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Transportation Master Plan Municipality of Chatham-Kent

January 2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.0 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................. 1

1.1 Study Background............................................................................... 1 1.2 Purpose and Scope of the Transportation Master Plan .............................. 1 1.3 Goals and Objectives ........................................................................... 2 1.4 Class EA and Master Plan Approach ....................................................... 3 1.5 Consultation ....................................................................................... 3 1.5.1 Project Notifications, Mailings and Web Site Postings ......................... 4 1.5.2 Technical Committee/Project Team ................................................. 4 1.5.3 Stakeholder Committee ................................................................. 4 1.5.4 Public Information Centres ............................................................. 6 1.5.5 Individual Agency and Interest Groups ............................................ 8 1.5.6 Summary of Comments/Issues Raised............................................. 8 1.6 Report Format .................................................................................... 8 2.0 EXISTING AND FUTURE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS..................... 9 2.1 Natural Heritage and Conservation Areas ............................................... 9 2.2 Cultural Heritage ................................................................................ 9 2.3 Socio-Economic Environment ..............................................................10 2.3.1 Population and Employment Growth Forecast ..................................10 2.3.2 Land Use ....................................................................................11 2.3.3 Tourism ......................................................................................11 3.0 TRANSPORTATION ............................................................................ 14 3.1 Existing Transportation System ...........................................................14 3.1.1 Road Classification ........................................................................14 3.1.2 Truck Routes................................................................................14 3.1.3 Parking Facilities...........................................................................15 3.1.4 Public Transit ...............................................................................16 3.1.7 Other Modes (Air, Rail and Water) ..................................................23 3.2 Existing and Future Demands on the Roadway System ...........................26 3.2.1 Existing Traffic Demands ..............................................................26 3.2.2 Future Traffic Demands ................................................................29 3.3 Existing and Future Transportation System Constraints ..........................31 4.0 STRATEGIC PLANNING ALTERNATIVES ............................................. 35 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Overview of Evaluation Methodology for Strategic Planning Alternatives ...35 Criteria for the Evaluation of Strategic Planning Alternatives....................35 Evaluation of Strategic Planning Alternatives .........................................35 Recommended Strategic Planning Solution(s) ........................................39

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5.0

ROADWAY IMPROVEMENT OPTIONS ................................................. 40

5.1 Alternative Roadway Improvement Options ...........................................40 5.2 Evaluation of the Roadway Improvement Options and Recommendations..42 5.3 Parking Facilities ................................................................................44 6.0 IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR OTHER TRAVEL MODES .......... 45 6.1 Public Transit ....................................................................................45 6.2 Rail Corridors and Service ...................................................................45 6.3 Active Transportation (Walking and Cycling)..........................................46 6.4 Municipal Airport................................................................................64 6.5 Water Ports.......................................................................................65 6.6 Utility Corridors .................................................................................65 7.0 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY ........................................................... 66 7.1 The Preferred Improvement Plan .........................................................66 7.1.1 Roads.........................................................................................66 7.1.2 Transit........................................................................................67 7.1.3 Walking and Cycling .....................................................................69 7.2 Proposed Roadway Classification and Jurisdiction ...................................73 7.3 Transportation Planning Policies...........................................................74 7.3.1 Roads.........................................................................................74 7.3.2 Access Management.....................................................................75 7.3.3 Transit........................................................................................75 7.3.4 Walking and Cycling .....................................................................75

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LIST OF EXHIBITS Exhibit 1.1 - Study Area Exhibit 2.1 - Population Growth Forecast by Community Exhibit 2.2 - Employment Growth Forecast by Community Exhibit 2.3 - Population Forecast by Census Zone Exhibit 2.4 - Employment Forecast by Census Zone Exhibit 3.1 - Existing CK Transit Routes Exhibit 3.2 - Comparison of Transit Ridership Levels Exhibit 3.3 - Comparison of Levels of Transit Exhibit 3.4 - Projected Peak Hour Travel Demands Exhibit 6.1 - Existing Infrastructure Rural Area Exhibit 6.2 - Downtown Building Facades, Chatham Exhibit 6.3 - Typical Bicycle Priority Street Exhibit 6.4 - Conceptual Corridor Framework Exhibit 6.5 - Typical Rural Roadway with Walking and Bicycling Facilities Exhibit 6.6 - Railway/Utility Corridor with Separated Trails Exhibit 6.7 - (Primary Route Network Rural Area) Exhibit 6.8 - (Primary Route Network Rural Area Initial Improvements) Exhibit 6.9 - Primary Route Network - Chatham Exhibit 6.10 - Typical Downtown Street with Wide Sidewalk Exhibit 6.11 - Typical Urban Roadway Conversions from Four Traffic Lanes Exhibit 6.12 - Primary Route Network - Wallaceburg Exhibit 7.1 - Roadway Improvement Priorities Exhibit 7.2 - Proposed Roadway Classification Changes

