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Mech. Mach. Theory Vol. 31, No. 6, pp. 771-779, 1996 Copyright 1996 Elsevier ScienceLid 0094-114X(95)00109-3 Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved 0094-114X/96 $15.00 + 0.00

SYSTEMS SUPPORT

B. C. NAKRA

Department of Mechanical Engineering, I.I.T. Delhi, India l l0 016 (Received 1 June 1994)

Abstract--An analysis for determining the stability limit of the rotor speed of a rotor shaft system, is given. The system consists of a single rotor disc in the middle of an elastic shaft having identical plain cylindrical journal beatings at the ends, supported on viscoelastic supports. The influence of support parameters on the stability limits of the rotor shaft system has been studied. Copyright 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

1. I N T R O D U C T I O N

Support damping is considered to be useful for improving the dynamic characteristics of a rotor shaft system [1]. The influence of flexible and viscously damped supports on the stability of a rotor shaft system mounted on journal bearings using the above mentioned types of supports has been studied in [2-4]. Viscous damping at the supports is seen to improve the dynamic instability due to oil film forces in hydrodynamic journal bearings. On the other hand, viscoelastic polymeric supports present certain operational advantages [5] and the use of such supports has been seen as giving a higher stability limit compared to that given by elastic or viscously damped elastic supports in the case of instability due to material damping of the rotor shaft system [6]. Recently, detailed results on the influence of viscoelastic supports on unbalance response of a rotor shaft system on rolling element or journal bearings and also some preliminary results on stability characteristics of such systems on journal bearings have been reported using the finite element method [7, 8]. In this work, studies have been carried out on stability characteristics of the rotor shaft system mounted on identical plain cylindrical journal bearings at the ends supported on viscoelastic supports. The support mass has been taken into account while deriving the equations of motion. The shaft mass has been ignored. Detailed results on the stability limit of the rotor speeds for different values of the viscoelastic material constants and support mass ratios have been given. Results are found to have good agreement with those obtained by the finite element method as in [7, 8] after incorporating the effect of support mass. 2. A N A L Y S I S Figure 1 shows the schematic diagram of the system taken for the analysis. For modelling the journal bearings all the direct and cross coupled stiffness and damping terms have been taken into consideration. For the study of stability of the rotor shaft system on journal bearings and viscoelastic supports, the viscoelastic support material has been modelled as a 4-element viscoelastic solid since the complex modulus representation is only applicable for the cases of harmonic oscillations [9]. The 4-element viscoelastic solid is represented as a parallel combination of a Maxwell element and a Voigt element and can be shown schematically as in Fig. 2. Using the above model for the support, the system may be represented as shown in Fig. 3(a) and (b). For finding out the stability of the rotor-shaft system, the equations of motion for free vibration of the system are first written down as follows:

M2.ii2 + K~x~ = 0

771

(1)

772 X

V ~z

-~

N-~-~Jour nal

becu'ing

JournalS bearinq

Visclctsti c ~ ~ support

x

\ \\\ \\\ ~ \

\\\\\\\

\\\\\\ \\ \\\\\\\\\ \

~/z

e/z i

K3

12"1 ~3

/ / ,,',," f /

I

(a)

(b)

Cxx

~',~.,~

t

~-~--~

. t/z

_

-;

~/z

]

-I

x-z

plane, (b)

y-z

plane.

773

M15~1 + K, qXl -- K~x~ = 0

(2) (3)

