to be counter- productive in more ways than one.

    • 2.5. Existence of large number of ‘Ex-cadre’ posts

      • 2.5.1. Since the cadre reviews in the recent times have been exceedingly unrealistic, the State

    Governments, mostly to meet the growing needs of policing and internal security tasks and, many a time, also to merely enhance promotional prospects of their officers, have been creating inordinately large numbers of ‘ex-cadre posts’ within their own powers, to the extent

    of grossly distorting the cadre structures. In AGMUT cadre, the State Governments and UT Administrations describe some of these posts as ‘non-cadre’ posts. Gross over-utilisation of

    9

    the State Deputation Reserve (SDR) against which these ‘ex-cadre’ posts are reckoned is pervasive, as is borne out from the following table:

    S.No.

    State

    Authorised Strength of SDR

    Actual number of SDR posts

    1.

    Andhra Pradesh

    28

    57

    2.

    AGMUT

    27

    102

    3.

    Assam

    16

    39

    Meghalaya

    5

    11

    4.

    Bihar

    26

    59

    5.

    Chhattisgarh

    11

    23

    6.

    Gujarat

    22

    62

    7.

    Haryana

    16

    38

    8.

    Himachal Pradesh

    10

    14

    9.

    Jammu & Kashmir

    18

    60

    10.

    Jharkhand

    15

    24

    11.

    Karnataka

    23

    39

    12.

    Kerala

    19

    24

    13.

    Madhya Pradesh

    31

    53

     
    • 14 Maharashtra

    32

    150

     
    • 15 Manipur

    9

    14

    Tripura

    7

    19

     
    • 16 Nagaland

    8

    6

    • 17 Orissa

     

    21

    24

    • 18 Punjab

     

    19

    26

     
    • 19 Rajasthan

    25

    58

    • 20 Sikkim

     

    4

    10

     
    • 21 Tamilnadu

    32

    76

     
    • 22 Uttar Pradesh

    55

    71

     
    • 23 Uttarakhand

    8

    17

     
    • 24 West Bengal

    38

    76

     

    Total

    525

    1152

    10

    2.5.2.

    The number of posts actually existing under SDR on the ground, thus, exceeds the

    sanctioned strength by a little over 100%. A complete list of these 1152 posts is placed at Annexure-IV.

    • 25.3. The current problem of acute shortage of IPS officers, particularly at the levels of SPs

    and DIGs, has also created a situation for some of these ‘ex-cadre’/ ‘non-cadre’ posts being filled, from time to time, by officers of the State Police Service, in most States. In quite a few cases, State Service officers are even occupying several cadre posts, in gross violation of the IPS (Cadre) Rules as also the very spirit of All India Services, since IPS officers are required for ‘more’ important ‘ex-cadre’ / ‘non-cadre’ posts.

    • 2.5.4. It is, indeed, ironic that the bulk of the ‘ex-cadre’ posts pertain to mainstream police

    work but have been continued indefinitely as part of the ‘State Deputation Reserve’, making a mockery of the IPS (Fixation of Cadre Strength) Regulations and the underlying principles thereof. For instance, in Madhya Pradesh cadre, there are as many as 38 out of 53 State Deputation Reserve posts which pertain to mainstream police jobs and are being operated as ‘ex-cadre’ posts, without being brought on to the regular cadre strength, for inordinately long periods, some of them for as long as 32 years. These even include 5 posts of District Superintendents of Police (of Alirajpur, Anuppur, Ashoknagar, Burhanpur and Singroli districts), three of them created as far back as 2003. The following is the break-up of these 38 posts in terms of the durations of their existence as ex-cadre posts:

    S. No.

    Period of continuous existence

    No. of posts

    1.

    30 years or more

    2

    2.

    Between 25 & 30 years

    4

    3.

    Between 20 & 25 years

    5

    4.

    Between 15 & 20 years

    4

    5.

    Between 10 & 15 years

    2

    6.

    Between 5 & 10 years

    5

    7.

    For 5 years or less

    16

    • 2.5.5. The case of Madhya Pradesh is only illustrative. Similar malaise, in varying degrees,

    afflicts practically all the State cadres.

    11

    2.5.6.

    IPS (Cadre) Rules, indeed, authorise the State Governments to create ex-cadre posts,

    over and above the authorized strength of senior duty posts, but only to meet any sudden and immediate needs of the cadre, that too for a period of two years only after which the Government of India’s approval is required to be obtained. However, that this stipulation exists only on paper is quite evident from the ground situation described above. Also, because the State Governments are anyway able to have all the posts that they need for the policing and internal security tasks, even if technically deemed as ‘ex-cadre posts’, they do not press for their encadrement. The day-to-day work goes on but these posts, not being included in the authorized cadre strength, remain out of reckoning for the purpose of determining the recruitment rate, thereby leading to shortages of the kind that the IPS cadre is facing today.

    Indeed, acute shortages often also compel the State Governments to either keep some of the cadre posts and some ‘ex-cadre’ posts vacant, or post State Police Service officers against them, depending on the availability of the latter.

    • 2.5.7. The situation calls for a thorough review of all the existing ‘ex-cadre’ / ‘non-cadre’

    posts in different State cadres with the aim of including all posts which are required on a long-

    term basis, in the authorized cadre strength of the IPS. An attempt has been made in the course of this project to identify such posts but this has been done, albeit, conservatively.

    2.6. Periodicity of cadre review

    • 2.6.1. The nature of work in internal security organizations inevitably involves frequent and

    discontinuous changes as the sources, nature and extent of internal security challenges keep changing in an ever-dynamic environment. This necessitates frequent enough periodical reviews of the cadre structure. The periodicity of cadre reviews for the IPS, under Rule 4 of the IPS (Cadre) Rules, 1954, was originally fixed at 3 years. The Government of India had further notified 3 that in cases where any changes in the cadre schedule were considered as pressing and unavoidable, proposals for such amendments could be made once in a year, in the month of January. However, subsequently, the periodicity of the regular cadre review was

    subsequently increased 4 to 5 years. And, the provision for interim amendments has been allowed to practically become defunct, since long.

    3 Vide Government of India, Department of Personnel & Administrative Reforms letter No.6/10/68- AIS(I) dated 27.2.1968.

    4 Vide Government of India, DoPT Notification No.11033/7/94-AIS(II)-B dated 10.03.1995

    12

    2.6.2.

    The result is that the States have to wait for a period of at least 5 years from the date of

    the previous DoPT notification of their cadre schedules, for any revision in the strength of cadre posts. While 5 years is the prescribed periodicity for the exercise, the ground reality is that in most cases, it takes even much longer. The extant position of latest cadre review notifications with dates, for different State cadres, may be seen in Annexure V. It may be noticed that the cadre schedule in respect of Orissa was last revised in 2001; that of Sikkim in 2002; those of Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur-Tripura, Punjab and West Bengal in 2003; and of Bihar, Chhatisgarh, Gujarat, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand in 2004.

