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US History Regents Review Government Beginnings Documents Mayflower Compact First written document expressing commitment to democratic government

ent First governing document in America, written by the pilgrims on the Mayflower. Served as the foundation for democratic structure for the settlers (like a blueprint) Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1638) First written constitution that establishes a democratic government An organized government created and written in Connecticut. Colonial Representation Government New England Town Meeting Leader of colonies met out towns to have meetings to discuss topics Example of direct democracy direct voice in affairs Virginia House of Burgesses Elected legislative assembly of Virginia (1619) Example of indirect democracy elect people to represent you Protest to British Rule Boston Tea Party (1773) Movement led by the Sons of Liberty to revolt against tea tax The Sons of Liberty, led by Samuel Adams who was a propaganda expert, wanted to cut ties with Britain. Stamp Act congress (1765) A group of delegates from 9 colonies that come to discuss the Stamp Act First example of colonies joining together Sons and Daughters of Liberty Rebellious group of colonist Common Sense by Thomas Paine (1776) Written in 1776 that influence people to revolt again Britain Illogical for small island nation to control the colonies from across the Atlantic Ocean Helped undecided colonists to support the revolution First and Second Continental Congress (1774 and 1775) Meeting of delegates from all 13 colonies in Philadelphia to discuss, establish, and determine about the departure from Britain 2nd Continental Congress declared independence Declaration of Independence (1776) Written by Thomas Jefferson declaring independence Influence by Enlightenment thinker Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness Albany Plan of Union (1754) 1st attempt to unite against Britain Initial Attempt at Government Articles of Confederation (1777) Weakness of the Articles Weak federal government power in the hands of the state No national leader lack of president/executive branch No national army each state has their own military No national currency each state has different money Need unanimous vote by 13 states to make law Strength of Articles Unified the country together Land Ordinance of 1784 Set requirements for statehood Northwest Ordinance of 1787

Barred slavery from northwest part of the country Checks and Balances (Examples) Executive over Legislative Tonkin Gulf Resolution (1964) President given a blank check by Congress to fight the Vietnam War Congress gave up its declaration of war power Led to War Power Act (1973) President Johnsons Vetoes of Radical Republicans Reconstruction Plans (1865-1869) Battle ensued after Lincoln assassination Led to congressional overrides and Johnson Impeachment Executive over Judicial Indian Removal Policy Marshall decision in Worcester vs. Georgia (1832) Indian removal policy illegal President Jackson did not enforce decision policy continued Failed attempt of Court packing by FDR Supreme Court declares some New Deal programs unconstitutional FDR attempts to pack the court Legislative over Executive Defeat if Versailles Treaty (1919) Woodrow Wilsons League of Nations 14 points defeated Henry Cabot Lodge Senator who led isolationist stance Radical Republicans over President Johnson (1865-1869) Battle ensued after Lincoln assassination Led to congressional overrides and Johnson impeachment War Power Act (1973) Congress gave up its declaration of war power with Tonkin Gulf Resolution Law an attempt to take back its constitutional power Congressional permission to sending US troops aboard 48 hours/60 days Override of Nixon veto Impeachment of Bill Clinton (1998) Judicial over Executive/Legislative Examples of Judicial Review Brown Decision overturns Plessy Decision Federalism the system of government in which powers are divided between a central authority and local subdivisions (national vs. state government) National Government Delegated Powers Maintain army and navy Declare war Coin money Regulate trade between states and with foreign nation Make all laws necessary for carrying out delegated powers National and State Government Concurrent Powers Enforce law Establish courts Borrow money Protect the safety of the people Build roads Collect taxes State Government Reserved Powers Conduct elections Establish schools Regulate businesses within a state

Establish local governments Regulate marriages Assume other powers not given to the national government or denied to the states Historical examples Marshall Court Decisions Established Federal Superiority Marbury vs. Madison(1803) McCulloch vs. Maryland(1819) Gibbons vs. Ogden(1824) Civil War Sectionalism vs. Nationalism Right of the south to protect their sectional interests Slavery Other sectional issue: Tariffs National Banks Immigration Internal improvements Jim Crow System Southern states reaction to 13th, 14th, and 15th amendment Includes segregation: Poll taxes Literacy tests Grandfather clause Little Rock 9 Enforcement of brown decision Integration of public school Arkansas governor claims states rights President Eisenhower enforces decision with military troops Bush vs. Gore 2000 Election Disputed Florida results Hanging Chads Federal supreme court overrules state court over recount Three branches of government Check one another to prevent too much power from falling into the hands of any one part of government Executive President Powers Enforce laws Commander in Chief Recommends bills to Congress Check over Legislative Veto laws Check over Judicial Appoint judges Failure to enforce decisions Legislative Congress Senate House of Representative Power Make laws Spending bills Declares war Approves treaties Check over Executive