(4) (5) (6)

where Ms is the mass of the rotor, M~ is the total mass of the supports, Ks is the stiffness of the shaft at the location of the rotor, and K~q is the total value of the equivalent stiffness of the viscoelastic support materials at the ends. K=, Kyy, and Cxx and Cyy are the total value of the stiffness and the damping coefficient of the journal bearings in the x and y directions respectively. K~y, Ky~, Cxy, and Cy~ are the total values of the cross coupled stiffness and damping coefficients for the journal bearings, x2 and Y2 are the values of the absolute displacements of the r " t o r in x and y directions respectively, xi and yj are the deformations of the journal in the x and y directions respectively, x~ and y~ are the displacements of the rotor with respect to the ends of the shaft. The expression of the equivalent stiffness K~ for a 4-element model of the viscoelastic solid, as can be obtained from [9, 10], is given below: Kin= Y + YlD + y2D 2 (1 + a , O ) (7)

where 7 = KI, 7t = q2 + qs, (Kith~K3), ~2 = rhrh/g3, xl = r/3K3 and D stands for d/dr Substituting the expression of K~q given in equation (7) in equations (1)-(6) we get

M2.~2 + Ksx~ = 0

Mr(1 + alD)t + (y + y~D + ~2D2)xI - K~(1 + oqD)xs = 0

m l ( 1 + ~xlO)fl + (]~ + ytD + 7232)yl - Ks(1 + oqD)ys = 0

(ll) (12)

(13)

Substituting x~ = x2 - xj - Xl and y~ = Y2 -- Yj -- Yl and assuming the solutions for x2, Y2, xj, y:, xt, and y~ as given below in equation (14), we get ~ / ' a t i o n s (15)-(20):

x , = X , , e "t, y , = Y , e "

forn=l,2,

~,nd x j = X j e "

and

Y j = Y , e "t

(14)

c,x~-x

v, = 0

05)

(16) (17) (18)

(19)

X2 - C2Xj - Cs Yj - X, = 0

C, Y2 -- Y,.- rl = 0

Y2 - Co Y j C7Xj -

YI=O

c4 r~ - ~ -

Y, = o

(20)

where

G = [2~6~R 3 + (~#, + 4 ~ 6 ) R ~ + 2(~6 + ~ / b +/b~6 + # 6 ~ ) R + / b ( 1 + / ~ ) ] , C6 = (2~3R + f14 + 1), (77 = (2~4R + fls)

774 and

= = = =

~, = Cxx/Cc, ~5 = C2/Cc,

2-"=.Cxy/Cc, 6 : C6/Cc,

and

R -~- r / o n

and

09. = ( K s / M 2 ) '5 o~ = M , / M 2

and

Cc = 2Mzo~.

C1 - 1 - 1 0 0 0 ~X

1 -C2

C4 0 0 0

or

- 1 0 -C3

0 Cl 1 C4 0 - 1 - C6 0 0 0

0

0 - 1 - 1

l X

X Y Y Y

O] t 0 "0 (21)

--C 4 -C 5 0 - C7 0

-C 4 -C 5

Ic I = 0

(22)

(23)

Equation (23) gives the characteristic equation of the system. Expanding the determinant, an order 12 polynomial in R is obtained as given in (24) below, the roots of which are the eigenvalues of the system: R t2 -'{'-a I R It -'1-a2R 10-Ji-a3 R9 "Jr a4R 8 + a s R 7 ..{_a6R6 .-I.-a7 R5

+asR4+a9R3+aloR2+atlR +at2=O

(24)

Bairstow's method is used to find out the roots of the polynomial, and the correctness of the roots is checked by substituting back the value of the roots in the equation. 3. R E S U L T S AND D I S C U S S I O N Stability limit of the rotor speed for the system can be obtained by finding out the roots of the characteristic equation given by equation (24). Bairstow's method has been used in finding out the roots of the polynomial. The nature of the roots is in general complex. In equation (14) the solutions assumed were of the form q = Q ert where q is a generalized displacement. When r is a complex quality say (a + ib), the expression of the displacement is found as q = Q e (a+ib)'. From the expression above it is found that, as t --~ o% then q --~ oo if a is positive and q -~ 0 if a is negative. This means that the positive real part of the root which is complex in general, signifies instability of the system while a negative real part of the complex root ensures stability. Therefore the stability limit of the rotor speed of the system can be found out by plotting the magnitude of the real part of the root against the rotor speed in rpm and the stability limit is the speed of the rotor at which the real part of the root is zero, and a further increment of the speed of the rotor makes the real part positive.