    2.6.3.

    The revised cadre schedules in respect of Kerala (due in 2006), Assam-Meghalaya (due

    in 2007), Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan (both due in 2008) were notified only this year. And, how paltry have been the increases in cadre strength, yielded by these reviews, is reflected in the following table:

     

    State

    Strength of Cadre Posts

     

    Increase

     

    Pre-2009

    After 2009

    No.

    Percentage

    After a

    Review

    gap of

    Andhra Pradesh

    113

    123

    10

    8.9%

    6

    years

    Assam

     
    • 63 68

    5

    7.9%

    7

    years

    Kerala

     
    • 75 78

    3

    4%

    8

    years

    Rajasthan

    100

    105

    5

    5%

    5

    years

    2.6.4.

    There is, thus, clearly a case for a thorough revamp of the cadre review process, not just

    its periodicity. The process at present is too slow, complicated and cumbersome. It needs to be

    made more scientific as well as expeditious. And, as for the periodicity, 5 years is undoubtedly too long a period. As discussed above, manpower needs of internal security organizations, dealing with ever-dynamic and often explosive problems of public safety, can hardly afford the luxury of such leisurely system of cadre reviews.

    2.6.5.

    The Workshop of May 22, 2009 at National Police Academy, Hyderabad, which had a

    good number of HR experts from the corporate world as well as academia as participants,

    besides serving and retired senior officers, had recommended a periodicity of 2 years for cadre

    13

    reviews for the IPS. It had also recommended that the formulation of State Governments’ proposals for IPS cadre review should be entrusted to a group consisting of a senior police officer dealing with IPS matters in the State Police Headquarters, a senior representative of the Home Department and a H.R. Expert. The proposal so formulated, before it is sent to the Government of India, should be finalized by a Committee chaired by the Home Minister of the State. The Committee should also invariably include a HR expert as a member, besides the Chief Secretary, Home Secretary and the DGP.

    • 2.6.6. The Workshop had similarly recommended that, at the Government of India level, a

    Committee chaired by the Union Home Minister should consider and take final decisions on the State Governments’ proposals for IPS cadre reviews. This Committee may also include a HR expert, besides the Cabinet Secretary, Home Secretary, Special Secretary (IS), MHA and a serving or retired DGP as members. These recommendations deserve to be accepted since they will go a long way in injecting objectivity as well as professional approach in the cadre review process.

    14

    Chapter – 3

    Realistic Status of Shortage of IPS Strength

    • 3.1. Large scale vacancies against the authorized strength

    The IPS Civil List-2009 shows a shortage of 657 officers (414 in direct recruitment quota and 243 against promotion quota), as on 01.01.2009, after taking into account 100 IPS probationers of the latest batch who were expected to have joined service by then. Out of these 100 probationers, only 91 remain under training at the National Police Academy while 9 have dropped out, adding that number to the shortage. During the year 2009, 44 directly recruited officers and 67 promoted officers were due for retirement on superannuation. Of course, a new batch of probationers would be joining the Service, during the year, and some officers would also be inducted through the promotion quota.

    • 3.1.2. The current ground-level situation, as ascertained from the States in the course of this

    project, shows a shortage to the tune of 654 officers. State cadre-wise breakup of shortages

    may be seen in Annexure – VI.

    • 3.2. Shortages on account of ‘Ex-cadre’ posts

      • 3.2.1. As discussed earlier, the existence of an inordinately large number of ‘ex-cadre’

    posts, over and above the authorized strength of ‘State Deputation Reserve’, has been a huge impediment in meaningful determination of the rate of recruitment of IPS officers. Since the number of such posts is substantially large and most of them are needed for important internal security tasks and other ground-level requirements, they take away a large chunk of available officers, leaving some of the cadre posts vacant and also causing a dent on the availability of officers for the ‘Central Deputation Reserve’ and for several important posts under the ‘State Deputation Reserve’, as, for instance, the posts of Vigilance & Security officers in State Government undertakings and so on. All such posts, including the vacant cadre posts, are have to be filled by State Police Service officers. In Goa, for instance, the only two IPS SPs available (as per the authorized cadre strength) are posted against two ‘ex- cadre’ posts while the posts of both the District SPs are occupied by non-IPS officers of the State Police Service. The study revealed that in quite a few States, many posts of District SPs, are now occupied by non-cadre officers belonging to the State Police Services.

    15

    3.2.2.

    The shortages in some States, have become so acute that IPS officers are not found

    available even for manning many of the ‘ex-cadre’ posts created in fulfillment of important internal security requirements. The available officers are moved from post to post in a ‘musical chairs’ arrangement, governed by expediency of situations. The posts considered ‘less important’ at a point of time are either filled with State Service officers, or kept vacant, if the latter are also not available. The cadre structures of the higher echelons of internal security apparatus in the States, thus, present a sad and avoidable state of hodge podge.

    • 3.3. Urgent need for encadrement of many ‘Ex-cadre’ posts

      • 3.3.1. The solution to the problem of shortages in IPS cadre strength calls for a thorough

    review of the existing ‘ex-cadre’ posts in order to identify all such posts amongst them that would be required for a reasonably long period of time in future. This is necessary for a meaningful assessment of the requirement of IPS manpower and of the rate of recruitment to meet the same. This needs to be done urgently. Meanwhile, an interim exercise in this regard was undertaken, as part of this study project, to identify such of the ‘ex-cadre’ posts as would fall in the category of pressing requirements of the State Police organisations.

    • 3.3.2. In doing so, the following broad methodology was followed:

      • (i) Identifying the posts which have existed for very very long and would also be needed in future, more or less permanently,

    (ii) Posts, though not created very long ago but needed in medium and long terms, such as those for counter terrorism, counter-intelligence etc. tasks, should be included,

    (iii)

    Posts not directly related to mainstream police work or important allied jobs to

    be ignored, (iv) Posts, such as those of Commandants of India Reserve Battalions, which by the inherent nature of their job content, would need to be manned by IPS officers, to be included,

    • (v) Posts created by upgradation / downgradation of the existing cadre posts, keeping the latter in abeyance, not to be considered, and

    16

    (vi)

    In the entire exercise, the organogram of each concerned unit / sub-unit was

    also

    examined to assess the need of posts in real terms, and to avoid

    redundancy.

    • 3.3.3. In all, 494 posts out of a total of 1152 ‘ex-cadre’ posts existing in different State

    cadres, were identified as the ones that need to be immediately encadred. A State-wise list of these posts is placed in Annexure VII. The overall approach in arriving at this list has, indeed, been conservative. Many more posts that would fall in the category of realistic requirements, were left out for consideration by appropriate authorities in the normal course, which deserve to be filled as early as possible.