Overrides vetoes Approves appointments Impeachments Check over Judicial Reject appointments Propose amendments to overturn court decisions Judicial Supreme Court and lower federal courts Power Explains and interpret laws Judicial Review Check over Executive Executive actions declared unconstitutional Check over Legislative Judicial review laws declared unconstitutional Bill of Rights and Constitutional Amendments Bill of Rights 1st Amendment Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, and Petition to government 2nd Amendment Rights to bear arms 3rd Amendment Quartering of troops 4th Amendment Unreasonable search and seizure 5th Amendment Right to Life, Liberty, and Property Wartime Clause; Double jeopardy; self-incrimination th Amendment 6 Protection in Criminal Trials Speedy Trials; Jury; Informed of accusations; Right to lawyer 8th Amendment Excessive Bails, Fines, and Punishments Constitutional Amendments Civil War and Reconstruction Amendments 13th Abolition of slavery (1865) 14th Equal protection clause (1868) 15th Voting rights (1870) Progressive Era and Reaction to Political Corruption 17th Direct election of senators Temperance Movement 1920s Culture Legislating Morality 18th Alcohol Prohibition (1919) 21st Prohibition Repealed (1933) Womens Movement 19th Womens Suffrage (19200 Civil Rights Movement 24th Elimination of Poll Tax (1964) (only for federal elections) Vietnam War/Military Draft 26th Lowered voting age from 21 to 18 (1971) Other Amendment 11th Amendment (1795) Limit the ability of a person to sue state Allows a person to sue if a state denies their rights

12th Amendment (1804) Electors to the Electoral College are to cast one vote for President and separate vote for Vice President The House elects the President of no candidate gets an electoral majority (each state with one vote) The Senate elects the Vice President of no candidate gets an electoral majority 14th Amendment (1868) Equal Protection Law Declares that all citizens are guaranteed equal treatment and protection under the law. 16th Amendment (1913) Grants Congress the power to collect taxes on income. Money collected does not have to be reapportioned to states based on population, 20th Amendment (1933) President and Vice President are sworn into office on January 20th (moved from March 4th) (lame-duck name for president leaving) 22nd Amendment (1951) No person may serve as President more than twice 23rd Amendment (1961) Grants Washington DC three electoral votes. 25th Amendment (1967) Establishes a clearer succession to the presidency and vice presidency 27th Amendment (1992) Congressional pay raises do not take effect until after the next Congressional election. Proposed Amendments Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) Proposed a guarantee of equal rights for women Flag Burning Proposed to outlaw the burning of the American flag Constitutional Flexibility (Supreme Court Cases) Establishment of Judicial review Marbury vs. Madison (1803) Case of the midnight judges John Adams, on his last day in office, names justices to federal courts in DC. However Jefferson did not allow it. Marbury was one of the justices that Adams appointed sued to the Supreme Court. Set the power of judicial review (power to check legislative branch). Marshall Court decisions Federal Superiority Marbury vs. Madison (1803) Establishment of Judicial review Federal court can declare a state law unconstitutional McCulloch vs. Maryland (1819) Federal supremacy State government cannot tax a federal agency Taxes were imposed on banks that were not chartered by the state Bank notes could not be given out unless written on stamped paper. Does state have power to tax federal institution? Bank of US has power to run in states but states have no power to tax them. Gibbons vs. Ogden (1824) Interstate government is controlled by the federal government State allow them to create business, operating steamships on Hudson River. Ogden had a license from NY and Gibbons had a license from Congress. Final decision was federal license over powered local Dred Scott decision (1857) Legality of Slavery Dred Scott vs. Sandford (1857) Dred Scott as a slave was property and could not sue Dred Scott was not free could not take away his masters right to property Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional Slavery now legal everywhere Educational Equality

Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896) Separate is Equal Segregation is not a violation of equal protection (14th Amendment) Plessy was arrested for sitting in the white section Ferguson argued that state have right to use these power. Have right to say that African Americans were inferior. Brown vs. Broad of Education (1954) Separate is not equal Segregation is a violation of equal protection (14th Amendment) Desegregation of Schools Individual Rights Wartime clause of 5th amendment Schenck vs. US (1919) World War I Individual rights could be taken away under the Clear and Present Danger Doctrine Argued that the case violated his 1st amendment Supreme Court says he does not have the write because of wartime clause Korematsu vs. US (1944) World War II Japanese Internment After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Japanese descendants were forced into concentration camps. Violation of the 14th amendment. Supreme Court supported Congress on this act. Individual Rights Rights of the Accused Gideon vs. Wainwright(1963) 6th Amendment Right to lawyer Miranda vs. Arizona(1966) Miranda Rights You have the right to remain silent. You have right to an attorney. Anything you say can be used against you in a court of law. Miranda admits to his crimes, but was not notified that it was going to be used in court. Any interrogation can be used in trial only if notified and ask by attorney Freedom of the Press Zenger Trial (1735) Colonial Times Influence on the 1st Amendment New York Times vs. US (1971) Vietnam War Pentagon Papers Abortion Roe vs. Wade (1973) Right of privacy Elections Bush vs. Gore (2000) Court determines election results Federal court overturns state court decision Executive Privilege Nixon vs. US (1971) Court determines that president Nixon cannot claim executive privilege Must turn over Watergate tapes New Deal Declaration of New Deal Laws (unconstitutional) Schechter Poultry vs. US NRA declared unconstitutional

US vs. Butler AAA declared unconstitutional Led to court packing attempt by FDR. Rights of Students in School Tinker vs. Des Moines (1969) School ordered to readmit students who had been suspended for wearing black arm bands in protest of the Vietnam War. New Jersey vs. TLO (1985) Search of a high school students locker for drugs ruled legal by the Supreme Court 14th amendment issue Veronia School District vs. Acton (1995) Random drug testing of high school athletes ruled legal by the Supreme Court 14th Amendment issue Reform Movement Womens Reform Seneca Falls Convention (1848) Declaration of rights and sentiments Susan B Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton 19th Amendment (1920) Rosie the riveter World War II 1950s Back to traditional role of homemaker (June Cleaver) (Father knows best) 1960s/1970s Feminist Movement Betty Friedan NOW (National Organization for Women) Defeat of Era Equal Rights Amendment (Phyllis Schlafly) Equal Pay = Equal Work Abortion Rights Roe vs. Wade (1973) African American Abolition Movement Fight to end slavery Booker T Washington vs. WEB Dubois Gradual vs. Immediate Rights How to deal with Jim Crow 1940s Integration of Baseball Jackie Robinson Desegregation of armed forces (WWII) President Truman Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) Separate is NOT equal Judicial Review which overturns Plessy vs. Ferguson Little Rock Nine President Eisenhower sends federal troops (19570 Martin Luther King Jr. Nonviolence/Civil Disobedience March on Washington (19630 Rosa Park Montgomery bus boycott Malcolm X

By any means necessary Black Power Legislation Civil Right Act (1964) Outlaws segregation in public facilities Voting Rights Act (1965) Literacy test illegal 24th Amendment (1965) Elimination of poll taxes

Latinos Caesar Chavez Unionize migrant farm workers Persons with Disabilities Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) Native Americans Indian Removal Act (1870s) Trail of Tears Andrew Jackson Dawes Act (1887) American government trying to Americanize Native Americans Populist Movement Farmers Response to industrialization Monopolies/Trusts Grange/Farmers Alliance First attempt by farmers to organize Railroads Freight rates Banks Interest rates Progressive Movement Response to industrialization Monopolies/Trusts Robber barons Carnegie/Rockefeller/JP Morgan Muckrakers Upton Sinclair Ida Tarbell Jacob Riis Legislation Interstate Commerce Act (1887) Government regulation of railroads Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) Trust busting Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) Meat Inspection Act (1906) Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) Federal Reserve Act (1914) Theodore Roosevelt Trust busting William H Taft Woodrow Wilson Attacks triple wall of privilege banks/monopolies/tariffs

New Deal Cause of Depression WWI/Stock Speculation Overproduction Dust bowl Effects of Depression Bank Failures/Unemployment President Herbert Hoover Rugged Individualism New Deal FDR Relief Bank Holiday Job Creation - RWA; CCC; WPA groups that created jobs Recovery AAA Stop agricultural overproduction Social Security Act Glass-Steall Act FDIC Wagner Act Unions given the legal right to collective bargaining Dust Bowl Part of the Midwest hit hard by severe drought Court Packing Plan Great Society/War on Poverty Influence of Michael Harringtons Book Lyndon B Johnson Healthcare Education Civil Rights Act (1964) Voting Rights Act (1965) 24th Amendment (1965) Wars and Foreign Policy Civil War (1860-1865) Dispute between Sectionalism vs. Nationalism South Slavery King Cotton Main sectional issue, brought on by Manifest Destiny and Extension of slavery Influence of Uncle Toms Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe Post-war Reconstruction Presidents Lincoln and Johnson Plans vs. Radical Republicans Plans Make it easy for south to be readmitted into the country vs. Military occupation and punish the south for Civil War Manifest Destiny Expansion and Imperialism Gods will to expand from Atlantic Ocean to Pacific Ocean Louisiana Purchase Doubled the size of the US Lewis and Clark Expedition Mexican American War Acquisition of new territory Slavery in new territory Future of slavery in new territory? Cause of Civil War Indian Removal Act Trail of Tears Andrew Jackson Supported by poor white landless farmers