775

The data of the rotor-shaft system for which the stability analysis is done is given below. Mass of the rotor = 220 kg, length of the shaft = 0.544 m El (modulus of rigidity) for the shaft = 1,078,388.6 Nm 2 Bearing: Diameter of the journal bearing = 10.16 x 10 2m Length of the bearing = 5.08 x 10 -2 m Radial clearance of the journal bearing = 10.16 10-Sm Viscosity of the oil = 5.68 10 -3 N s / m 2 The expression of Kxx, K~y, Kyy, C~, Cxy, Cyy and Cyx in terms of the plain cylindrical journal bearing have been taken from [11].

Support: The following parameters are chosen for the study. Support mass ratio (~)= 0.1, primary support stiffness ratio (/36)= 0.1 Secondary stiffness rati6 (/37) = 0.2, primary damping ratio (~5) = 0.01, Secondary damping ratio (~6) = 0.1 A detailed parametric study of the stability limit of the rotor speed has been done by varying one parameter at a time, keeping the remaining ones fixed. These parameters do not pertain to a particular material but are fairly realistic, to be applicable in practice, in the chosen ranges. Figure 4 shows the plol~ of the real part of the root as the speed of the rotor is varied from 2000 to 20,000 rpm for different values of/36. The positive real parts of the roots, i.e. the part over the "0" line, signify the unstable zone while the negative part, i.e. the lower portion of the "0" line, is the stable zone. It is found from the graph that for low values of/36, the system is stable throughout the speed range of the rotor, while, for higher values of/36, the stability limit falls sharply and for the rigid support condition, i.e. for high values of/36 the system is stable only up to a speed of 5400 rpm of the rotor, after which the system becomes unstable. Figure 5 shows the stability limit of the system drawn against changing values of/36. It shows that, for having a wide stability limit, the value of/36 should be as low as possible. Though complex stiffness representation for the viscoelastic support material is not strictly applicable here, it would be of interest to see the relevance of changes in some of the parameters especially the primary ones, in relation to the in-phase stiffness and the loss factor applicable in the case of forced harmonic oscillations. An examination of the expression for the in-phase stiffness and loss factor from [9] indicates that increase of ~6 implies increase of in-phase stiffness and reduction of loss factor which is a measure of support damping under harmonic conditions. Similarly, an increase of ~5 implies an increase of loss factor or support damping. Thus, an increase of/36 implying increase of support stiffness and reduction of support damping leads to lower stability speed limits. Figure 6 shows the effect of/37 or the secondary support stiffness ratio on the stability of the system. This was obtained after plotting the real part of the root against speed for different values of/37 similar to Fig. 4, but the plot is not given here. The procedure was repeated for studying influence of variation of ~5, ~6 and ~. It is seen that/37 should have a certain minimum value that ensures stability throughout the speed range of the rotor. Figure 7 shows the effect of ~5, the primary support damping ratio of the four element model of the viscoelastic support on the stability limit of the system. It is seen that there exists an optimum value of 5, which imparts the highest stability limit and until that, the value of ~5 increases the stability limit, but as 5 exceeds the optimum one the stability limit of the rotor speed starts falling because the support tends towards a rigid one. Figure 8 shows the effects of ~6, i.e. the secondary damping ratio of the four element viscoelastic model on the stability of the system. It is found that there exists an optimum value of ~6 corresponding to the maximum stability limit of the system. A value of ~6 lower than the optimum value lowers the stability limit of the system while a value of G0 higher than the optimum value is detrimental to the stability of the system as the support tends to a rigid one. Figure 9 presents the effects of support mass ratio parameters ~ on the stability of the system. It is observed from the figure that an optimum value of exists for which the stability limit is maximum for the system.

776

o_

0 II

0 II

0 II

II

1 0

--(spuosn0ql)

"T O I!