    • 3.4. Expansion plans of State Police Organisations

      • 3.4.1. The terms of reference of the study project included a realistic assessment of the

    expansion plans of the State police organizations, being drawn up to cope with the emerging challenges of terrorism, naxalism etc. threats, and take such requirements into consideration in drawing up the proposed Recruitment Plan for 2009 - 2020. Most of the States were found to be having expansion plans, which are in different stages of processing currently.

    • 3.4.2. Our approach with regard to posts under expansion plans has been even more

    conservative since those plans ha ve yet to be formally sanctioned and put in place. The guiding criterion adopted in this regard was to identify only such posts which, even in a very conservative assessment, will be needed for sensitive internal security tasks immediately and, therefore, had every likelihood of being sanctioned soon. However, since the posts have yet to be sanctioned, the question of their encadrement would not arise, at this stage. They can only be taken into consideration for the purposes of Recruitment Plan so that officers would become available against them soon after their creation, as and when. In all 123 such posts were identified from that category, and taken into consideration in drawing up the proposed

    Recruitment Plan. A list of these posts is placed in Annexure VIII.

    • 3.5. Net vacancy position

      • 3.5.1. The net vacancy position in the IPS cadre strength has to be worked out taking into

    account not only the shortages against the current authorized cadre strength of the IPS but also the additional strength that would be added, upon the encadrement of ‘ex-cadre’ posts recommended above.

    17

    3.5.2.

    Adding the two, the net vacancy position will be as follows:

    Existing shortages as on 01.01.2009

    ..

    657

    Increase in cadre strength due to encadrement of ex-cadre posts 1.85 x 494)

    ..

    914

     

    ----------

    Total

    ..

    1571

    ======

    • 3.5.3. The proposed Recruitment Plan, in addition to catering for these 1571 posts, will also

    have to take into consideration the 123 posts of the Expansion Plans of the State Police

    Organisations, making it a total of 1694 posts.

    • 3.5.4. The distribution of these 1694 posts between the direct recruitment and the promotion

    quotas, at prescribed rates will be as follows:

    Posts

     

    Direct

    Promotion

    Total

    Recruitment

     

    Quota

     

    Quota

     

    Existing vacancies

     

    414

     

    243

    657

    Increase in cadre strength due to encadrement of ex- cadre posts

     

    637

     

    277

    914

    Expansion Plan posts

     

    82

     

    41

    123

    Total

     

    1133

     

    561

    1694

     

    two

    quotas

    are

    to

    be

    made through

     

    18

    • 3.5.5. The recruitments against the

    two different

    processes, which are discussed in succeeding chapters.

    Chapter - 4

    Measures to Fill Posts in Direct Recruitment Quota

    • 4.1. Need to stagger recruitment

      • 4.1.1. The recruitment of 1133 officers to meet the current shortages and requirements cannot

    obviously be done all at a time, without compromising the quality of recruitment and training of inductees. Doing so will also cause a huge one-point bulge in the seniority profile of IPS cadre, leading to acute congestion in career progression of officers, and consequent demoralization, in future. The recruitment will, therefore, have to be staggered. But, owing to the present dearth of officers at the cutting-edge levels of SPs and DIGs, which is adversely affecting the functioning of the state police forces as well as central police organizations, the pace of recruitment against these shortages has to be fast enough. In working out the Recruitment Plan, a balance has, therefore, to be struck between the two conflicting demands, namely, (i) the need to fill up the vacancies with urgency, and (ii) the consideration of avoiding problems of cadre management in the future years.

    • 4.1.2. The Recruitment Plan (2009-2020), in addition to catering for the direct recruitment of

    1133 officers mentioned above, will also have to take into account the normal requirement of recruitment against superannuation retirements that will take place during that period. The Civil List – 2009 indicates an attrition of 795 officers in IPS strength, due to superannuation of directly recruited officers, during 2009-2020 (year-wise details are placed at Annexure-IX). The proposed Recruitment Plan will, thus, have to cater for filling up 1928 (1133 + 795) vacancies, during the 11-year period, for which all the available options need to be explored.

    • 4.2. Range of options

      • 4.2.1. The Workshop of May 22, 2009, held as part of this project at the National Police

    Academy, Hyderabad, suggested the following range of options:

    • (i) Augmentation of IPS seats in the annual Civil Services Examination maximally, Limited Competitive Examination for directly-recruited Deputy Superintendents of Police of States and their equivalents in CPOs, with 5 years of service and below 45 years of age,

    (ii)

    19

    (iii)

    Special Recruitment Examination by UPSC for candidates from the open market,

    (iv)

    with an upper age limit of 45 years or so, Intake of Army officers with about 10 years of service through a Special Examination by UPSC.

    (v)

    Absorption of Commandants / Addl. Commandants of CPOs in the age group of 50 – 52 years, exclusively for manning armed police units,

    (vi) Contractual appointments of professionals from the open market for specialized jobs, such as those relating to Information Technology, Communications, Finance and Human Resource Management.

    • 4.2.2. The feasibility and desirability of each of these options has since been gone into in

    detail. The same was also deliberated upon in the Focussed Group Discussions held with officers from different States during the course of the project, as well as in the Workshop with senior officers of CPOs held at Delhi on October 1, 2009. The points of consensus in respect of each are discussed below.

    • 4.2.3. There was overwhelming consensus in favour of maximal augmentation of intake

    through the annual Civil Services Examination conducted by UPSC, indeed, keeping in view the need to avoid any compromise in the quality of recruitment or training of new inductees. The problems of cadre management and the issue of smooth career progression of officers in future will also need to be given due consideration in deciding the exact quantum of intake through this channel.

    • 4.2.4. There was similar consensus favouring intake of a good number of officers through the

    channel of Limited Competitive Examination for DySPs of States and their equivalents in the CPOs, but it was stressed that the examination should be conducted only by the UPSC and it should be of a very high standard with curriculum centring around the conceptual and practical

    aspects of policing and internal security, besides general studies and report writing skills.

    • 4.2.5. Another option that found majority acceptance was of contractual appointment of

    professionals to man specialized jobs, like IT, Communications etc., with the rider that to avoid any likely complications, non-police appointees to these assignments should not be given the designations of SP / DIG etc. Their designations could follow the pattern for similar positions in other organizations.

    20

    4.2.6.

    The option of inducting new IPS officers through a Special Recruitment Examination

    for candidates from the open market did not find much favour. The main argument held out against this proposition was that it would be hard to impart meaningful training to these inductees, at such a late age, in knowledge, skills and attitudinal aspects that are crucially needed for police work. Their advanced age will also come in the way of physical content of training, particularly in areas, such as fieldcraft and tactics which are so very important for SP- level officers, for policing in the current internal security scenario. Further, baggage from their past careers and experiences will be difficult to shed for them and they would find it difficult to integrate themselves with the professional needs and ethos of the new organisation.

