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Summary of CO2 Emissions From Mobile Sources

12/05/2008

Home Page: Mobile Combustion CO2 Emissions Calculation Tool. January 2005. Version 1.3
WRI-WBCSD GHG Protocol Initiative
Tip: Do not edit this page. This page displays totals that come from the detailed worksheets you can access by clicking on the sheet tabs below.

Summary of CO2 Emissions (in metric tonnes CO ) 2

Source of Emissions

Road Calculated from fuel use: Edit details 0.0 mt


Vehicles Calculated from distance: Edit details 0.0 mt

Trains Calculated from fuel use: Edit details 0.0 mt


Calculated from distance: Edit details 0.0 mt

Ships Calculated from fuel use: Edit details 0.0 mt


Calculated from distance: Edit details 0.0 mt

Aircraft Calculated from fuel use: Edit details 0.0 mt


Calculated from distance: Edit details 0.0 mt

Total Emissions: 0.0 mt


Summary of CO2 Emissions From Mobile Sources
12/05/2008
Summary of CO2 Emissions From Mobile Sources
12/05/2008
Summary of CO2 Emissions From Mobile Sources
12/05/2008
Summary of CO2 Emissions From Mobile Sources
12/05/2008
Summary of CO2 Emissions From Mobile Sources
12/05/2008

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###
Introduction to Worksheets for CO2 Emissions from Mobile Sou
###
### This brief introduction supplements the guidance document, "Fossil Fuel Combustion in Mobile Sources: Gui
### Please read the accompanying guidance document before using these worksheets.
### The intellectual property rights of this calculation tool belong to WRI and WBCSD, unless stated otherwise in any of the tools.
### Please cite the orginial reference when using this tool.
###

### Purpose and domain of this section


### Assumptions
### The combustion of hydrocarbon fuels produces carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapor, trace amounts of methane (CH4),
### (N2O) and ash or soot (from incomplete combustion). This workbook makes a simplifying assumption that the combus
### is 100% complete, whereby all the carbon in fuel is converted to CO2. By itself, this assumption results in an approxim
### overestimate of CO2 emissions from combustion. This overestimate is offset by a second assumption that by itself wo
### roughly 1% underestimate of global warming impact. The second assumption is that the emissions of CH4 and N20 fr
### are so small and uncertain that they may be ignored in the calcuation. Each gram of CH4 and N2O has a greater impa
### gram of CO2. Even so, the amounts emitted during combustion are so small, and the factors for these emissions are
### is little benefit in calculating their global warming impact. (Processes other than combustion do produce significant am
### and these have non-trivial global warming impacts.) The combined effect of these assumptions is likely to alter results
### a variance that will in most cases be negligible.
###
### Companies that wish to calculate global warming from N2O and CH4 can do so as a last step, by multiplying their tota
### with an appropriate small percentage. This is justified because the ratio of N2O and CH4 to CO2 emissions from com
### across fuels and equipment.
###

### Calculation Approaches


### Two calculation approaches are provided in these worksheets. The first calculates emissions based on amount of fu
### The second calculates emissions based on distance traveled or equipment activity, i.e. truck kilometers traveled. Co
### approach or approaches which make best use of available data. When fuel use data is available, it is usually more reli
### If fuel use data and distance data are of equal quality, the fuel use data should be used (fuel composition varies less th
### If distance data and fuel economy factors are known, use the calculator provided on the 'fuel use' worksheet to calcula
### Approaches can be combined, but to avoid double counting do not enter the same activity twice.
### These guidelines and worksheets are intended to help all companies calculate their direct and/or indirect CO2 emissio
### Default or average-case factors are included for your information as a possible alternative if custom emission factors a
### If mobile sources are a significant source of direct emissions for your organization, and your fuel records are not accur
### recommended that you compile emission factors that accurately reflect the characteristics of the equipment and techn
### Note that the default emissions per distance factors were developed in the United States and/or Europe, and m
### not be accurate for countries with different traffic conditions, vehicle sizes, and average number of passenger
###
### Possible Methods and Related Emission Factors to Calculate CO2 Emissions
### from Mobile Sources
###
### Fuel used Distance
### Traveled
### Fuel per distance
### Fuel used factor
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###
### emissions emissions emissions
### per fuel per fuel per distance
### factor factor factor
###
###
### Emissions Emissions
###
### Blue line shows calculation sequence for Based on Fuels Worksheet
### Brown line shows caculation sequence for Based on Distance Worksheet
### Dotted line shows emission factors built into the calculation of emissions per distance factor
###
###
###
###
###

### Suggested Sequence


### 1 Make a back-up copy of this workbook, in its blank unused state.
### 2 Determine your direct and indirect emission sources from mobile combustion. If you have both direct and indirec
### make two copies of the workbook for accounting them separately.
### 3 Review the default values proposed for emissions factors, and enter any different local default emission factors o
### custom values that best represent your emission sources. Check coal factors since they vary widely by country.
### 4 Complete each of the applicable worksheets, filling in relevant light green cells and optional values in cells shade
### entry row similar to an existing row, select the existing row, then click on the Add a Row button. A new row will b
### the row you selected. Be certain to change user-entered values in the new row.
### Worksheets are color coded but may be printed in black and white.
### 5 Review the Summary on the "Home" page. Totals there should automatically reflect totals computed on each wo
### Print the Summary page. Make a back-up copy of this completed workbook.
###

### Top Tips


### 1 Color Scheme: Help Enter data Optional data entry Auto calculated
### Labels: Warnings green cells light blue cells value in gray cells
### 2 Click on "Twisties" 6 4 to expand and collapse sections.
### 3 To add another data entry row, select the row you want duplicated, and click on the "Add a Row" Button. A ne
### layout and formulas will be inserted beneath the row you selected. Be sure to change the user-supplied values!
### 4 Navigate from one spreadsheet to another using the tabs at the bottom of your screen.
### 5 To print in black and white (without shadings) check the appropriate box in the Sheet tab of the Page Setup com
### 6 To fit the active section of the workbook to your screen, adjust the zoom percentage shown in the Stardard icon
###

### Acknowledgements
### This workbook was developed by David Cross of RPM Systems, The RETEC Group, Inc., with contributions from
### Pankaj Bhatia/WRI, Michael Gillenwater/US-EPA, Vincent Camobreco/US-EPA, Matthew Addison/Nexant Inc, a
### from WRI/WBCSD. All intellectual property rights belong to GHG Protocol Initiative. Please cite the original refere
### While the workbook is largely self explanatory, for questions or suggestions on workbook mechanics, contact DC
### For comments on workbook content, contact Pankaj Bhatia at pankaj@wri.org.
### Please visit the GHG Protocol Initiative at www.ghgprotocol.org for other GHG calculation tools.
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rom Mobile Sources
on in Mobile Sources: Guidelines",

amounts of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide


assumption that the combustion of carbon
mption results in an approximately 1%
assumption that by itself would result in a
emissions of CH4 and N20 from mobile combustion
and N2O has a greater impact on climate than a
ors for these emissions are so uncertain, that there
on do produce significant amounts of CH4 and N20,
ptions is likely to alter results by less than 0.5%,

step, by multiplying their total CO2 emissions


to CO2 emissions from combustion varies little

ions based on amount of fuel consumed.


ruck kilometers traveled. Companies should use the
ailable, it is usually more reliable than distance data.
uel composition varies less than vehicle efficiency).
uel use' worksheet to calculate fuel consumption.

and/or indirect CO2 emissions from mobile sources.


if custom emission factors are not available.
ur fuel records are not accurate, it is
of the equipment and technology you are operating.
tates and/or Europe, and may
erage number of passengers per vehicle.
have both direct and indirect emissions,

cal default emission factors or


they vary widely by country.
optional values in cells shaded light blue. To add a data
Row button. A new row will be inserted below

t totals computed on each worksheet.

