Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9


any of various volatile, highly flammable liquid hydrocarbon mixtures used chiefly as solvents and

diluents and as raw materials for conversion to gasoline. Naphtha was the name originally applied to the more volatile kinds of petroleum issuing from the ground in the Baku district of Azerbaijan and Iran. As early as the 1st century AD, naphtha was mentioned by the Greek writer Dioscorides and the Roman writer Pliny the Elder. Alchemists used the word principally to distinguish various mobile liquids of low boiling point, including certain ethers and esters. In modern usage the word naphtha is usually accompanied by a distinctive prefix. Coal-tar naphtha is a volatile commercial product obtained by the distillation ofcoal tar. Shale naphtha is obtained by the distillation of oil produced from bituminous shale by destructive distillation. Petroleum naphtha is a name used primarily in the United States for petroleum distillate containing principally aliphatic hydrocarbons and boiling higher than gasoline and lower than kerosene.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Whether to make the |reason= mandatory for the {{cleanup}} template is being discussed. See the request for comment to help reach a consensus.

This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. (Consider using more specific cleanup instructions.) Please help improve this article if you can. The talk page may contain suggestions. (February 2012)

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2010)

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Petroleum naphtha. (Discuss) Proposed since February 2012.

Not to be confused with naphthalene, a solid benzene derivative which is the main ingredient in mothballs.

Naphtha ( /nf/ or /np/) normally refers to a number of flammable liquid mixtures of hydrocarbons, i.e., a component of natural gas condensate or a distillation product from petroleum, coal tar or peat boiling in a certain range and containing certain hydrocarbons. It is a broad term covering among the lightest and most volatile fractions of the liquid hydrocarbons in petroleum. Naphtha is a colorless to reddish-brown volatile aromatic liquid, very similar to gasoline.

In petroleum engineering, full range naphtha is defined as the fraction of hydrocarbons in petroleum boiling between 30 C and 200 C.[1] It consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbon molecules generally having between 5 and 12 carbon atoms. It typically constitutes 1530% of crude oil, by weight. Light naphtha is the fraction boiling between 30 C and 90 C and consists of molecules with 56 carbon atoms. Heavy naphtha boils between 90 C and 200 C and consists of molecules with 612 carbons.

Naphtha is used primarily as feedstock for producing high octane gasoline (via the catalytic reforming process). It is also used in the bitumen mining industry as a diluent, the petrochemical industry for producing olefins in steam crackers, and the chemical industry for solvent (cleaning) applications. Common products made with it include lighter fluid, fuel for camp stoves, and some cleaning solvents.

Contents [hide]

1 Etymology

2 Health and safety considerations

3 Properties

3.1 Physical

4 Production in refineries

5 Different types

5.1 Paraffinic

5.2 Heavy

6 Other applications

7 Health hazards

8 Examples in daily life

9 See also

10 References

11 Further reading

12 External links


The word naphtha came from Latin and Greek where it derived from Persian.[2] In Ancient Greek, it was used to refer to any sort of petroleum or pitch. It appears in Arabic as "naf" ("( ) petroleum"), and in Hebrew as "neft" ( .) Arabs and Persians have used and distilled petroleum for tar and fuel from ancient times, as attested in local Greek and Roman histories of the region.

The second book of the Maccabees in the Septuagint, part of the Old Testament canon in some Christian denominations, uses the word "naphtha" to refer to a miraculous flammable liquid. This account says that Nehemiah and the levitical priests associated with him called the liquid "nephthar," meaning "purification," but "most people" call it naphtha(or Nephi).[3]

Naphtha is the root of the word naphthalene. The second syllable of "naphtha" can also be recognised in phthalate.

It also enters the word napalm from "naphthenic acid and palmitic acid", as the first napalm was made from a mixture of naphthenic acid with aluminium and magnesium salts of palmitic acid.

In older usage, "naphtha" simply meant crude oil, but this usage is now obsolete in English.