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LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1 - Stakeholder Group Representation Table 3.1 - 2006 Pedestrian & Bicycle Collision Rates Table 3.2 - Lane Capacity Table 3.3 - AM Volume-to-Capacity Ratio Over 0.95 Table 3.4 - AM Volume-to-Capacity Ratio Between 0.85 and 0.95 Table 3.5 - PM Volume-to-Capacity Ratio Over 0.95 Table 3.6 - PM Volume-to-Capacity Ratio Between 0.85 and 0.95 Table 3.7 - Summary of Projected Travel Demands Table 5.1 - Evaluation of the Thames River Screenline Alternatives Table 5.2 - Evaluation of the CNR Screenline Alternatives Table 5.3 - Evaluation of Lacroix Street Screenline Alternatives Table 5.4 - Municipality of Chatham-Kent Parking Supply and Utilization Table 6.1 - Chatham Bridges Crossing the Thames River Table 6.2 - Wallaceburg Bridges Crossing the Sydenham River

LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix A A-1 Project Notifications, Mailings and Web Site Postings A-2 Stakeholder Committee Meetings A-3 Public Information Centres A-4 External Agency Correspondence Appendix B B-1 2005 Daily Link Volumes B-2 Volume to Capacity Maps Appendix C C-1 Line Transfer/Discontinuance of Service Diagram C-2 Potential Route Alternatives Rural Area C-3 Potential Route Alternatives Chatham C-4 Potential Route Alternatives Wallaceburg C-5 Active Transportation Design Guidelines

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1.0 INTRODUCTION Delcan Corporation was retained on behalf of The Municipality of Chatham-Kent to complete a Transportation Master Plan (TMP) Study for the 23 communities comprising the Municipality. In developing the TMP, consideration was given to the protection of future transportation requirements recognizing the various modes of transportation (i.e. pedestrians, bicycles, cars, buses, trucks, tractors and harvesters) that operate within the Municipal boundaries. In developing a sustainable transportation network, the Study also considered broad environmental, economic and social impacts. The TMP was prepared in accordance with the Municipal Engineers Associations Municipal Class Environmental Assessment, June 2000 document. This planning process was designed to integrate environmental considerations into transportation and land use planning and to address concerns of those affected by the undertaking (i.e. local public, business community, etc.). 1.1 Study Background

The Municipality of Chatham-Kent, located in the heart of Southwestern Ontario, is an area rich in cultural heritage with a diverse economy and wide range of urban and rural land use activities. Established on January 1, 1998, Chatham - Kent is a political amalgamation of 23 individual communities covering an area of 2,494 square kilometres. The Municipality is bisected by Highway 401, the largest single trade corridor between Canada and the United States. With a population of approximately 107,000 and a mix of urban and rural development, ChathamKent is a unique and diverse Municipality as each community continues to strive to maintain their individuality / identity. With a new Official, Corporate and Strategic Plan as well as an Economic Development Strategy, the Municipality is establishing a vision for future growth. The municipal transportation network is a fundamental component in achieving these goals. Prior to the preparation of this TMP, a comprehensive Transportation Master Plan was never completed for the entire municipality. As a result, various discontinuities exist at the former municipal boundaries in terms of the function and role of individual corridors. 1.2 Purpose and Scope of the Transportation Master Plan

The purpose for undertaking the Study was to provide strategic direction for the Municipalitys transportation system to guide the development of future transportation networks, policies, standards and programs. The TMP will ensure that future transportation needs for an integrated network of arterial, collector and local roads, provincial highways, transit and active transportation provide safe, affordable, efficient and effective transportation for people and goods. In developing the TMP, consideration was given to future transportation requirements that need to be protected, recognizing the sometimes unusual mix of traffic types that require accommodation including buses, trucks, vans, tractors and

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harvesters. Relevant environmental, economic and social impacts were also given full consideration in accordance with the Municipal Engineers Associations Municipal Class Environmental Assessment, June 2000. While a transportation analysis traditionally focuses upon road and highway improvements, the TMP also considered other passenger modes, including transit, bicycling and pedestrian modes. The geographical boundaries of the study area are identified in Exhibit 1.1 and include all lands within the Municipality of Chatham-Kent Municipal Boundaries. Exhibit 1.1 - Study Area