Auto calculated Default values


value in gray cells light yellow cells

he "Add a Row" Button. A new row with the same


ge the user-supplied values!

et tab of the Page Setup command in the File Menu.


shown in the Stardard icon bar.

p, Inc., with contributions from Gwen Parker/WRI,


tthew Addison/Nexant Inc, and project team members
Please cite the original reference whenever using this tool.
book mechanics, contact DCross@retec.com.
Part 1. Emissions Calculated from Fuel Used: All Modes of Transport Home/Summary
Note: Use this worksheet to calculate your emissions from amount of fuel consumed. Optional Calculator
A B C D E1 E2 F G1 G2 I 1,000 = Distance traveled
Fuel used Energy used Emissions Factor Emissions 0 = miles per gallon
Type of Fuel Used GJ per Fuel Unit GJ energy kg CO2 per GJ metric tonnes OR
Amount of Fuel Fuel Default Custom Used Default Custom H =FxG/1000 30 = litres per 100 km
Source Description fuel used Units Type GJ/unit GJ/unit F=BxE kg CO2/GJ CO2/GJ Metric ton CO2 300 litres used
Road transportation 0.00 0.0

Sample fleet 30,000.00 US gals Gasoline 0.13 3,906.12 69.250 270.5


US gals Gasoline 0.13 0.00 69.250 0.0
US gals Gasoline 0.13 0.00 69.250 0.0
US gals Gasoline 0.13 0.00 69.250 0.0
US gals Gasoline 0.13 0.00 69.250 0.0
Imp. gals Gasoline 0.16 0.00 69.250 0.0
litres Gasoline 0.03 0.00 69.250 0.0
litres Gasoline 0.03 0.00 69.250 0.0
Metric tonnes Gasoline 43.57 0.00 69.250 0.0
US gals Diesel 0.14 0.00 74.010 0.0
Imp. gals Diesel 0.17 0.00 74.010 0.0
litres Diesel 0.04 0.00 74.010 0.0
Metric tonnes Diesel 44.17 0.00 74.010 0.0
lbs. CNG 0.0228 0.00 56.06 0.0
kg CNG 0.0523 0.00 56.06 0.0
lbs. LPG 0.0209 0.00 63.2000 0.0
kg LPG 0.0460 0.00 63.2000 0.0
US gals LPG 0.0942 0.00 63.2000 0.0
litres LPG 0.0249 0.00 63.2000 0.0
Rail transportation 0.00 0.0

Water transportation 0.00 0.0

Aircraft 0.00 0.0

Total 0.0 0.0

NOTES
Part 2. Emissions Calculated from Distance Traveled, All Modes of Transport Home/Summary
Note: Use this worksheet to calculate your emissions if you have activity data only for the distance travelled. Optional Calculator kg CO2
A B C D E1 E2 F Vehicle fuel efficiency Gas Diesel
Transportation Activity CO2 emissions miles per gallon 24 0.38 0.43
Amount kg CO2 per unit Total emissions kg CO2 per mile
of Default Custom metric tonnes liters /100 km 3.9 0.09 0.11
kg CO2 pr km
Source Description Transport description Activity Activity unit CO2/unit CO2/unit F = CxE/1000
Road transportation activity 0.0
Measurements in Miles: Note: Gallons are US Gallons
hybrid auto 56 mpg 4.2 l/100km vehicle miles 0.1610 0.0
small gas auto 29 mpg 8.1 l/100km vehicle miles 0.3109 0.0
med gas auto 23 mpg 10.2 l/100km vehicle miles 0.3920 0.0
large gas auto 19 mpg 12.4 l/100km vehicle miles 0.4746 0.0
LPG automobile vehicle miles 0.2865 0.0
diesel auto 24 mpg 9.8 l/100km vehicle miles 0.4330 0.0
gas light truck 14 mpg 16.8 l/100km vehicle miles 0.6440 0.0
gas heavy truck 6 mpg 39.2 l/100km vehicle miles 1.5028 0.0
diesel light truck 15 mpg 15.7 l/100km vehicle miles 0.6928 0.0
diesel heavy truck 7 mpg 33.6 l/100km vehicle miles 1.4847 0.0
light motorcycle 60 mpg 3.9 l/100km vehicle miles 0.1503 0.0
your vehicle 0.0 See calculator above to obtain kg per mile
0.0 from fuel efficiency
hybrid auto 56 mpg 4.2 l/100km passenger miles 0.0895 0.0
small gas auto 29 mpg 8.1 l/100km passenger miles 0.1727 0.0
med gas auto 23 mpg 10.2 l/100km passenger miles 0.2178 0.0
large gas auto 19 mpg 12.4 l/100km passenger miles 0.2636 0.0
LPG automobile passenger miles 0.1591 0.0
diesel auto 24 mpg 9.8 l/100km passenger miles 0.2406 0.0
gas light truck 14 mpg 16.8 l/100km passenger miles 0.3578 0.0
gas heavy truck 6 mpg 39.2 l/100km passenger miles 0.8349 0.0
diesel light truck 15 mpg 15.7 l/100km passenger miles 0.3849 0.0
diesel heavy truck 7 mpg 33.6 l/100km passenger miles 0.8248 0.0
light motorcycle 60 mpg 3.9 l/100km passenger miles 0.0835 0.0
bus (diesel)- long distance passenger miles 0.0781 0.0
bus (diesel)- urban transit passenger miles 0.2997 0.0
road freight short ton miles 0.1033 0.0
(other car mpg below) 0.0
Measurements in Kilometers:
hybrid auto 56 mpg 4.2 l/100km vehicle kilometers 0.1001 0.0
small gas auto 29 mpg 8.1 l/100km vehicle kilometers 0.1932 0.0
med gas auto 23 mpg 10.2 l/100km vehicle kilometers 0.2436 0.0
large gas auto 19 mpg 12.4 l/100km vehicle kilometers 0.2949 0.0
LPG automobile vehicle kilometers 0.1780 0.0
diesel auto 24 mpg 9.8 l/100km vehicle kilometers 0.2691 0.0
0 gas light truck 14 mpg 16.8 l/100km vehicle kilometers 0.4002 0.0
0 gas heavy truck 6 mpg 39.2 l/100km vehicle kilometers 0.9338 0.0
0 diesel light truck 15 mpg 15.7 l/100km vehicle kilometers 0.4305 0.0
0 diesel heavy truck 7 mpg 33.6 l/100km vehicle kilometers 0.9226 0.0
0 light motorcycle 60 mpg 3.9 l/100km vehicle kilometers 0.0934 0.0
your vehicle 0.0 See calculator above to obtain kg per km
0.0 from fuel efficiency
hybrid auto 56 mpg 4.2 l/100km passenger kilometers 0.0556 0.0
small gas auto 29 mpg 8.1 l/100km passenger kilometers 0.1073 0.0
med gas auto 23 mpg 10.2 l/100km passenger kilometers 0.1353 0.0
large gas auto 19 mpg 12.4 l/100km passenger kilometers 0.1638 0.0
LPG automobile passenger kilometers 0.0989 0.0
diesel auto 24 mpg 9.8 l/100km passenger kilometers 0.1495 0.0
gas light truck 14 mpg 16.8 l/100km passenger kilometers 0.2223 0.0
gas heavy truck 6 mpg 39.2 l/100km passenger kilometers 0.5188 0.0
diesel light truck 15 mpg 15.7 l/100km passenger kilometers 0.2392 0.0
diesel heavy truck 7 mpg 33.6 l/100km passenger kilometers 0.5125 0.0
light motorcycle 60 mpg 3.9 l/100km passenger kilometers 0.0519 0.0
bus (diesel)- long distance 0 passenger kilometers 0.0485 0.0
bus (diesel)- urban transit 0 passenger kilometers 0.1862 0.0
road freight Metric tonne kilometers 0.0720 0.0
0.0
Rail transportation 0.0

