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Shall

"Shall" is most commonly used with "I" or "we" in the following functions: Shall si usa alla prima persona singolare e plurale con le seguenti funzioni: 1. proposal or suggestions/ fare proposte o dare suggerimenti: Shall we go to the park? Andiamo al parco? Shall I help you? Ti aiuto? 2. offering to do something/ offrirsi di fare qualcosa: It is cold, shall I close the window? Fa freddo, devo chiudere la finestra? Shall I turn off the radio? Spengo la radio? (Vuoi che spenga la radio?) 3. asking for some advice/ Chiedere un parere o un consiglio: What shall I do? Che cosa devo fare? (che cosa faccio?) Where shall I put it? Dove lo metto? Where shall I go? Dove vado? (Dove devo andare?) In formal English, the use of "shall" to describe future events often expresses inevitability or predestination. Nellinglese formale britannico Shall usato per il futuro solo per esprimere qualcosa inevitabile o predestinazione He shall become our next king. PREDESTINATION I'm afraid Mr. Smith shall become our new director. INEVITABILITY

Should
"Should" is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation. Should corrisponde al condizionale di dovere e viene usato per esprimere consiglio, raccomandazione, rimprovero, supposizione. 1. to make recommendations or give advice and suggestions: Per dare suggerimenti, consigli e raccomandazioni: She should give up smoking. Dovrebbe smettere di fumare. You should go to the dentist. Dovresti andare dal dentista. Mary shouldn't smoke so much. It's not good for her health. Mary non dovrebbe fumare tanto, non fa bene alla sua salute. When you go to Milan, you should visit the Cathedral. recommendation You should focus more on your family and less on work. advice I really should be at school by 8:00. obligation By now, they should already be at home. Expectation Lucy shouldn't have smoked so much. That's what caused her illness.

2. to reproach: Per fare un rimprovero You shouldnt behave like that. Non dovresti comportarti cos You shouldnt have eaten so much. Non avresti dovuto mangiare tanto. 3. to suppose: Per fare una supposizione The match should start in a few minutes. La partita dovrebbe iniziare tra pochi minuti.

Ought to
"Ought to" is the only modal followed by the preposition to, it is used to advise or make recommendations, anyway it expresses the same functions as should but in a more formal way. Ought to lunico modale a essere seguito dalla preposizione to. Viene usato per le stesse funzioni di should, ma in un modo pi formale. E meno usato di should. You ought to give up smoking. recommendation Dovresti smettere di fumare. You ought to take an aspirin. Dovresti prendere unaspirina.

*Interactive Exercises
http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/should/exercise1.swf http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/should/exercise2.swf http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/should/exercise3.swf http://www.englishgrammarsecrets.com/should/exercise4.swf http://www.englishpage.com/modals/interactivemodal3.htm http://www.aulafacil.com/CursoIngles/Ejercicios45.htm http://www.eclecticenglish.com/grammar/Should1B.html http://www.englishpage.com/modals/interactivemodal3.htm http://www.englishpage.com/modals/interactivemodal5.htm

*Please note the videos:


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GqH21LEmfbQ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NUMLDz-Cs7A http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9nR3-Zo4e7s http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QJP72OwZZPM