Controversial Act Annexation of Territories in the Pacific Ocean Hawaii and Philippines Foreign Policy with Latin America Spanish American War Yellow Journalism (Propaganda) Hearst and Pulitzer Remember the Main; Beginning of US Imperialism Overseas Puerto Rico; Philippines; Cuba Big Stick Policy President Theodore Roosevelt US as World Policeman US uses military power to dictate policy Roosevelt Corollary (negotiate peacefully yet use military if necessary) to the Monroe Doctrine (if Europe mess with North America they fight back) US uses economic power to dictate policy Neutrality and Isolationism Washingtons proclamation of neutrality (1976) Set historical precedent Monroe Doctrine (1823) Big bark from a small dog description of Monroe and US US as protector of the Western Hemisphere World War I Beginning and end of war return to normalcy Defeat of Versailles Fourteen Points International Organization Spreading Democracy Do not want to join league of nations Nativism Rise of KKK and immigration restriction quotas World War II Beginnings Neutrality Acts Collective Security World War I (1917-1918) (started due to the assassination of Archduke of Austria-Hungary Neutrality At the beginning of the war Wilson he kept us out of war German Submarine/U-boat Warfare sinking the Lusitania Wilsons Crusade Make the World Safe for Democracy Wilsons Fourteen Points Defeat of Versailles Return to Neutrality Never joined League of Nations Henry Cabot Lodge Isolationist Senate leader Post-War Failure to ratify Versailles Treaty Failure to join the League of Nations Back to isolationist foreign policy World War II (1941-1945) (started due to the raise of Nazism in Germany) Rise of totalitarian governments Fascism Hitler in Germany and Mussolini in Italy Neutrality from 1939-1941 Cash N Carry/ Lend-Lease Policy in 1941 Program that US supplied Allies with materials Progression from Neutrality to Involvement

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Pearl Harbor Arsenal of Democracy War time economic mobilization Women Rosie the Riveter Japanese-Americans Internment and Korematsu vs. US African-Americans Great Migration Atomic Bomb Beginning of Cold War and Containment Policy Commitment to Collective Security United Nations home in New York City Formation of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) Peacekeeping Missions Former Yugoslavia Ethnic Cleansing Foreign Policy in the Middle East Involvement in Middle East Peace Process Battle for Holy Land Israel vs. Neighboring Muslim nations Camp David Accords President Jimmy Carter Land for Peace Egypt is the first Muslim country to recognize Israels right to exist in exchange for land Israel claimed after Arab-Israeli War. Persian Gulf Wars I (1990) II (2003) Iraq leader Saddam Hussein invades the oil-rich country of Kuwait Fear of invasion into Saudi Arabia Effect on worlds oil supply. Operation Desert Storm World joins together to stop Hussein from getting control of the worlds oil supply Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003) War on Terrorism, Oil, Weapons of Mass Destruction? Defeat of Hussein Coalition of Nations War of technology no ground troops Containment (1945-1990) Policy to fight Cold War Europe Truman Doctrine $600 million to Greece and Turkey Marshall Plan $12 billion to Western Europe Berlin Airlift NATO Asia Korean War (1950-1953) Korea divided into two parts along the 38th parallel North influenced by the USSR South influenced by the US President Truman Fired General MacArthur from his command President Commander-in-Chief Civilian control of military Containment Successful (DMZ) Vietnam War (1965-1975) Vietnam divided into two parts North led by Ho Chi Minh (Communist)