diesel locomotive passenger miles 0.1719 0.0


diesel locomotive short ton miles 0.0287 0.0
diesel locomotive passenger kilometers 0.1068 0.0
diesel locomotive Metric tonne kilometers 0.0200 0.0
electric locomotive passenger miles 0.3437 0.0
electric locomotive short ton miles 0.0574 0.0
electric locomotive passenger kilometers 0.2136 0.0
electric locomotive Metric tonne kilometers 0.0400 0.0
coal locomotive passenger miles 0.2238 0.0
coal locomotive short ton miles 0.0374 0.0
coal locomotive passenger kilometers 0.1391 0.0
coal locomotive Metric tonne kilometers 0.0260 0.0
UK Rail passenger miles 0.0966 0.0
UK Rail passenger kilometers 0.0600 0.0
US Intercity Rail (e.g. Amtrak) passenger miles 0.1909 0.0
US Intercity Rail (e.g. Amtrak) passenger kilometers 0.1186 0.0
US Transit Rail (e.g subway, tram) passenger miles 0.1604 0.0
US Transit Rail (e.g subway, tram) passenger kilometers 0.0997 0.0
US Commuter Rail passenger miles 0.1649 0.0
US Commuter Rail passenger kilometers 0.1025 0.0
Canadian Rail passenger miles 0.1662 0.0
Canadian Rail passenger kilometers 0.1033 0.0
0.0
Boat
Watertransportation
transportation 0.0

Aircraft (distance figures are for one-stop flights, in land miles, not nautical miles- check your source) 0.0 Optional Calculation Table
Use optional calculator to the right for calculating miles traveled based on number of flights (short, medium or long) # of Flights units unit description Total acrtivity units
short haul (<452 km) <281 miles passenger land miles 0.2897 0.0 1 passenger land miles 0 (copy to green column to left)
medium haul (452 to 1600 km) 281 to 994 miles passenger land miles 0.2028 0.0 1 passenger land miles 0
long haul (>1600 km) >994 miles passenger land miles 0.1770 0.0 1 passenger land miles 0
short haul (<452 km) <281 miles short ton land miles 2.3062 0.0 0 tons 0
medium haul (452 to 1600 km) 281 to 994 miles short ton land miles 1.1677 0.0 0 tons 0
long haul (>1600 km) >994 miles short ton land miles 0.8320 0.0 0 tons 0
short haul (<452 km) <281 miles passenger land km 0.1800 0.0 1 passenger land miles 0
medium haul (452 to 1600 km) 281 to 994 miles passenger land km 0.1260 0.0 1 passenger land miles 0
long haul (>1600 km) >994 miles passenger land km 0.1100 0.0 1 passenger land miles 0
short haul (<452 km) <281 miles Metric tonne kilometers 1.5800 0.0 0 metric tons 0
medium haul (452 to 1600 km) 281 to 994 miles Metric tonne kilometers 0.8000 0.0 0 metric tons 0
long haul (>1600 km) >994 miles Metric tonne kilometers 0.5700 0.0 0 metric tons 0
flight of 300 km 186 miles passenger land km 0.2180 0.0 1 passenger land miles 0
flight of 900 km 559 miles passenger land km 0.1420 0.0 1 passenger land miles 0
nonstop flight 2719 km 1690 miles passenger land km 0.1170 0.0 1 passenger land miles 0
See more factors below 0 0 passenger land km 0.1170 0.0 1 passenger land miles =??*N98*O98
Last row above totals enter no data here 0 0.0

Total for indirect emissions calculated from distance traveled 0.0

Emissions factors for rail travel


Type of Train kg CO 2 per passenger kg CO 2 per
km passenger
mile
UK Rail1 0.0600 0.0966 1 km equals 0.62 miles
US Intercity Rail2 (i.e., 0.1186 0.1909 1 mile equals 1.61 km
Amtrak)
US Transit Rail3 (e.g., 0.0997 0.1604
subway, tram)
To convert from lbs to kg, multiply by
US Commuter Rail4 0.1025 0.1649 0.45
Canadian Rail5 0.1033 0.1662
1. Source: Railtrack http://www.railtrack.co.uk/our_business/environment/benefits_of_rail/index.cfm gives annual passenger-miles and tonnes of CO2.
2. Sources: TEDB = Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22, 2002. Table 2.11 and A16. http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/
EIA = Energy Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2000, Appendix B, Table B1
3.Sources: TEDB = Transportation Energy Data Book, Edition 22- 2002, Table 2.11 and Table A.15. Available at http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data.
EIA = ftp://ftp.eia.doe.gov/pub/oiaf/1605/cdrom/pdf/e-supdoc.pdf, page 5.
Note: transit rail is defined as light and heavy rail. For definitions, please see http://www.apta.com/info/define/mode.htm
4. Source: TEDB = Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 22, 2002. Table 2.11 and A14 http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/
EIA = Energy Information Administration, Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the United States 2000, Appendix B, Table B1
Note: commuter rail is defined at http://www.apta.com/info/define/mode.htm. A list of agencies that are considered commuter rail can be found at
http://www.apta.com/stats/modesumm/cragency.htm
5. Source: Canada’s Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc. (VCR Inc.), 2002. An Action Plan for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
P 12. www.vcr-mvr.ca. Please note units are in CO2-eq.