The Ukrainian word (lit. nafta), the Russian word (lit. neft') and the Persian naft ( )mean "crude oil". Also, in Italy, Czech Republic, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia nafta ( in Serbian Cyrillic transcription) is colloquially used to indicate diesel fuel and crude oil. In Slovakia, nafta was historically used for both diesel fuel and crude oil, but its use for crude oil is now obsolete[4] and it generally indicates diesel fuel (crude oil is referred to as ropa[5]). In Bulgarian, nafta means diesel fuel, while neft means crude oil. "Nafta" is also used in Argentina and Uruguay to refer to gasoline. In Poland, the "birthplace" of petroleum industry, word "nafta" means kerosene

There is a conjecture that the Greek word naphtha came from the Indo-Iranian god name Apam Napat, which occurs in Vedic and in Avestic.[6]

[edit]Health and safety considerations

Forms of naphtha may be carcinogenic, and frequently products sold as naphtha contain some impurities which may also have harmful properties of their own.[7][8] Like many hydrocarbon products, they are products of a refining process in which a complex soup of chemicals is broken into another range of chemicals, which are then graded and isolated mainly by their specific gravity and volatility. There is, therefore, a range of distinct chemicals included in each product. This makes rigorous comparisons and identification of specific carcinogens difficult, especially in our modern environment where people are daily exposed to many such products, and is further complicated by exposure to a significant range of other known and potential carcinogens.[9]

Below are linked few Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) specifications for different "naphtha" products containing varying degrees of naphtha, as well as various other chemicals. As well as giving health guidelines, these are some of the few ways to determine what a given product contains.

JT Baker VM&P Naphtha MSDS.

Diggers Shellite MSDS

Shell Ronsonol MSDS source1 source2 formula developed for Ronson

Links to more MSDS for various camping-stove fuels including several that include naphtha

Benzene in particular is a known high-risk carcinogen, so benzene content is typically specified in the MSDS when it is present in the mixture due to the specifics of the feedstock and distilling process used. Specific detailing of other hydrocarbon species is less common.[citation needed]



Naphtha's molecular weight is 100215 g/mol. Its density is 750-785 kg/m3, and boiling point is 160220 C (320 428 F). Vapor pressure is less than 666 Pa (5 torr; 5 mmHg). Naphtha is colorless (kerosene odor) or red-brown (aromatic odor) liquid and is insoluble in water. It is incompatible with strong oxidizers.[citation needed]

[edit]Production in refineries

Naphtha is obtained in petroleum refineries as one of the intermediate products from the distillation of crude oil. It is a liquid intermediate between the light gases in the crude oil and the heavier liquid kerosene.[10] Naphthas are volatile, flammable and have a specific gravity of about 0.7. The generic name 'naphtha' describes a range of different refinery intermediate products used in different applications. To complicate the matter further, similar naphtha types are often referred to by different names.

The different naphthas are distinguished by:

Density (g/ml or specific gravity)

PONA, PIONA or PIANO analysis, measured by detailed capillary gas chromatography (usually in volume percent but can also be in weight percent):

Paraffin content (volume percent)

Isoparaffin content (only in a PIONA analysis)

Olefins content (volume percent)

Naphthenes content (volume percent)

Aromatics content (volume percent)

[edit]Different types

This unreferenced section requires citations to ensure verifiability.


Generally speaking, less dense ("lighter") naphthas will have a higher paraffin content. These are therefore also referred to as paraffinic naphtha. The main application for these naphthas is as a feedstock in the petrochemical production of olefins. This is also the reason they are sometimes referred to as "light distillate feedstock" or LDF (These naphtha types can also be called "straight run gasoline"/SRG or "light virgin naphtha"/LVN).

When used as feedstock in petrochemical steam crackers, naphtha is heated in the presence of water vapour and the absence of oxygen or air until the hydrocarbon molecules break apart. The primary products of the cracking process are olefins (ethylene / ethene, propylene / propene and butadiene). When naphtha is used as a feedstock in catalytic reforming the primary products are aromatics including benzene, xylene, and toluene. The olefins are used as feedstocks for derivative units that produce plastics (polyethylene and polypropylene for example), synthetic fiber precursors (acrylonitrile), industrial chemicals (glycols for instance) while the aromatics are used for octane boosting in fuel blending as well as polyethylene terephthalate PET feedstock and paint and coating solvents.


