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THE CACCETTAH

AGGKVIST CONJECTURE
Adrian Bondy
Journ

ee en hommage
`
a Yahya Hamidoune
UPMC, Paris, March 29, 2011
Yahya Hamidoune
CAGLS
(d, g)-Cage -mac-t d-rcuar rajh ot irth g
Lowcr ound on ordcr ot a (d, g)-cac
irth g 2r ordcr
2(d1)
r
2
d2
irth g 2r + 1 ordcr
d(d1)
r
2
d2
Lxamjc- with cquaity
lctcr-cn, Lcawood, Coxctcr-Tuttc, Loman-Sincton . . .
Oriented Graph no ooj-, jarac arc- or dircctcd 2-cycc-
\c con-idcr ony oricntcd rajh-
LllLCTLL CAGLS
Directed (d, g)-cage
-mac-t d-dircuar dirajh ot dircctcd irth g
Behzad-Chartrand-Wall Conjecture 1970
For all d 1 and g 2, the order of a directed (d, g)-cage is
d(g 1) + 1
Example
thc dth jowcr ot a dircctcd cycc ot cnth d(g 1) + 1
Conjectured directed (!, !)-cage
Conjectured directed (!, !)-cage
Conjectured directed (!, !)-cage
Conjectured directed (!, !)-cage
Conjectured directed (!, !)-cage
CO`lOSlTlO`S
Thc Lchzad-Chartrand-\a Con,ccturc woud imjy that directed
cages of girth g are closed under composition.
Example g !
Conjectured directed (`, !)-cage
lctormuation
Behzad-Chartrand-Wall Conjecture 1970
Every d-diregular digraph on n vertices has a directed cycle of
length at most n/d
\LlTLX-TlA`SlTl\L GlAlLS
Hamidoune
The Behzad-Chartrand-Wall Conjecture is true for vertex-
transitive digraphs.
\LlTLX-TlA`SlTl\L GlAlLS
Hamidoune
The Behzad-Chartrand-Wall Conjecture is true for vertex-
transitive digraphs.
Mader
In a d-diregular vertex-transitive digraph, there are d directed
cycles C
1
, . . . , C
d
passing through a common vertex, any two
meeting only in that vertex.
\LlTLX-TlA`SlTl\L GlAlLS
So
d

i1
|V (C
i
)| n + d 1
Onc ot thc cycc- C
i
i- thcrctorc ot cnth at mo-t
n + d 1
d

n
d

Thu- thc Lchzad-Chartrand-\a Con,ccturc i- truc tor vcrtcx-


tran-itivc rajh-
\LlTLX-TlA`SlTl\L GlAlLS
Mader
In a d-diregular vertex-transitive digraph, there are d directed
cycles C
1
, . . . , C
d
passing through a common vertex, any two
meeting only in that vertex.
Hamidoune
Short jroot ot `adcr- thcorcm
`LAlLY LlS!Ol`T LllLCTLL CYCLLS
Hoang-Reed Conjecture 1987
In a d-diregular digraph, there are d directed cycles C
1
, . . . , C
d
such that C
j
meets
j1
i1
C
i
in at most one vertex, 1 < j d
forest of d directed cycles
A- ctorc, onc ot thc-c cycc- woud c ot cnth at mo-t
n
d

Question l- thcrc a -tar ot -uch cycc-


Mader `ot it d S
Question l- thcrc a incar torc-t ot -uch cycc-
Mader No
The composition

C
d
|

C
d1
| is d-regular (in fact, vertex-
transitive) but contains no path of d directed cycles, cach cycc
(ut thc r-t) mcctin thc jrcccdin onc in cxacty onc vcrtcx
d !
no path of four directed cycles
d !
no path of four directed cycles
d !
no path of four directed cycles
llLSCllLLL `l`l`` OTLLGlLL
Caccetta-Haggkvist Conjecture 1978
Every digraph on n vertices with minimum outdegree d has a
directed cycle of length at most n/d
Caccetta and H

aggkvist d 2
Hamidoune d 3
Ho

ang and Reed d !, `


Shen d

n/2
Chv

atal and Szemer

edi
Every digraph on n vertices with minimum outdegree d has a
directed cycle of length at most 2n/d.
Proof by Induction on n:
v
d d
N

(v) N
+
(v)
Proof by Induction on n:
v
d d
N

(v) N
+
(v) N

(v)
Proof by Induction on n:
v
d d
N

(v) N
+
(v) N

(v)
Proof by Induction on n:
v
d d
N

(v) N
+
(v) N

(v)
Proof by Induction on n:
v
d d
N

(v) N
+
(v) N

(v)
Proof by Induction on n:
v
d d
N

(v) N
+
(v) N

(v)
Chv

atal and Szemer

edi
Every digraph on n vertices with minimum outdegree d has a
directed cycle of length at most (n/d) + 2`00
Shen
Every digraph on n vertices with minimum outdegree d has a
directed cycle of length at most (n/d) + 3
what does this say when d n/3
Every digraph on n vertices with minimum outdegree n/3 has
a directed cycle of length at most o
but the bound in the CaccettaH

aggkvist Conjec-
ture is n/d 3 '
Caccetta-Haggkvist Conjecture for triangles
Every digraph on n vertices with minimum outdegree n/3
has a directed triangle
SLCO`L `LlGLLOlLOOLS
Seymours Second Neighbourhood Conjecture 1990
Every digraph (without directed 2-cycles) has a vertex with at
least as many second outneighbours as rst outneighbours
v
N
+
(v) N
++
(v)
Thc Sccond `cihourhood Con,ccturc imjic- thc trianc ca-c
d

n
3

ot thc Lchzad-Chartrand-\a Con,ccturc


v
d d
d
N

(v) N
+
(v) N
++
(v)
lt thcrc i- no dircctcd trianc
n 3d + 1
Fisher
The Second Neighbourhood Conjecture is true for tournaments.
lroot y Havet and Thomass

e u-in mcdian ordcr-


`cdian ordcr linear order v
1
, v
2
, . . . , v
n
maximizing
|{(v
i
, v
j
) i < j}|
v
1
v
i
v
j
v
n
lrojcrty ot mcdian ordcr-
For any i < j, vertex v
j
is dominated by at least half of the
vertices v
i
, v
i+1
, . . . , v
j1
.
v
1
v
i
v
j
v
n
lt not, movc v
j
ctorc v
i

Caim |N
++
(v
n
)| |N
+
(v
n
)|
v
n
v
n
v
n
v
i
v
j
v
n
Roland H

aggkvist
Paul Seymour
Va

sek Chv

atal
Endre Szemer

edi
Stephan Thomass

e
Yahya Hamidoune
References
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irth, Fund. Math. 69 (190), 22231
!A Londy, Countin -urajh- a ncw ajjroach to thc CacccttaLakvi-t
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L Caccctta and l Lakvi-t, On minima dirajh- with ivcn irth, Congres-
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\ Chvata and L Szcmcrcdi, Short cycc- in dircctcd rajh-, J. Combin. The-
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!0`!0
L Suivan, A -ummary ot rc-ut- and jrocm- rcatcd to thc Caccctta-Lakvi-t
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