Air Travel factors for flights with different distances [Based on Emission Factors provided by DEFRA (Table 9, Environmental Reporting - Guidelines for Company Reporting on GHG Emissions) for short haul and long haul flights]

Passenger calculations for bus travel based on ridership (DEFRA & US - DOT)
Average miles per gallon, 6.7 per US DOT table VM1, 1999 10 kg CO2/gallon (DEFRA says 9.99, a lower estimate than some others)
Assumed urban AverageAssumed intercity
Miles per gallon: 4 6 6.7 9
Grams CO2/mile, per bus 2500.0 1666.7 1492.5 1111.1
g/ psgr Mile, 5 pasengers 500.0 333.3 298.5 222.2
g/ psgr Mile, 10 pasengers 250.0 166.7 149.3 111.1 shaded cells approximate estimates derived from Btu/passenger mile estimates from US DOT
g/ psgr Mile, 15 pasengers 166.7 111.1 99.5 74.1 inter-city: 48.5 g CO2 per passenger km
g/ psgr Mile, 20 pasengers 125.0 83.3 74.6 55.6 urban: 186.2 g CO2 per passenger km
g/ psgr Mile, 30 pasengers 83.3 55.6 49.8 37.0
g/ psgr km, 5 pasengers 310.7 207.1 185.5 138.1
g/ psgr km, 10 pasengers 155.3 103.6 92.7 69.0
g/ psgr km, 15 pasengers 103.6 69.0 61.8 46.0
g/ psgr km, 20 pasengers 77.7 51.8 46.4 34.5
g/ psgr km, 30 pasengers 51.8 34.5 30.9 23.0

Miles per gallon for typical vehicles, EPA/USA

Other default emission factors are from: IPCC. 1997. Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines
for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Reference Manual
Conversion Factors and General References
For most activities, the reporting worksheets include all the detail needed including default emission factors. The tables
given below are provided as a general resource for those users w ho may wish to develop custom factors, or trace the Home/Summary
derivation of factors given.

Energy and Weight


Volume Conversions
Distance Factors and Conversions
Table 3
Linear Measure: English Unit Metric Units
1 inch = 1000 mil = 2.54 centimeters (cm)
1 foot (ft) = 12 inches = 30.48 cm or 0.3 meters (M)
1 yard = 36 inches = 91.44 cm or 0.91 meters (M)
1 mile = 5280 ft = 1.61 kilometers (km) or 0.87 nautical miles (nm)
1 nautical mile = 1.149 miles = 1.85 kilometers (km)
To convert liters per 100 km to miles per gallon, invert (liters per 100 km/3.785/100*1.6093) [gallons per liter * km per mile]
To convert miles per gallon to liters per 100 km, divide 100 by (mpg/3.785*1.6093)

Converting Energy Units (worksheet)

Table 4
Convert fuel use from To
Megajoule Btus Tonne oil Kilowatt Gigajoule
(MJ) equivalent (toe) hours (kWh) (GJ)
1 x 10 -3
1.05506 x 10 -6 41.86 3.6 x 10 -3
Fuel type
Sample 0.00 240.00 0.00 0.00 0.000253
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000

Sources: International Energy Annual, 1998 http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/iea/convheat.html


BP Group Reporting Guidelines, 2000

Converting Mass Units (worksheet)

Table 5

Convert fuel use from To


Short tons Long tons Pounds (lb) Metric tons
0.91 1.02 4.5359 x 10 -4
Fuel type
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.000000

Sources: International Energy Annual, 1998 http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/iea/convheat.html


BP Group Reporting Guidelines, 2000

Emissions Factors for Electricity

Summary of English to Metric conversions


Transportation Fuels Emissions Factors

Table 9
Emission factors in blue shaded columns are from IPCC, 1999, Volume 2, Section 1, if not otherwise noted. Heating values in blue shaded columns are from API, 2001, if not otherwise noted. Values in other columns is derived arithmatically except as commente d.
Fuel type Lower heat value (derived) (derived) (derived) (derived) (derived) Typical density IEA kg CO2/tonne
kg CO2 / GJ GJ / liter (API, 2001) GJ/ US gallon GJ/Imp Gal GJ/tonne kgCO2/liter kgCO2/US gal lb / gal (API, 2001) Density* (UK DETR)
(IPCC, 1999)
Gasoline / petrol 69.25 0.0344 0.1302 0.1564 43.5674 2.3822 9.0166 6.59 0.739 t/m3 3135
Kerosene 71.45 0.0357 0.1351 0.1623 44.0768 2.5508 9.6546 6.76 3150
Jet Fuel 70.72 (EIA) 44.5900 10.009 0.780 t/m3
Aviation gasoline 69.11 (EIA) 0.0343 0.1299 0.1561 2.3774 8.9984
Diesel 74.01 0.0371 0.1404 0.1687 44.1667 2.7458 10.3927 7.49 0.840 t/m3 3142
Distillate fuel oil No.1 74.01 0.0371 0.1404 0.1687 43.9211 2.7458 10.3927 7.05 3142
Distillate fuel oil No.2 74.01 0.0371 0.1404 0.1687 43.9211 2.7458 10.3927 7.05 3142
Residual Fuel oil#4 74.01 0.0379 0.1435 0.1723 2.8050 10.6168 3142
Residual Fuel oil#5 77.30 0.0397 0.1503 0.1805 39.9535 3.0688 11.6154 8.29 0.930 t/m3 3117
Residual Fuel oil#6 77.30 0.0405 0.1533 0.1841 40.7586 3.1307 11.8495 8.29 0.930 t/m3 3117
LPG 63.20 0.0249 0.0942 0.1132 45.9779 1.5737 5.9564 4.52
Lubricants 73.28 0.0382
Anthracite 98.30 0.02860 GJ / kg 28.6000 1747.30
Bituminous coal 94.53 0.03023 GJ/kg 30.2300 2236.80
Butane 0.0258 4.84 (liquid) 1685.50
Propane 62.99 (EIA) 0.0240 47.3373 4.24 (liquid) 0.507 t/m3
Sub-bituminous coal 96.00
Wood, wood waste 100.44 (EIA) 1730.00
0.039 GJ / standard
Natural gas 56.06 0.673 t/m3
API, cubic meter
2001(for heating
Source: IPCC IEA (UK DETR)
values)
(unless noted) Density:: International Energy Annual, 1998 Technical
http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/iea/convheat.html
Data on Fuel, 1977, J.W. Rose; J.R. Cooper
Coal, GJ per tonne by country
Converting from Miles per Gallon to grams CO2 per km, also Liters per 100 km