    • 4.2.7. Strong reservations were voiced against the induction of Army officers too, since many

    of the above obstacles would have to be confronted in their case as well. It was also pointed out that the Army itself was suffering from an acute shortage of officers which was much greater than that in the IPS, and it would not be prudent in the overall national interest to poach on the Army’s officer strength. The argument against the discharged officers of the Short Service Commission was that apart from the difficulties in imparting meaningful training to them in conceptual and practical skills of crime investigation etc. aspects of policing at their late age, it had also to be kept in mind that those who were not found good enough by the Army for further retention, may hardly be found useful for the IPS.

    • 4.2.8. The option of absorption of Commandants / Additional Commandants of CPOs for

    manning armed police units too did not find consensus. The main arguments against its acceptance were that (i) it would lead to shortage of officers at that level in the CPOs, practically all of which were themselves undergoing major expansion currently, and also (ii) many of them, after joining in the States, may start lobbying for postings in the regular civil police jobs, for which they have neither training nor experience.

    • 4.3. Preferable options

      • 4.3.1. Thus, for filling up the large number of existing and anticipated vacancies, in an

    optimal timeframe, a combination of the following three options seems to be worthy of consideration:

    • (i) Maximal augmentation of IPS seats in the Civil Services Examination for the next few years,

    21

    (ii)

    Limited Competitive Examination for directly-recruited DySPs of States and their

    (iii)

    equivalents in CPOs, with a minimum of 5 years of service and below 45 years of age, and Appointment of professionals in specialized fields such as I.T., Communications, Finance and HR Management, on contract basis for fixed periods or taking such specialists on deputation from other organizations.

    • 4.3.2. Augmentation of Intake through Civil Services Examination

      • 4.3.2.1. Ministry of Home Affairs have already requested UPSC to select 130 candidates for

    IPS through the Civil Services Examination of the current year, as against 100 officers per annum selected in the past few years. The point to be considered is whether the intake can be further augmented without compromising the quality of recruitment or training. As regards training, the matter was discussed in details in a couple of meeting with the Director and faculty members of NPA. After discussions, it was felt that 130 would be the optimal number of IPS probationers, for quality training. Indeed, NPA can take upto 140 officers in a batch, but there are 8 – 10 foreign police officers to be trained along with IPS probationers, every year, under international commitments of the Government of India. So, it may be desirable not to exceed the number beyond 130.

    • 4.3.2.2. The intake through the Civil Services Examination, even otherwise, needs to be

    limited to 130, since induction of a larger number than that is likely to lead also to problems of

    cadre management in future.

    • 4.3.2.3. If this rate of recruitment (130) is continued for the entire period of 2009-2020, it will

    take care of 1430 (130 x 11) vacancies. This will leave us with 498 (1928 – 1430) vacancies to

    be taken care of.

    • 4.3.3. Appointment of professionals on Contract / Deputation basis for specialized jobs

      • 4.3.3.1. Some 50 posts of SPs & DIGs devoted to IT etc. specialized jobs in different States,

    can be filled up with professionals taken either on contract basis from the private sector / open market, or on deputation from government organizations, thereby releasing IPS officers for jobs needing police professionals. In the process, 50 vacancies will be taken care of, reducing the shortage to 448 (498-50).

    22

    4.3.4.

    Induction through Limited Competitive Examination (LCE)

    • 4.3.4.1. These 448 vacancies can be filled through the channel of Limited Competitive

    Examination for DySPs of States and their equivalents in CPOs. To ensure that the quality of their training is maintained at the desired level, not more than 60 - 65 officers should be selected each year. The recruitment through this channel may, therefore, have to be staggered over a 7-year period.

    • 4.3.4.2. The main advantages of induction through LCE will be :

    (i)

    The inductees would have already had previous background and experience in

    (ii)

    policing and police organizations and their integration will be smooth. Since they have already undergone training in their previous service, the

    (iii)

    induction training for them can be condensed to a period of 3 – 4 months. The period of practical training will also be very short.

    (iv) Further, the tenure of posting as Sub-Divisional Police Officer before assuming charge of SP-level posts can be considerably shortened for those who have already held such charges in their previous service. For the officers who happen to get allotted to their own States, this requirement can be dispensed with altogether. For those allotted to States other than where they have served earlier, a period of 6 months would suffice. Officers from CPOs will anyway have to undergo this posting for full 2 years.

    (v)

    Existing vacancies at the level of SP can, thus, be filled up fast.

    • 4.3.4.3. An added advantage offered by the scheme of LCE would be that it would open a

    fast-track channel for brighter officers in the State Police Services to get into IPS. It may be mentioned that the National Police Commission (NPC) had specifically recommended this for IPS recruitment, to the extent of 16.66% of vacancies in the cadre, to be opened for not just DSPs but all ranks of police officers (para 44.25 of their Sixth Report). In fact, it would be worthwhile to consider introducing it as a regular additional channel of induction into the IPS, for the long-term as well, apart from direct recruitment through the Civil Services Examination and induction through the promotion quota.

    23

    Chapter – 5

    Recruitment Plan for Direct Recruitment Quota for 2009-2020

    • 5.1. Broad principles followed

      • 5.1.1. In working out the Recruitment Plan 2009-2020, the following principles have been

    kept in view:

    • (i) The plan should lead to zero-level shortages at the end of the period, based,

    indeed, on today’s projections. (ii) The plan should ensure that the rate of induction is as smooth and uniformly

    (iii)

    distributed as possible so as to avoid undue strains in cadre management and in career progression of officers in future. The quantum of annual intake should not outmatch the training capacity of NPA or lead to a compromise in the quality of recruitment or training of inductees in any manner.

    (iv)

    The plan would be revisited and revised, as necessary, after a detailed cadre review, recommended elsewhere in the Report, as also every time there is a sizeable increase in cadre reviews undertaken in later years.

    • 5.1.2. Accordingly, and taking into account all the three channels of recruitment discussed in

    the previous chapter, the following Recruitment Plan is recommended:

       

    No. of officers to be inducted

     

    Year

    Through

    Through

    Contract /

    Total for

    Cumulative

    CSE

    LCE

    Deputation

    the year

    Total

    Appointment

    2009-10

    130

    ..

    50

    180

    180

    2010-11

    130

     
    • 65 ..

    195

    375

    2011-12

    130

     
    • 65 ..

    195

    570

    2012-13

    130

     
    • 65 ..

    195

    765

    2013-14

    130

     
    • 65 ..

    195

    960

    24

    2014-15

    130

     
    • 65 ..

    195

    1155

    2015-16

    130

     
    • 65 ..

    195

    1350

    2016-17

    130

     
    • 58 ..

    188

    1538

    2017-18

    130

    ..

    ..

    130

    1668

    2018-19

    130

    ..

    ..

    130

    1798

    2019-20

    130

    ..

    ..

    130

    1928

    Total

    1430

    448

    50

    1928

    ..