O II N

II

O

o

~3 ~

~o~

e~

I

I

~

I

I

I

Q

I

o

-I

~ - - - l ~ V d 7V3~

777

Ol

II

II

fl

II

e~

r~ =6

O

o N

Ul~

o o. u-lo

(spuosno41)

0 3 3 d 5 ~010~ I I ~ 1 7

AII71BViS

o

II

II

II

II

C3

J_

..,---.($puosnoqJ. ) (333dS

778

6d

II I1

I'~

o

II

I#i

~

It

lid

<~

E>

c~ ~0

ll"l N

I o N

& I

&

0

II

II

II

II

C~

o6

0

I"'I

r~

I ~

~----(spuosnoql)

033dS ~IOJ.O~I

11[,417 A I I 7 1 B V I S

Stability characteristics of rotating systems Table I. Comparison of values of roots of characteristic equation rpm 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4300 Present work Real part 'a' Imaginary part 'b' - 13.8 237.3 - 11.3 234.3 - 7.9 232.5 - 4.4 231.9 -- 1.4 232.2 + 0.2 232.6 Stability limit = 4265 rpm FEM Real part 'a' Imaginary part 'b' - 13.4 233.2 - 10.8 230.4 - 7.3 228.4 -4.0 288.5 - I. 1 228.9 + 0.3 229.3 Stability limit = 4220 rpm

779

The results o f the present work are c o m p a r e d with those using the finite element method, as in [7, 8], after the f o r m u l a t i o n as reported in the latter was modified to take into a c c o u n t the influence o f the s u p p o r t mass. The c o m p a r i s o n o f values of roots o f the characteristic e q u a t i o n is s h o w n in T a b l e 1 for different speeds. The results are in reasonable agreement for b o t h real a n d i m a g i n a r y parts of the roots a n d the stability limit of the system analysed.

4. C O N C L U S I O N S A simplified analysis for stability characteristics of a rotor shaft system o n h y d r o d y n a m i c j o u r n a l bearings, has s h o w n that the zone o f stable speeds can be e n h a n c e d by the use of suitable viscoelastic supports. A low value o f the s u p p o r t p r i m a r y s u p p o r t stiffness ratio, high value of secondary s u p p o r t stiffness ratio a n d o p t i m u m values o f p r i m a r y d a m p i n g ratio, secondary d a m p i n g ratio a n d s u p p o r t mass ratio, increase the stability limit o f the r o t o r speed. The results are seen to be quite in agreement with those o b t a i n e d using the finite element method.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. ll.

REFERENCES A. V. Rudy and D. Summers-Smith, Tribol. Int. 13, 199 (1980). R. Holmes, TriboL Int. 13, 243 (1980). J. W. Lund, J. AppL Mech. 32, 911 (1965). R. G. Kirk and E. J. Gunter, J. Engng Ind. 98, 576 (1976). M. Darlow and E. Zorzi, NASA CR 3423, 348 (1981). J. K. Dutt and B. C. Nakra, J. Sound Vibr. 153, 89 (1992). P. Kulkarni, S. Pannu and B. C. Nakra, Int. J. Mech. Engng Educn 21, 35 (1993). P. Kulkarni, S. Pannu and B. C. Nakra, Mech. Mach. Theory 28, 427 (1993). D. R. Bland, Viscoelasticity. Pergamon Press (1960). A. D. Kaput, B. C. Nakra and D. R. Chawla, J. Sound Vibr. 55, 351 (1977). J. S. Rao, Rotor Dynamics. Wiley Eastern, New Delhi (1983).

Zusmnmenfassung--Dievorliegende Arbeit hezieht sich auf die Bestimmongder Drehzahlschwelle ffir die

Stabilit~t eines Rotorsystems, das aus einer in der Mitte ein Disk Trangenden Welle and zwei viskoelastisch gestiitzten zylinderischen Lagern hesteht. Der Einflu6 van verschisdenen Stfitztungsparametern auf die Stabilit/it wird untersucht, un die optimale Werte fiir eine hohe Stabilitfit giwinnen zu k&nnen.

MMT

31/6--C

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