Table 11
9.02 kg CO2/gallon gas See transport fuels emissions factors above 2.38 kg CO2/ liter gas
10.39 kg CO2/gallon diesel for CO2/gallon sources 2.75 kg CO2/ liter diesel
A B C D E F G
Miles per Kg CO2 G CO2 Km per Gas Diesel Liters per
gallon per mile per mile mile g CO2/km g CO2/km 100 km
9.016627/A x 1000 col E x= 10.392743235/9.016627
C/D To convert miles per gallon to liters per 100 km, divide 100 by (mpg/3.785*1.6093)
4 2.2542 2254.2 1.61 1401 1,614.5 58.8 Shaded table to left is used as
5 1.8033 1803.3 1.61 1121 1,291.6 47.0 basis of values in worksheet
6 1.5028 1502.8 1.61 934 1,076.3 39.2 for distance traveled by vehicles.
7 1.2881 1288.1 1.61 800 922.6 33.6
8 1.1271 1127.1 1.61 700 807.2 29.4
9 1.0018 1001.8 1.61 623 717.5 26.1
10 0.9017 901.7 1.61 560 645.8 23.5
11 0.8197 819.7 1.61 509 587.1 21.4
12 0.7514 751.4 1.61 467 538.2 19.6
13 0.6936 693.6 1.61 431 496.8 18.1
14 0.6440 644.0 1.61 400 461.3 16.8
15 0.6011 601.1 1.61 374 430.5 15.7
16 0.5635 563.5 1.61 350 403.6 14.7
17 0.5304 530.4 1.61 330 379.9 13.8
18 0.5009 500.9 1.61 311 358.8 13.1
19 0.4746 474.6 1.61 295 339.9 12.4
20 0.4508 450.8 1.61 280 322.9 11.8
21 0.4294 429.4 1.61 267 307.5 11.2
22 0.4098 409.8 1.61 255 293.5 10.7
23 0.3920 392.0 1.61 244 280.8 10.2
24 0.3757 375.7 1.61 233 269.1 9.8
25 0.3607 360.7 1.61 224 258.3 9.4
26 0.3468 346.8 1.61 215 248.4 9.0
27 0.3339 333.9 1.61 208 239.2 8.7
28 0.3220 322.0 1.61 200 230.6 8.4
29 0.3109 310.9 1.61 193 222.7 8.1
30 0.3006 300.6 1.61 187 215.3 7.8
31 0.2909 290.9 1.61 181 208.3 7.6
32 0.2818 281.8 1.61 175 201.8 7.3
33 0.2732 273.2 1.61 170 195.7 7.1
34 0.2652 265.2 1.61 165 189.9 6.9
35 0.2576 257.6 1.61 160 184.5 6.7
36 0.2505 250.5 1.61 156 179.4 6.5
37 0.2437 243.7 1.61 151 174.5 6.4
38 0.2373 237.3 1.61 147 169.9 6.2
39 0.2312 231.2 1.61 144 165.6 6.0
40 0.2254 225.4 1.61 140 161.4 5.9
41 0.2199 219.9 1.61 137 157.5 5.7
42 0.2147 214.7 1.61 133 153.8 5.6
43 0.2097 209.7 1.61 130 150.2 5.5
44 0.2049 204.9 1.61 127 146.8 5.3
45 0.2004 200.4 1.61 125 143.5 5.2
46 0.1960 196.0 1.61 122 140.4 5.1
47 0.1918 191.8 1.61 119 137.4 5.0
48 0.1878 187.8 1.61 117 134.5 4.9
49 0.1840 184.0 1.61 114 131.8 4.8
50 0.1803 180.3 1.61 112 129.2 4.7
51 0.1768 176.8 1.61 110 126.6 4.6
52 0.1734 173.4 1.61 108 124.2 4.5
53 0.1701 170.1 1.61 106 121.8 4.4
54 0.1670 167.0 1.61 104 119.6 4.4
55 0.1639 163.9 1.61 102 117.4 4.3
56 0.1610 161.0 1.61 100 115.3 4.2
57 0.1582 158.2 1.61 98 113.3 4.1
58 0.1555 155.5 1.61 97 111.3 4.1
59 0.1528 152.8 1.61 95 109.5 4.0
60 0.1503 150.3 1.61 93 107.6 3.9
61 0.1478 147.8 1.61 92 105.9 3.9
62 0.1454 145.4 1.61 90 104.2 3.8
63 0.1431 143.1 1.61 89 102.5 3.7
64 0.1409 140.9 1.61 88 100.9 3.7
65 0.1387 138.7 1.61 86 99.4 3.6
66 0.1366 136.6 1.61 85 97.8 3.6
67 0.1346 134.6 1.61 84 96.4 3.5

Miles per Gallon, US cars and small trucks, by year


Table 12 to 15 are from National Transportation Statistics, 2000, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, USA
Table 12 http://www.bts.gov/btsprod/nts/Ch4_web/4-23.htm See also: ...v/ntda/nts/NTS99/data/Chapter4/4-23.html
Average Fuel Efficiency of U.S. Passenger Cars and Light Trucks http://www.bts.gov/ntda/nts/NTS99/ch4index.html
Average U.S. passenger car fuel efficiency, Miles per gallon Transp Energy Data book: http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/tedb20/Index.html
(mpg) (calendar year) 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Passenger car 15.9 17.4 20.2 21.1 21 20.5 20.7 21.1 21.2 21.5 R21.6
21.4
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle 12.2 14.3 16.1 17 17.3 17.4 17.3 17.3 17.2 17.2 R17.2
17.1
New vehicle fuel efficiency (mpg)a (model year)
Light-duty vehicle (passenger cars plus light trucks)
Domestic 21.4 24 23.9 24.4 23.9 24.3 23.7 23.8 24.1 R
23.3 R
23.3 23.7
Imported 28.6 30.3 28.5 28.4 27.9 28.1 27.7 27.9 27.7 27.5 27.6 26.9
Passenger car
R
Domestic 22.6 26.3 26.9 27.3 27 27.8 27.5 27.7 28.3 27.8 28.1 28.2
R
Imported 29.6 31.5 29.9 30.1 29.2 29.6 29.6 30.3 29.7 30.1 30 28.4
Light truck (<8,500 lbs GVWR)
Domestic 16.8 19.6 20.3 20.9 20.5 20.7 20.5 20.3 20.5 R
20.1 20.5 20.4
Imported 24.3 26.5 23 23 22.7 22.8 22.1 21.5 R 22.2
22.1 22.9 22.5
CAFE standards (mpg)a (model year)
Passenger car 20 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5 27.5
Light truck 16.0/14.0 b 19.5 20 20.2 20.2 20.4 20.5 20.6 20.7 20.7 20.7 20.7
a Assumes 55% city and 45% highway-miles. The source calculated average miles per gallon for light-duty vehicles by

taking the reciprocal of the sales-weighted average of gallons per mile. This is called the harmonic average.
b 2 Wheel Drive/4 Wheel Drive. No combined figure available for this year.