White gas, by Coleman Camp Fuel, is a common naphtha fuel used in many lanterns and torches

The "heavier" or rather denser types are usually richer in naphthenes and aromatics and therefore also referred to as N&As. These can also be used in the petrochemical industry but more often are used as a feedstock for refinery catalytic reformers where they convert the lower octane naphtha to a higher octane product called reformate. Alternative names for these types are Straight Run Benzene (SRB) or Heavy Virgin Naphtha (HVN).

[edit]Other applications

This unreferenced section requires citations to ensure verifiability.

Naphthas are also used in other applications such as:

An unprocessed component (in contrast to reforming above) in the production of petrol/motor gasoline

Industrial solvents and cleaning fluids

A commonly available general purpose solvent designated as "VM&P" naphtha, which stands for "varnish makers' and painters'"

An oil painting medium

The sole ingredient in the home cleaning fluid Energine, which has been discontinued

An ingredient in shoe polish

An ingredient in some lighter fluids for wick type lighters such as Zippo lighters

An adulterant to petrol

A fuel for portable stoves and lanterns, sold in North America as White gas, camp fuel or Coleman fuel

Historically, as a probable ingredient in Greek fire (together with grease, oil, sulfur, and naturally occurring saltpeter from the desert)

A fuel for fire spinning, fire juggling, or other fire performance equipment which creates a brighter and cleaner yet shorter burn

To lightly wear the finish (polish) off guitars when preparing "relic" instruments

As a coating for elemental lithium metal, to prevent oxidation (mineral oil is also used for this purpose)

As a fuel in gas turbine unit

As the working fluid (and sometimes, fuel) in the (external combustion) naphtha engine.

As a cleaning solution for watch parts during servicing.

In medieval times, pots containing naphtha were used in battle as a form of primitive grenade. In Ancient China, monks used forms of naphtha to prepare in religious ceremonies such as Chimbohduh.[citation needed]

Naphtha is used in the furniture industry on "works in progress" to see temporarily (until the naphtha evaporates) how the patina will look when the piece is oiled and/or aged. It is useful in matching adjacent boards for a join, primarily with tabletops, panels and shelves.

[edit]Health hazards

"Light naphtha [is] a mixture consisting mainly of straight-chained and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons having from five to nine carbon atoms per molecule. Heavy naphtha, a mixture consisting mainly of straight-chained and cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons having from seven to nine carbons per molecule."[11] "Almost all volatile, lipid-soluble organic chemicals cause general, nonspecific depression of the central nervous system or general anesthesia."[12] The OSHA PEL TWA = 100 parts-per-million (ppm); Health Hazards/Target Organs = eyes, skin, RS, CNS, liver, kidney. Symptoms of acute exposure are dizziness and narcosis with loss of consciousness. The World Health Organization categorizes health effects into three groups: reversible symptoms (Type 1), mild chronic encephalopathy (Type 2) and severe chronic toxic encephalopathy (Type 3).

Topical exposure to naphtha can cause a burning sensation on the skin within a period of minutes to an hour, followed by contact dermatitisa rashthat can last for days to weeks.

[edit]Examples in daily life

This unreferenced section requires citations to ensure verifiability.

Shellite (Australia), also known as white gas (North America), white spirit (outside the UK) or Coleman fuel, is a white liquid with a hydrocarbon odour. Shellite has a freeze point lower than 30 C (22 F), and a boiling point of 47 C (117 F). The composition of shellite is 95% paraffins and naphthenes, less than 5% aromatic hydrocarbons and less than 0.5% benzene. It is highly flammable and due to its low flashpoint is used in many low pressure camping stoves. Shellite is also a fast drying solvent used for cleaning metal, hard plastic and painted surfaces. Ronsonol is a brand name used in North America, for a product marketed principally as a refill fluid for cigarette lighters and having a flashpoint of about 6 C (43 F)