    • 5.3. Induction through Civil Services Examination

    5.3.1. The UPSC will, thus, have to be requested to select 130 candidates for IPS through the annual Civil Services Examination every year, for the entire period. This rate of recruitment may as well have to be continued beyond 2020, or may even have to be raised further, if and as the cadre strength goes up in the cadre reviews in coming years.

    5.3.2. There are two allied issues relating to direct recruitment, beckoning serious consideration. One of them relates to the age limit for directly recruited IPS officers. Serious concerns were expressed widely during the Focussed Group Discussions with officers from the States over the current maximum age limit of 30 years for even general category candidates, which was too high. Thus, a good number of direct recruits join the Service at a very ripe age, with many of them, by then, having developed their own firm mindsets. Imparting effective training to them in knowledge, skills and attitudinal aspects becomes a challenging task. They also find the physical content of training difficult to cope with. There is, therefore, a strong case to restrict the maximum age-limit for entry of Civil Services Examination recruits into the IPS to 24 years. Till the 1970’s, a different age limit (20 – 24 years) used to be prescribed for the candidates for IPS, in the CSE scheme. It would do a lot of good to the Service if the age limit for the Service is revised to 20 – 24 years, irrespective of whether or not a revision is effected in respect of the other Services covered under the CSE scheme.

    25

    5.3.3.

    The other important issue relates to the current liberal practice of allowing IPS

    probationers undergoing training in the NPA to go on appearing at competitive examinations, during the period of training. This dilutes the seriousness of NPA training for such probationers, most of whom eventually end up continuing in the IPS. The practice in the past was to keep the IPS appointment of the candidates, who wished to still compete for other services, temporarily in abeyance. They were allowed to join NPA with the next batch, after finally making up their minds in favour of the Service. The National Police Commission had

    made a similar recommendation (para 44.24 of their Sixth Report), which needs to be implemented forthwith. Interestingly, this principle is already in vogue in respect of Indian Forest Service appointees.

    • 5.4. Recruitment through Limited Competitive Examination

      • 5.4.1. This Examination must also be conducted by the UPSC, maintaining a high level of

    rigour in the selection process. The syllabus for the examination should centre around the conceptual and practical aspects of policing and internal security, besides general studies and report writing skills, which should again be oriented to the needs of the police service. Conceptual aspects should, inter alia, include applied elements of disciplines relevant to policing, such as Criminology (etiology of crime, criminogenic factors, penology, victimology, juvenile delinquency, social defence and other methods of crime prevention, etc.), Psychology (like mob-psychology and psychogenic causes of criminality), Forensic Science, etc., besides subjects of current-day importance, such as terrorism, left extremism, separatist and other violent movements and the like.

    • 5.4.2. Practical aspects in the paper may cover day-to-day policing issues and problems, with

    questions focused on problem solving and practical handling of situations.

    • 5.4.3. In the interview process, effort should be made to include as many psychometric tests as

    feasible. The report of the HR Consultant, Prof. S. Ramnarayan (Annexure-III) broadly covers the subject. The ideas would need to be further developed after a detailed study in collaboration with subject experts.

    • 5.4.4. Candidates successful at the Limited Competitive Examination should be allotted to the

    States in the same manner as followed in respect of Civil Services Examination candidates.

    26

    5.5.

    Appointment of professionals for specialised jobs

    • 5.5.1. The number of such appointees would be fairly low which would also be scattered over

    the various States. The process of induction will be limited to either contractual appointments or deputations from other government and semi-government organizations. The matter could, therefore, be left to the States themselves. MHA may, however, draw up detailed guidelines with various do’s and don’ts and circulate them to the States with the advice to follow them scrupulously.

    • 5.5.2. For spotting the right kind of talent for these posts, a lot of proactive effort would be

    needed, in addition to sending out circulars, putting advertisements in newspapers and other usual methods of notifying vacancies. It would be desirable to give a free hand to Directors General of Police in these selections, subject to MHA guidelines mentioned above.

    27

    Chapter – 6

    Promotion Quota Vacancies

    • 6.1. Extent of vacancies

      • 6.1.1. As on 01.01.2009, there were 243 vacancies existing against the Promotion Quota

    component of IPS cadre strength. The state cadre-wise break up of these 243 vacancies may be

    seen at Annexure-I. Between 01.01.2009 and 30.09.2009, another 52 SPS officers have superannuated, but some fresh Select Lists have also been prepared with the names of 54 officers, during the same period. So, the situation remains more or less the same.

    • 6.1.2. With the proposed encadrement of a number of long-existing ‘ex-cadre’ posts relating

    to mainstream jobs, 494 posts will get added to the authorized strength of ‘senior duty posts’. This would mean an addition of 914 posts in the authorized total strength of IPS cadre. Out of these, 277 will be the proportion of promotion quota. Thus, nearly 520 (243 + 277)posts would need to be urgently filled up through the promotion quota, which is quite a substantial number.

    • 6.2. Existing process of filling up promotion quota vacancies

      • 6.2.1. The extant procedure of filling up the promotion quota posts is inordinately time-

    consuming. It consists of the following successive steps:

    1)

    Intimation of vacancies by the State Government concerned,

    2)

    Confirmation of vacancies by the Central Government,

    3)

    Forwarding of proposal to UPSC by the State Government for convening the

    4)

    meeting of the Selection Committee, Scrutiny of the proposal by UPSC, inter alia, to verify the eligibility of officers,

    5)

    Fixing up of a date for Selection Committee Meeting by UPSC,

    6)

    Selection Committee Meeting,

    7)

    Approval by the State Government of the list prepared by the Selection Committee,

    8)

    and obtaining of the Central Government’s view thereon, and Final approval of the Select List by UPSC and notification of the same by the Central Government

    28

    6.2.2. The entire process is supposed to start in the month of January each year and takes anywhere between 6 months to 1 year for completion, if all the information required to be furnished by the state government is found to be in order at every stage. Otherwise, a lot of further time is wasted in obtaining the correct and complete information. This is very often the case and leads to abnormal delays. The following is the latest status of the process of preparation of Select List (State-wise):

    State-wise Status of Preparation of Select List as on 06.08.2009 1

    S.No.

    Cadre

    Number of

    Year of

    Status

    vacancies

    vacancies

     
    • 1. Andhra Pradesh

    02

    2008

    Proposal received from State Govt.

    04

    2009

    -do-

     
    • 2. Assam

    01

    2007

    Proposal received from State Govt.

    05

    2008

    -do-

    02

    2009

    -do-

    • 3. Bihar

     

    07

    2007

    Selection Committee Meeting fixed

    05

    2008

    Vacancies confirmed by Govt. of India

    08

    2009

    -do-

     
    • 4. Chhatisgarh

    01

    2008

    Vacancy intimated by State Govt.

     

    2009

     
     
    • 5. Gujarat

    03

    2009

    Vacancies confirmed by Govt. of India

     
    • 6. Haryana

    01

    2007

    Vacancy intimated by State Govt.