KEY: CAFE = Corporate Average Fuel Economy; GVWR = gross vehicle weight rating; mpg = miles per gallon; R = revised; U = data are unavailable
NOTE: The fuel effic iency figures for light duty vehicles represent the sales-weighted harmonic average of the combined passenger car and light truck fuel economies.
SOURCES:
Average U.S. passenger car fuel efficiency:
1980-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.
1995-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.
New vehicle fuel efficiency (based on model year production):
1980-90: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, final fuel economy calculations for the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration,
as cited in Internet site www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/fuelecon/index.html.
1991-99: Manufacturer's preliminary estimates for the U.S. Department of Transportation, as cited in National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Automotive Fuel Economy Program,
Twenty-Fourth Annual Report to Congress, Calendar Year 1999, Internet site www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/fuelecon/index.html.
CAFE standards:
1980-99: U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Automotive Fuel Economy Program, Twenty-Fourth Annual Report to Congress, Calendar Year 1999,
Internet site www.nhtsa.dot.gov/cars/problems/fuelecon/index.html.
Below, Transportation Energy DATA book edition 20 - 2000, Table 8.1, miles per gallon for trucks
1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Trucks with 6+ tires 5.8 6.1 6.2 6.5 6.5 6.7 6.8 6.8 6.8 7 7
Combination trucks 5.3 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.1 6.1

Energy Intensity of Passenger Transportation

Table 13 http://www.bts.gov/btsprod/nts/Ch4_web/4-20.htm Bureau of Transport Statistics, USDept of Transportation

Energy Intensity of Passenger Modes-Ground (Excerpts]


1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 P
AirR
Certificated air carrier
Domestic operations 8,633 10,118 10,185 7,746 5,272 5,047 4,932 4,671 4,564 4,558 4,444 4,382 4,183 4,146 4,123
International operat. 9,199 10,292 10,986 8,465 8,866 5,103 4,546 4,609 4,258 4,099 4,145 4,173 4,108 4,168 4,278
HighwayB Btu per passenger mile
Passenger car 4,495 4,455 4,841 4,743 4,348 4,267 3,812 3,654 3,703 3,785 3,771 3,721 3,702 3,657 3,672
Other2 axle vehicle N N 6,810 6,571 5,709 4,971 4,451 4,277 4,256 4,275 4,345 4,539 4,560 4,563 4,591
Motorcycle a a 2,500 2,345 2,125 1,896 1,990 1,917 1,990 2,063 2,135 2,227 2,250 2,295 2,330
Transit Motor Bus N N N N 2,742 3,396 3,723 3,767 4,038 3,944 4,162 4,155 4,196 4,228 3,729
Amtrak N N N 2,148 2,094 2,064 1,978 2,035 2,023 1,935 1,838 2,148 2,200 2,138
Long distance motor bus 1000 (according to Davis 98, in Chapter 5, DOT Annual report for 1999

a Included in passenger car.


b For 1995 and subsequent years, highway passenger-miles were taken directly from Highway Statistics rather than derived from vehicle-miles and average occupancy, as is the case for 1960-1994.
KEY: Btu = British thermal unit; N = data do not exist; P = preliminary; R = revised.
NOTES: To calculate total Btu, multiply fuel consumed (see tables 4-21, 4-22, 4-24, 4-25) by 135,000 Btu/gallon for air carrier, 125,000 Btu/gallon
for passenger car, other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle, and motorcycle, and 138,700 Btu/gallon for transit motor bus and Amtrak.
SOURCES:
Air:
Certificated air carriers:
Passenger-miles:
1960-99: Air Transport Association, Internet site http://www.air-transport.org/public/industry, as of July 5, 2000.
Fuel consumed:
1960-99: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Internet site http://www.bts.gov/oai/fuel/fuelyearly.html, as of July 5, 2000.
Highway
Passenger car:
1960-94: U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.
1995-98: Ibid. Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.
Other 2-axle 4-tire vehicle:
1970-94: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1995, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.
1995-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.
Motorcycle:
1970-85: Ibid., Highway Statistics Summary to 1985, FHWA-PL-97-009 (Washington, DC: July 1997), table VM-201A.
1990-98: Ibid., Highway Statistics (Washington, DC: Annual issues), table VM-1.
Transit motor bus:
1980-98: American Public Transportation Association, Public Transportation Fact Book (Washington, DC: March 2000), tables 30, 42; and 65.
Amtrak:
1975-98: Amtrak, State and Local Affairs Department, personal communications.

Table 14 http://www.bts.gov/btsprod/nts/Ch4_web/4-21.htm Bureau of Transport Statistics, USDept of Transportation