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South brutal dictatorship but US supports government because anti-communist Tonkin Gulf resolution US divided Hawkes vs. Doves Containment unsuccessful 1st televised war and only war in which US was defeated Latin America Alliance for progress $$$ to stop spread of Communism Similar to Marshall Plan in Europe and Eisenhower Doctrine in the Middle East Cuba Castro Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile Crisis 13 days trade embargo Back Home McCarthyism HUAC Blacklisting Dtente (relaxation or ease of tension between US and USSR) Warming up of Cold War tension Acceptance of MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) Arms race Nixons visit to communist USSR and China Pre-emption Bush Doctrine Post 9/11 Attack before being attacked Respond to attacks by invasion of Afghanistan Islamic fundamentalist Taliban government allows Osama bin Laden and terrorist Al Qaeda network to live and train there 1st example operation Iraqi Freedom Saddam Hussein defeated Economic Foreign Policy Open Door Policy US opens up China to foreign trade Opening up of Japan Commodore Matthew Perry Tariffs Definition tax on imported good High tariffs = Economic nationalism Isolationist foreign policy Protection of American goods Limited competition/ help monopolies and trust Free trade Decrease tariffs Promote competition/lowers prices on consumer goods NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement) Goal of a free trade zone between US-Canada-Mexico Signed during Clintons presidency Positive for United States? Jobs loss to Mexico-cheap labor Geography The Atlantic and Pacific Ocean (Borders and Protectors) Influenced the US foreign policy of isolation and neutrality Location of US allowed for it to stay away from European affairs Washingtons Proclamation of Neutrality (Farewell Address) US should stay clear of foreign alliances involvement reserved for trades Monroe Doctrine Threats to try and keep European colonists out of Western Hemisphere US Turfs Only way Europeans are a threat is if they are close World War I and World War II

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US can stay out of action because of geographic protection World War I fighting began in 1914, US did not enter until 1917 German Submarine warfare (U-boats) World War II fighting began in 1939, US did not enter until Dec. 1941 Pearl Harbor Sectionalism leading to Civil War Geography difference in North and South = Economic Difference South Southern geography Agrarian, farming society King Cotton Slavery is crucial to profitability of cotton and plantation system South has good condition for farming. South develops economy based on farming and slavery. Invention of the cotton gin makes cotton manufacturing more profitable. Industrial Revolution leads to growing textile industry that needs cotton to make cloth (mass production). Cotton becomes the most valuable product in the South. Rich landowners create huge plantations, relying on slave labor to grow cotton. North Factory builders flocked to North particularly New England Factory System Lowe; first industrial city Abundant supply of iron, coal, and swiftly flowing rivers used for water power By 1860 70% of national manufacturing was located in the North Transportation Revolution connect northern markets to western farmlands Steam power, roads, canals (Erie Canal in New York connected from Great Lakes to Hudson which then connects to Mississippi and Atlantic), railroads South wanted to protect its local interest SLAVERY claims states rights North threaten of making slavery illegal or stop expansion of slavery which leads to Southern secession (South Carolina in 1860) and Civil war Louisiana Purchase (1803) Purchased by Thomas Jefferson from France for $15 million US now controlled the Mississippi River and New Orleans which was a major trading port Doubled the size of the US Explored by Lewis and Clark expedition in 1804 Much of new territory became known as the Great Plains Midwest Movement of the American Population From rural areas (farms) to urban areas (cities) 1860-1920 From urban areas (cities) to suburbs 1950s-1960s Influence of Eisenhower interstate highway system that connects suburbs to cities which made commuting to work easier Needs to build connection between east and west coast Long time to get from east coast to west coast Important for trade and military preparedness US supported revolution in Panama to build canal Economics Laissez Faire When government does not interfere with economy Active Government When government does interfere with economy Laissez-Faire Time 1790s 1862 Active Government Hamiltons financial plan Creation of a National Bank to control the countrys money supply Settlement of west Manifest Destiny Homestead Act government provides free land to

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settlers Government supports building of Transcontinental Railroad Industrialization of America Robber Barons Carnegie Rockefeller No rules against Monopolies & Trust 1850s-1900

1890-1920

1917-1918 Roaring Twenties Stock Speculation Government hands off The Great Depression President Hoovers rugged individualism people have the responsibility to pick themselves up 1920-1929 1929-1932 1933-1941 1941-1945

Populist / Progressive Movements Muckrakers writes about robber barons President Teddy Roosevelt Trust busting President Woodrow Wilson creates Federal Reserve System Sherman/Clayton Anti-trust Laws Wartime Economy during WWI focus on supporting war effort

1963-1968

FDRs New Deal Government creates programs to help support them Social Security WPA PWA CCC Wartime Economy during WWII focus on supporting the war effort Arsenal of Democracy GI Bill of Rights (1944) support war veterans by giving work and education opportunity Johnsons Great Society (1960) Baby boomers, population growth after WWI War on Poverty Medicare Title I Education Lunch Forms

Nixons New Federalism believes that government deals with its own Abandon Great Society Reganomics cut tax from the rich so that they could stimulate economy Tax cuts to stimulate business- increase defense spending

1970s 1980-1988

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