    Nil

    2008

     

    Nil

    2009

     
     
    • 7. Himachal

    01

    2007

    Vacancies confirmed by Govt. of India

    Pradesh

     

    2008

     
     

    2009

     
     
    • 8. Jammu &

    04

    2007

    Proposal received from State Govt.

    Kashmir

    02

    2008

    -do-

    03

    2009

    -do-

     
    • 9. Jharkhand

     

    2009

     

    10.

    Karnataka

    06

    2009

    Vacancies confirmed by Govt. of India

    1 Source: UPSC

    29

    S.No.

    Cadre

    Number of

    Year of

    Status

    vacancies

    vacancies

     
    • 11. Kerala

    02

    2008

    Proposal received from State Govt.

    05

    2009

    Vacancies confirmed by Govt. of India

     
    • 12. Maharashtra

    03

    2009

    -do-

     
    • 13. Madhya

    01

    2009

    Selection Committee Meeting held on

    Pradesh

    17.06.2009

     
    • 14. Manipur

    5

    2009

    Vacancies confirmed by Govt. of India

     
    • 15. Meghalaya

    Nil

    2009

     
     
    • 16. Nagaland

    01

    2008

    -do-

    Nil

    2009

     
     
    • 17. Orissa

    37

    2006

    Vacancies confirmed by Govt. of India

    04

    2007

    -do-

     

    2008

     
     

    2009

     
     
    • 18. Punjab

    08

    2002

    Were pending till now due to

    High

    Court order to re-fix seniority.

    02

    2003

    02

    2004

     

    Nil

    2005

     

    Nil

    2006

     

    02

    2007

    Vacancies confirmed by Govt. of India

    Nil

    2008

    Vacancies confirmed by Govt. of India

       

    01

    2009

     
     
    • 19. Rajasthan

    06

    2009

    Selection Committee Meeting fixed

     
    • 20. Sikkim

    Nil

    2008

     

    Nil

    2009

     
    • 21 Tamil Nadu

    01

    2009

    Vacancy confirmed by Govt. of India

     
    • 22 Tripura

    04

    2006

    Court stay due to dispute of seniority

    Nil

    2007

     

    01

    2008

    -do-

    Nil

    2009

     
     
    • 23 Uttar Pradesh

    13

    2008

    Proposal received from State Govt.

       

    14

    2009

    Court stay due to dispute of seniority

    24.

    Uttarakhand

    Nil

    2009

     

    30

    S.No.

    Cadre

    Number of

    Year of

    Status

    vacancies

    vacancies

     
    • 25. West Bengal

    03

    2009

    Vacancies confirmed by Govt. of India

     
    • 26. AGMUT

    03

    2008

    -do-

    06

    2009

    • 6.2.3. It would be seen from the above table that the process of filling up the vacancies of

    2007, 2008 and 2009 is at different stages and is yet to be completed. And, because the vacancies of a particular year are reckoned as the number of vacancies as existing on the first day of January of that year, these vacancies, in effect, are the vacancies of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The vacancies that have arisen since 01.01.2009 will be taken up only in the year 2010. This inherently causes inordinate delays in filling up vacancies.

    • 6.2.4. Further, under the extant rules, the size of the Select List is to be limited to the number

    of substantive vacancies, as existing on the first of January of the year. This causes avoidable further delays in filling up anticipated as well as unanticipated vacancies, as and when caused due to superannuation, resignations, premature retirements etc. Also, the name of an officer included in the Select List is treated as provisional if the State Government has not furnished the Integrity Certificate in respect of such an officer. The rules require a vacancy to be kept in reserve for each of the names provisionally included in the List. During my interaction with officials of State Governments, it was pointed out that this has been leading to some vacancies remaining unfilled for inordinately long periods, sometimes to the extent of several years, in some States. There is clearly a need for a hard look at the rules with a view to removing all these anomalies as also making the process more expeditious and efficient than at present.

    • 6.3. National Police Commission’s view on filling promotion quota vacancies

      • 6.3.1. The National Police Commission had suggested (in their Sixth Report) a total revamp

    of the system of filling promotion quota vacancies. Its recommendation was that promotion of Deputy Superintendents of Police, with 8 years of service in the grade, should be based on a composite assessment process, which should consist of (i) a written examination to be held by UPSC to assess professional knowledge, ability to solve practical problems and the officer’s effort to keep abreast of changes and developments (200 marks); (ii) Evaluation of ACRs by

    the UPSC, assisted by Police Advisers including a serving IGP 2 (500 marks); (iii) Interview by

    2 State Police forces were headed by IGPs in those days.`

    31

    UPSC Board (200 marks), and (iv) Assessment of physical fitness by a Selection Board through some tests (100 marks).

    • 6.4. Second Administrative Reforms Commission’s recommendation

      • 6.4.1. The Second Administrative Reforms Commission also, in its Tenth Report, has

    recommended modifications in the method of induction of officers of the State Services into

    the All India Services. The salient features of the ARC recommendations are:

    • (i) Induction of officers of State Civil/ Police/ Forest Service should be done by the UPSC on the basis of a common examination, to be conducted annually. Officers who have completed 8 to 10 yeas of service in Group ‘A’ posts shall be

    (ii)

    eligible for appearing in the examination. (iii) The upper age limit of 40 years should be fixed for officers to appear at the examination. However, for the first two years, the upper age limit should not be applicable so as to ensure adequate opportunities to the existing officers.

    (iv) A maximum of two attempts should be allowed to the eligible candidates.

    • 6.4.2. The recommendations of the Second ARC, although suggesting a significant

    improvement over the current system, suffer from some inherent problems. First, it may not be a very good idea to hold a common examination for three different services, with distinctly disparate nature of their jobs. Also, the upper age limit of 40 years will block the prospects of a large number of State Service officers who have been awaiting their induction into IPS for long but have already crossed the age of 40 years. Limiting the number of attempts to two would add a further handicap unless the rules are so framed that an officer having cleared the examination once, could be inducted into the IPS anytime, as and when a vacancy arises in future, irrespective of when he passed the promotion examination.

    • 6.5. UPSC’s proposal

      • 6.5.1. Our discussion on the subject with the Chairman, UPSC, revealed that the issue of

    reforms in the existing system of induction of State Service Officers into All-India Services had been engaging the Commission’s attention too, for quite some time. An elaborate proposal had been sent by the UPSC to the Government of India in December 2005, suggesting a three- tiered induction process, consisting of:

    32

    (i) A written examination, to be conducted by UPSC every year on a fixed date, say, 1 st of April. (ii) Personality Test, and (iii) Assessment of ACRs of the previous five years

    • 6.5.2 The written examination would be common to all States and all the three Services. The

    question paper would primarily be of objective type so that the results could be declared within one or two months. The paper would also have a Service-specific section each for the IAS, IPS and the Indian Forest Service. The results would be State-specific rather than on an all-India basis. The zone of eligibility for the examination would be five times the number of vacancies in each State. All the States would get their vacancies determined, get eligibility lists finalized, and get the service records and ACRs readied, well in advance of the date of examination.