Energy Intensity of Certificated Air Carriers, All Servicesa


1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 P 1999
Aircraft-miles (millions)
Domestic operations 858 1,134 2,068 1,948 2,523 3,046 3,854 3,854 3,995 4,157 4,380 4,629 4,811 4,911 5,031 5,176
International operations 182 284 475 377 401 415 807 807 904 961 980 998 1,043 1,114 1,191 1,197
Available seat-miles (millions)
Domestic operations 52,220 94,787 213,160 241,282 346,028 445,826 543,638 551,562 557,989 571,489 585,438 603,917 626,389 640,319 649,442 686,940
International operations 13,347 29,533 51,960 61,724 86,507 110,963 171,561 186,468 194,784 200,151 198,893 203,160 208,682 216,913 224,728 230,909
Passenger-miles (millions)
Domestic operations 30,557 51,887 104,147 131,728 200,289 270,584 332,566 338,085 347,931 354,177 378,990 394,708 425,596 442,640 455,799 479,689
International operations 8,306 16,789 27,563 31,082 54,363 65,819 115,389 125,211 130,622 135,508 140,391 145,948 153,067 160,779 163,656 171,908
Fuel consumed (million gallons)
Domestic operations 1,954 3,889 7,857 7,558 9,096 R
10115 R
11506 11,637
R R
11,763 R
11959 R
12476 12,812 R
13187 13,660 13,877 14,402
International operations 566 1,280 2,243 1,949 1,938 R2488 R3940
3,945 R4,120 R4113 R 4311 R4511 R4658
4,964 5,186 5,250
Seats per aircraft
Domestic operations 60.9 83.6 103.1 123.9 137.1 146.4 141.1 143.1 139.7 137.4 133.7 130.5 130.2 131.1 129.1 132.7
International operations 73.3 104.0 109.4 163.7 215.7 245.7 212.6 231.1 215.5 208.7 203 203.6 200.1 194.7 188.7 192.9
Seat-miles per gallon
Domestic operations 27 24 27 32 38 44 47 47 47 48 47 47 48 47 47 48
International operations 24 23 23 32 45 41 47 47 47 49 46 45 45 44 43 44
Energy intensiveness (Btu/passenger-mile) b
Domestic operations 8,633 10,118 10,185 7,746 6,131 5,047 4,671 4,647 4,564 4,558 4,444 4,382 4,183 4,146 4,123 4053
International operations 9,199 10,292 10,986 8,465 4,813 5,103 4,610 4,253 4,258 4,099 4,161 4,173 4,108 4,168 4,278 4,123
Load factor (%)
Domestic operations R58.5
54.7
R
48.9
R
54.6 58R R
60.7 R
61.2 61.3 R
62.4 R
62 R
64.7 R
65.4 R
67.9 69.1 70.2 69.8
International operations R62.2
56.8
R R 53
54.4 R
62.8 R
64.6 R
67.3 67.1 R
67.1 R
67.6 R
70.6 R
71.8 R
73.3 74.1 R
72.8 74.4
a
U.S. owned carriers only. Operation of foreign-o wned carriers in or out of the United States not included.
b
Calculation based on unrounded figures not shown here.
KEY: Btu = British thermal unit; P = preliminary; R = revised
NOTES: Aircraft-miles includes all four air-carrier groups (majors, nationals, large regionals, and medium regionals), scheduled and charter,
passenger, and all-cargo. Fuel consumed includes majors, nationals, and large regionals, scheduled and charter, passenger, and all-cargo.
Passenger-miles includes all four air-carrier groups, scheduled and charter, passenger service only.
International operations include operations outside the United States, including those between the United States and foreign countries and the United States and its territories or possessions.
Heat equivalent factor used for Btu conversion is 135,000 Btu/gallon.
SOURCES:
Aircraft-miles, available seat-miles, passenger-miles, and load factor:
1960-80: Air Transport Association, Internet site http://www.air-transport.org/public/industry, as of July 5, 2000.
1985-98: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Air Carrier Traffic Statistics (Washington DC: Annual December issues).
1960-99: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Office of Airline Information, Internet site http://www.bts.gov/oai/fuel/fuelyearly.html, as of July 5, 2000.
Seats per aircraft, seat-miles per gallon, and energy intensiveness: Derived by calculation.

Comparative Analysis of per passenger mile data provided in US DOT Tables g CO@ / P-km g CO@ / P-km
Btu/ Psgr_Mile Joule/ P_Mile GJ per P_Mile kg CO2/GJ g CO2 /P_Mile g CO@ / P-km lb CO2/P_mile DETR Union Concerned Scientists
Aircraft carriers 1998 x 1055 IPCC, by fuel =IxH = J/1.6093 =j/453.6 g CO@ / P-km pg 57,265, Consumer's Guide to Effective Environmental Choices
Domestic 4,034 4255870 0 71.5 304.3 189.1 0.6709 180long 37.7 These UCS # of riders
International 4,070 4293850 0 71.5 307 190.8 0.6768 110short impacts include Bus Analysis 12
Ground 1997 upstream 6.7 gallons per mile DOPT 98
Passenger car 3,657.00 3858135 0 69.3 267.4 166.2 0.5895 66.6 lifecycle emissions 1280.6 g CO2 per mile
Other2 axle vehicle 4,427.00 4670485 0 73.3 342.5 212.8 0.7551 66.6 106.72 per mile per rider
Motorcycle 2,104.00 2219720 0 69.3 153.8 95.6 0.3391 66.6 UCS 66.31 per km per rider
Transit Motor Bus 3,835.00 4045925 0 74.1 299.7 186.2 0.6607 may havemisplaced a decimal place in footnoot on 265
Amtrak, train 2,200.00 2321000 0 74.1 171.9 106.8 0.3790 60 train 26.6
Long Distance Bus 1,000 1055000 0 74.1 78.1 48.5 0.1722 22.2

Energy Intensity of Rail Freight, Truck Freight

Table 15 http://www.bts.gov/btsprod/nts/Ch4_web/4-25.htm Bureau of Transport Statistics, USDept of Transportation

Energy Intensity of Class I Railroad a Freight Service


1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998
Revenue freight ton-miles (millions) 572,309 697,878 764,809 754,252 918,958 876,984 1,033,969 1,038,875 1,066,781 1,109,309 1,200,701 1,305,688 1,355,975 ### ###
Car-miles (millions) 28,170 29,336 29,890 27,656 29,277 24,920 26,159 25,628 26,128 26,883 28,485 30,383 31,715 31,660 32,657
Tons per car load 44 49 55 61 67 68 67 66 66 64 63 65 67 63 64
Fuel consumed (million gallons) 3,463 3,592 3,545 3,657 3,904 3,110 3,115 2,906 3,005 3,088 3,334 3,480 3,579 3,575 3583
Energy intensiveness (Btu/revenue freight ton-mile) 839 714 643 672 589 492 418 388 391 386 385 370 366 368 361
Energy intensiveness (Btu/car-mile) 17,051 16,983 16,450 18,341 18,495 17,310 16,516 15,727 15,952 15,932 16,234 15,886 15,652 15,662 15218
a
Class I railroads are those that have operating revenues of $255 million or more.
KEY: Btu = British thermal unit NOTE: The heat equivalent factor used for Btu conversion is 138,700 Btu/gallon.
SOURCE: Association of American Railroads, Railroad Facts (Washington, DC: November 2000), pp. 34, 37, and 40.

Converting to other units 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997
Joules per ton mile (@1055/btu) 885423.08 753157.39 678253.7 709475.51 621645.89 518916.69 440838.44 409318.37 412190.64 407336.83 406316.8 390003.72 386223.71 ### Joules per ton mile (@1055/btu)
Gigajoules per ton mile (@ 10^9 per) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Gigajoules per ton mile (@ 10^9 per)
Kg CO2 per ton mile (74.067/gj) 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 kg CO2 per ton mile (74.067/gj)
Kg CO2 per tonne-km 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 kg CO2 per tonne-km
Gallons per ton-mile 0.01 0.01 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 gallons per ton-mile
Ton-miles per gallon 165.3 194.3 215.7 206.2 235.4 282.0 331.9 357.5 355.0 359.2 360.1 375.2 378.9 377.3 ton-miles per gallon
Kj/tonne-km 606.3 515.7 464.4 485.8 425.7 355.3 301.9 280.3 282.3 278.9 278.2 267.1 264.5 265.6 Kj/tonne-km