    • 6.5.3 The results would be worked out by adding the marks obtained by the candidates in the

    written examination, personality test and the assessment of ACRs with weightages of 40%, 40% and 20% assigned respectively to them.

    • 6.5.4 This proposal of UPSC has a lot of merit in that it will ensure timely finalization of the

    Select List and also render the process of assessment of officers much more rounded than at

    present.

    • 6.5.5. However, in the context of IPS, it is felt that the written examination for SPS officers

    will be more efficacious if the paper for them is exclusive and the syllabus is oriented to

    subjects related to police work, instead of the proposed scheme of having a common paper for them and the other two Services, with only a section devoted to Service-specific questions. In fact, questions relating to even ‘General Studies’ could then be centred on aspects of relevance to police work. Also, the question paper, while still remaining broadly as objective type, must also include some open-ended questions and not just ‘multiple-choice’ ones. In addition, a physical test of qualifying nature, could be added to ensure physical and health fitness of the candidates.

    • 6.5.6. The idea of a composite selection process including a written examination is, indeed,

    laudable since it will not only ensure better quality of induction but also go a long way in promoting a culture of constant professional development and self improvement, among officers.

    33

    6.6.

    What needs to be done?

    6.6.1. The proposal of UPSC, with modifications suggested above, deserves to be implemented at the soonest, at least in respect of IPS for its promotion quota recruitment. To avoid any resistance from existing officers who have been waiting for promotion for long and who may find the proposition of a written examination too formidable for their age, the new system may be introduced for only 50% vacancies for the initial 5 years or so, the remaining 50% vacancies being continued to be filled through the existing process. The new system, in the meanwhile, will get stabilized.

    6.6.2. Till such time as the new system is introduced, the following measures may be

    considered for implementation with immediate expeditious:

    effect,

    to

    make

    the

    existing process

    1) The process of preparation of Select List should be initiated at least one year in advance, taking into consideration the number of vacancies that would arise in the whole of the next year.

    2)

    The process should be so re-engineered that it can be completed within a fixed calendar of three months with deadlines being set for each step.

    3)

    To take care of delays often caused in the process of obtaining up to date ACR records of eligible officers, the relevant rules should be amended to incorporate a provision that any delay in recording ACR entries on the part of the Reporting/ Reviewing Authority would entail appropriate adverse remarks in the latter’s own ACR, on the lines of the amended All India Services (Performance Appraisal Report) Rules, 2007.

    4) The requirement of furnishing up-t- date Integrity Certificate and particulars of any

    5)

    disciplinary/ criminal proceedings in respect of eligible officers twice, first at the stage of initial proposal and once again just before the Selection Committee meeting, also needs to be simplified, as it often causes avoidable delays. Also, there should be a time-limit fixed for furnishing the Integrity Certificates for officers provisionally included in the Select List, beyond which an existing vacancy should be allowed to be filled by the next officer in the List, even if on provisional basis, so that the vacancy does not remain unfilled for an indefinitely long period.

    34

    6) The Select List should contain a few extra names over and above the number of anticipated vacancies, as in the past, to take care of any unforeseen vacancies arising due to resignations, deaths etc. The rules should, however, be suitably amended to clearly mandate that the filling of vacancies (or even temporary officiation against a ‘cadre posts’) should be ordered strictly in the serial order of names of officers in the Select List.

    • 6.6.3. Orissa has the largest number of vacancies (47) in the promotion quota, accounting for

    nearly 20% of the promotion quota posts lying vacant in the entire IPS cadre of the country. The problem of Orissa is, indeed, peculiar in that the State had dispensed with direct recruitment at the level of Deputy Superintendent of Police, quite some time back. All the posts of DySPs in the State are filled by promotion from the rank of Inspector. By the time, these officers complete the prescribed minimum (8 years) of qualifying service in the grade, they cross the age limits of 54 years. No officer thus remains eligible for promotion. The problem can substantially be solved by enhancing the age limit for induction through promotion quota into IPS to 56 years. In fact, this should be done for all the State Cadres

    across the board, since the age limit of 54 years was fixed at a time when the retirement age was 58 years which has since been raised to 60 years.

    • 6.6.4. If some vacancies in Orissa still remain unfilled, the same may be temporarily

    transferred to the direct recruitment quota, to be adjusted against future intake against that

    quota.

    35

    Chapter – 7

    Training and Change Management Needs

    • 7.1. Training needs

      • 7.1.1. That there can be no compromise with the quality of training of new inductees,

    particularly those who come through the stream of Limited Competitive Examination (LCE), certainly bears reiteration. Any thought to dilute the nature or content of training ‘for they have

    already undergoing training’ has to be consciously avoided at all levels – the top management, training administrators as well as the training faculty. The training must receive special attention from all concerned. The training must also be organised at National Police Academy only.

    • 7.1.2. Indeed, the training programmes have to be structured carefully, to avoid unnecessary

    repetition. Different courses will, thus, have to be designed for DSPs of the States and the CPO

    officers, duly keeping in view the syllabi of their respective induction courses in the previous service. Designing of the course structures can be entrusted to a Committee of select police training experts with the Director, NPA as its convener. The training inputs should also include the change management aspects discussed in later paragraphs of this chapter.

    • 7.1.3. To enable the NPA to conduct these programmes effectively, the training infrastructure

    and the faculty strength of the Academy will need to be appropriately augmented. All the other necessary resources (including adequate funds) will also have to be provided. Some augmentation in the Academy’s infrastructure and faculty strength is already underway for the purposes of Mid-Career Training Programme Scheme. The requirements of induction training for LCE inductees can be dovetailed with the ongoing augmentation, right from this stage, so that the required infrastructure, faculty and other resources would be in place by the time the new inductees join the Academy, a few months hence.

    • 7.1.4. Some training will be needed also by the professionals from specialized fields taken on

    contractual appointments or on deputation, to orient them to the functioning of the police

    organisation. Brief modules could be elaborated for each category (IT, Communication, Finance Management, HR Management) centrally by the NPA. Their training, based on these

    36

    modules, could be organized at the State Police Academy concerned, with the NPA maintaining a close liaison with the State Academies in this regard.

    • 7.2. Change Management Needs

    7.2.1. The implementation of quite a few recommendations made in this report is going to introduce changes in some of the existing systems, which the police organisation and the large strength of its members are not used to, currently. For instance, there would be a new, additional stream of recruitment of IPS officers (LCE) which will run parallel to the regular system of recruitment through UPSC’s annual Civil Services Examination. This will bring into the IPS, officers who have already been in the organisation in junior positions for at least 5 years – some of them even with 15-20 years of past service. This will pose different problems and dilemmas for different groups. Some of the common dilemmas could be:

    For the inductee himself

    How to adjust with the new senior position in the same organisation, in the midst of erstwhile colleagues and particularly those who were his seniors but would now become his juniors?