The following values are drawn from "Comprehensive Truck Size and Weight (TS&W) Study" Phase 1-Synthesis, Working Paper 12, Feb, 1995, by Batelle Team
for Federal Highway Admin and US Dept of Transportation
Study summarized For year Truck Rail Ratio
kJ/tonne-km Rail to Truck Truck to Rail
Bronzinei, pg 6 1972 1,693 496 0.29 3.41
Rose, pg 6 1977 2045 636 0.31 3.22
Transport Canada 1976 1631 396 0.24 4.12
Kahn ? 1357 313 0.23 4.34
US DOT/FRA Rail vs Truck Efficiency: The Relative Fuel Efficiency of Truck Competitive Rail Freight and Truck Operations Compared in a range of corridors (1991)
Container truck Rail Ratio
1. This factor is very general and should only be used if more specific data is not available. Data on specifc a fleet, equipment
ton miles per
type,gallon
company, transportation
contractor, region, national, etc will often be more accurate (fleet-specific is generally most accurate, while national factors
Range: are generally
90-140 least accurate). Steps
300-1000
should be taken to determine appropriate, accurate factors for your specific situation.
Compare at: 110 400 3.64
These
In comparison
comparative
with other
studies
datasuggest
sources,rail
thisis
factor
3 to may
4 times
be near
morethe
efficient
smallerthat
endtrucks
of the spectrum
per ton-mile
of estimates
or tonne-km.
of freight
1
weight-distance factors. US Dept. of Energy
data suggests
Therefore truckthat US economy
freight truck
is estimated freight
at 3.6 wide
times .02kg
kgCO2/tonne-km
CO2/tonne_kmis 2 to 3.5 times larger than .72 kg CO2/tonne-km. (Transportation Energy Data Book, 23rd
Ed., US DOE, Tables 2.14, 2.15, A.6. http://www-cta.ornl.gov/data/Index.html). However, this tool continue to cite this factor as a general estimate based on peer-
reviewed studies.
### Frequently Asked Questions for Mobile Sources Module

### Excel mechanics


###
### When I save the file, I get a message from Excel saying it is in an earlier version. What do I do?
###
### This workbook was deliberately designed as an Excel 95 file, so that users with Excel 95 could use it. You may sav
###
### in any version of Excel (5/95 or higher), but if saved as a Excel 97 document, someone using Excel 95 will not be ab
###
### You may click either the yes or the no buttons on the dialog box that Excel presents when you save the file.
###
### I get a message from Excel saying a cell is protected. What do I do?
###
### Worksheets have been protected to restrict data entry to cells shaded yellow and light blue. If you must unprotect a
###
### go to the Tools menu and select the Protection subcommand. Select the option to unprotect sheet, which toggles.
###
### When the file was distributed, there was no password. Generally, keep worksheets protected to prevent errors.
### To make a cell editable when the sheet is protected, first unprotect the sheet. Then select the cell, and using the Fo
### activate the protection tab on the command dialog box and make sure the Locked option is not checked. (It toggles
### re-protect the worksheet using the Tools Protection Command.
###
### How can I insert rows (without messing up the twisties and the rows they collapse and hide)?
### Select a data entry row you would like to copy, then click on the "Add a Line" button located near the top of each wo
### How can I delete a row?
### We are not expecting users to delete rows. However, if you wish to delete a row, select the entire row and delete it
### Deleting a row will create errors, because it confuses the numbering scheme in hidden column A that is used to disp
### number of rows in each section. To rememdy these errors, after deleting a row, USE THE TOOLS/ MACRO COMM
### and run the FIX ROWS macro before re-protecting the worksheet. This updates the row numbering scheme in hidd
### column A, which is used so the "Twisties" can open and close the correct number of rows in the section below them
### The workbook pauses to calculate each time I add a number. Can I speed this up?
### Under the tools menu, select the Options subcommand, then the tab labeled Calculation. Set calculation to manua
### turns off Excel's default setting which is to recalculate the entire sheet with every change. Enter as much data as yo
### press on the F9 button to calculate the entire worksheet at once.
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Module

could use it. You may save it


using Excel 95 will not be able to open it.
n you save the file.

ue. If you must unprotect a worksheet,


otect sheet, which toggles.
ected to prevent errors.
ct the cell, and using the Format Cell command
is not checked. (It toggles). Finally,

ted near the top of each worksheet page.

the entire row and delete it using the Edit menu delete command.
olumn A that is used to display and collapse the appropriate
E TOOLS/ MACRO COMMAND
numbering scheme in hidden
s in the section below them.

. Set calculation to manual- this


. Enter as much data as you like, then
Macros

MACROS PAGE

This page contains macros (programs)


automatethat
features of this workbook.
Do not modify this page! Last revised 10/10/2001 David Cross 203-776-2358 ext 225
Welcome Auto Open macro, runs when file opens
#MACRO?
#MACRO? Assigns address of worksheet to variable name
#MACRO? Assigns name of workbook to variable name
#MACRO? gets pathway name of macro file
Err:502 Checks to see if in DOS or Mac environment
#MACRO? Sets file separator for MAC
#MACRO? skips to rest of welcome Macro
Err:502 sets proper DOS name
turns off calculation?
=OPTIONS.CALCULATION(3,,,0.001,,FALSE)
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO? these rows set screen to be viewable on most computers
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO? to make sure column A has the right numbers so that
#MACRO? twisties and totals reference correct rows.

Addrow Adds a row above the row


#MACRO? the calling button is on
=ECHO(FALSE)
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO? get reference of cell
#MACRO? get location of "C"
#MACRO? get row
#MACRO?

Page 84
Macros

#MACRO?
#MACRO? copy down repeated material from above
#MACRO?
#MACRO? correct row numbering scheme in column A
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

ShowCloseblock opens and closes "twisty" sections


#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO? get reference of cell
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO? get rows to do
#MACRO? get status of section
#MACRO? if open, close, otherwise open
Close section
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
install closed button
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
Open section
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
install closed button
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Fix_Sheets
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO? turn off screen refresh

Page 85
Macros

#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Fix_rows
#MACRO? Fixes row numbering so twisty boxes
#MACRO? select proper number of rows, also, totals work
#MACRO? correct row numbering scheme in column A
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Go_Home
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Go_Introduction
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Go_D1_Road
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Go_Reference
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Go_FAQ
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Go_D1_air
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Go_D1_boat

Page 86
Macros

#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Go_D1_rail
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Go_In2_Distance
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Go_In2_Rail
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Go_In2_Boat
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Go_In2_Air
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Add_Data_Row
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
0
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO? what shade is it?
0
#MACRO?
#MACRO? #MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
Alert here
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

get_color

Page 87
Macros

#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

zSee_full_size
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO? turn off screen refresh
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?
#MACRO?

Page 88
Macros

Page 89
Macros

Page 90
Macros

Page 91
Macros

Page 92
Macros

Page 93
Version 1.0 October 2001

Version 1.1 September 2003


Fixed Macros leading from introduction to calculation pages.

Version 1.2 October 2003


Added passenger train emission factors based on distance and type of service
such as intercity, commuter, and subway. These are particularly applicable to
commuting emission estimates.

Version 1.3 January 2005


Updated Table 5.4 in the guidance to correct the "Litres fuel per km" values.