    How to cope with the new position and responsibilities without getting affected by the past baggage?

    How to achieve the desired change in perspectives in viewing and dealing with the same professional issues and problems, in the new position?

    How to attain the desired attitudinal changes?

    For the erstwhile non-IPS colleagues & seniors of the new inductee

    How to deal with an erstwhile colleague who has suddenly jumped up to a higher level of oroganisational hierarchy? How to re-adjust inter-personal equations with them. How to deal with the situation of his becoming your direct boss tomorrow?

    For other IPS Officers already in the service

    Change for them in accepting someone who they are used to treating as a junior all this while, as a peer now.

    37

    For

    regular

    inductees

    into

    the

    IPS

    through UPSC’s annual Civil Service

    Examination How to integrate well with those recruited through the Limited Competitive

    Examination from amongst DSPs, and not look down upon them?

    • 7.2.2. Induction of an unusually large number of officers through direct recruitment in a

    matter of a few years will pose another challenge to the regular inductees joining the IPS through the channel of Civil Services Examination, of coping with the change of a likely slowdown in their promotional prospects at the higher, narrower levels of the organizational pyramid (DIG and above). Indeed, a good number of LCE inductees would be from higher age groups (the upper age limit for them being 45 years) and would be retiring earlier. Also, meaningful restructuring of the cadre strength in the light of the current needs of internal security situation, from time to time, as recommended in this report will also generate some more higher posts in the organisation which will take care of the problem to some extent. But, comparison with officers of earlier batches who have had a more rapid career growth may occasion demoralization.

    • 7.2.3. Similarly, the proposed change in the current system of selection for promotion quota

    posts, will throw up new situations, for which coping strategies would be needed by all concerned.

    • 7.2.4. Fortunately, the science of Human Resource Management now has a well-developed

    discipline of ‘Change Management’ and there are tried and tested strategies available to take care of change management needs of organizations in different situations. As mentioned by the HR Consultant, Prof. S. Ramnarayan, in his report (Annexure-III), these issues can be handled after a detailed study, aimed at devising appropriate strategies, by a group of committed police professionals with the involvement of some Change Management Experts from the field of Human Resource Management. It will be useful to do this as early as possible.

    38

    Chapter – 8

    Requirement of IPS Officers for Central Police Organisations

    • 8.1 The various Central Police Organisations (CPOs), functioning under the aegis of the

    Government of India, supplement the role and effort of the state police organizations in safeguarding internal security of the country. The nature of internal security tasks demands regular exchange of experience and perspectives between state and central police organizations. IPS is meant to meet this requirement by way of providing its members to both, who work in the CPOs on tenure basis (with the exception of the ‘hardcore’ component of Intelligence Bureau’s IPS strength), in between their postings in their respective state cadres. A proportion of posts is, therefore, earmarked for IPS officers in each CPO. IPS provides for a common thread to bind the internal security apparatus of the country, comprising, as it does, of disparate security agencies of the central government and mutually-exclusive state police organizations. There lies the significance of an earmarked strength of IPS officers in the various CPOs, and the need to ensure their presence in optimal numbers, in all these organizations.

    • 8.2. Existing Extent of Vacancies in CPOs

      • 8.2.1. However, the recent years, nay, decades have witnessed an increasingly dwindling trend

    in the availability of IPS officers in different CPOs, leading to substantial shortages. The

    current position is reflected from the following table:

    S.No.

    CPO

    No. of posts earmarked for IPS Officers

    No. of officers available

    Shortage

    • 1. IB

     

    194

    110

    84

    • 2. CBI

     

    102

    • 69 33

     
     
    • 3. CRPF

    48

    • 22 26

     
    • 4. BSF

     

    39

    • 21 18

     
     
    • 5. CISF

    22

    • 15 7

     
    • 6. SSB

     

    15

    • 11 4

     
     
    • 7. ITBP

    14

    • 10 4

     
     
    • 8. NSG

    4

    3

    1

    39

    9.

    SPG

    16

    12

    4

     
    • 10. BPR&D

    7

    7

    ..

     
    • 11. NPA

    16

    13

    3

     
    • 12. NEPA

     
    • 2 1

    1

     
    • 13. NICFS

     
    • 1 1

    ..

     
    • 14. NCRB

     
    • 7 5

    2

     
    • 15. BCAS

     
    • 3 3

    ..

     

    Total

    490

    303

    187

    • 8.2.2. Needless to mention, the existence of vacancies in such a large scale has been causing

    serious strains on smooth functioning of the various CPOs, jeopardising the internal security interests of the country.

    • 8.3. Expansion Plans

      • 8.3.1. With the inordinately growing responsibilities of the various CPOs in the wake of the

    mounting levels of emerging threats to internal security – terrorism, left wing extremist violence, et al – they are also required to urgently expand their activities. This entails creation of some new units as also strengthening some of their existing units, for manning the senior and middle echelons of which more IPS officers would be needed. The consequent additional requirements for IPS officers, were obtained from the various CPOs. The total number of IPS officers additionally needed, as per CPOs’ expansion plans, works out to 81. This requirement is, indeed, over and above the number of officers needed to fill the existing vacancies.

    • 8.4. Total Realistic Requirement of CPOs

      • 8.4.1. Adding the two requirements (relating to the existing

    vacancies as

    well

    as

    the

    expansion plans), the realistic number of officers needed for the CPOs, will be as follows:

       

    No. of posts earmarked for IPS

       

    S.

    CPO

     

    Officers

    No. of officers

    Shortage

    No.

    Existing

    Expansion

    Total

    available

    Plan

    • 1. IB

     

    194

    87 (27*)

    221

    110

    111

    • 2. CBI

     

    102

    14

    116

    69

    47

    3

    CRPF

    48

    9

    57

    22

    35

    40

    • 4 BSF

     

    39

    2

     
    • 41 21

    20

     
    • 5 CISF

    22

    ..

     
    • 22 15

    7

    • 6 SSB

     

    15

    7

     
    • 22 11

    11

     
    • 7 ITBP

    14

    2

     
    • 16 10

    6

    • 8 NSG

     

    4

    2

    6

    3

    3

    • 9 SPG

     

    16

    ..

    16

    12

    4

     
    • 10 BPR&D

    7

    ..

    7

    7

    ..

    • 11 NPA

     

    16

    14

    30

    13

    17

     
    • 12 NEPA

     
    • 2 4

    2

     

    1

    3

     
    • 13 NICFS

     
    • 1 1

    -

     

    1

    ..

     
    • 14 N.C.R.B.

     
    • 7 8

    1

     

    5

    3