1.3

Goals and Objectives

The main goal of the TMP was to provide a comprehensive short and long-term transportation strategy for all of the communities comprising the Municipality. In so doing, the following study objectives were accomplished: General consensus reached on the overall direction of the TMP; Traffic and parking issues addressed; Identification of policy changes required to achieve a more effective integration of land use strategies and transportation services; Development of short and long-term action plans to address transportation issues and priorities; Objectives developed during the public consultation program were addressed;

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1.4

Development of an implementation program; Assessment of various modes of transportation; Policy issues and objectives reviewed; Evaluation of existing trails throughout the Municipality of Chatham-Kent; and Development of a strategy for heavy vehicles. Class EA and Master Plan Approach

The TMP was completed in accordance with the Municipal Engineers Associations Municipal Class Environmental Assessment, June 2000 document. Essentially, the Class EA planning process provides for the identification of a deficiency in the provision of municipal infrastructure (e.g. transportation) services and the development and evaluation of alternative solutions to the identified problem. In accordance with the Class EA planning process, the TMP was undertaken in two phases: Phase 1 Needs Identification The first phase of the TMP involved data collection, community vision development through consultation with stakeholders, agencies, interest groups and the public-atlarge, defining the problem statement, identification of traffic demands for existing scenario, forecasting the future travel demands (do nothing) and identification of deficiencies in the transportation system. Phase 2 Development of Transportation Plan The second phase of the TMP focused on the identification and development of short, intermediate and long term improvements to the transportation infrastructure and services, presenting alternatives to stakeholders and public, refining the transportation plan and policies, and presenting the findings to Regional Council. Public consultation is a key feature of environmental assessment planning. In addition to providing municipalities with a planning procedure approved under the EA Act, the Class EA process also provides various opportunities for public involvement and review. For the Chatham-Kent TMP, consultation was undertaken with members of the general public, special interest groups and various agencies with an interest in the many elements affecting Chatham-Kents transportation system. 1.5 Consultation

In accordance with the Municipal Class Environmental Assessment, June 2000 document, an open and proactive approach to public and agency consultation was undertaken throughout the study. The consultation program provided for valuable information exchange, early identification of key issues and meaningful input to the development and evaluation of alternative solutions. As a result of the consultation efforts undertaken with members of the local public, special interest groups and other key stakeholders, the provision of local knowledge and insight was added to the project and project team, thereby assisting in the early resolution of issues and

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the development of optimal solutions. The consultation program developed for the Chatham-Kent TMP included the following and is further discussed below: Project notifications, mailings and web site postings Steering Committee/Project Team Stakeholder Committee Public Information Centres Individual Agency and Interest Groups

1.5.1 Project Notifications, Mailings and Web Site Postings Throughout the study, members of the public, local business community, key stakeholders, external agencies and special interest groups were contacted via local newspapers, handouts/brochures, mail delivery, fax, and email. Notifications were sent out at the commencement of the study, prior to various meetings (e.g. Stakeholder Group Meetings, Public Information Centres, etc.) and at the completion of the study. Stakeholders and technical and reviewing agencies that were likely to have an interest in the project were identified at the outset of the project and placed on a mailing list to receive all project notifications. Other interested parties were added to the mailing list as required. All individuals with questions or issues regarding the Study were encouraged to contact the project manager by telephone, fax and/or e-mail. In addition to the identified project notifications, additional materials were placed on the Municipality of Chatham-Kents project web site including relevant display boards and materials (e.g., drawings, Study outline, meeting minutes, etc.). Copies of all project notifications, mailings and material posted on the Municipalitys web site are provided in Appendix A-1. 1.5.2 Technical Committee/Project Team A Technical Committee was established at the outset of the Study and consisted of representatives from the Municipality of Chatham-Kent (Engineering and Traffic Division, Planning Department and Economic Development). In general, the Technical Committee provided direction and support for the study process, ensured that resources were made available for the consultant project team and was responsible for overseeing study progress. The consultant team met with the Technical Committee throughout the course of the Study. 1.5.3 Stakeholder Committee Since the various needs of individuals and affected parties can often be successfully addressed through smaller group meetings, a Stakeholder Committee was established at the outset of the study to obtain a sense of local community values and sensitivities to be incorporated into the study. The Committee was comprised of individuals representing a cross section of community interests as illustrated in Table 1.1.

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Table 1.1 Stakeholder Group Representation AREA OF INTEREST Agriculture Economic Development Natural Environment / Heritage Residential /Community Cyclists & Pedestrians Industry & Trucking Tourism Transit

The project team (Consultant and Technical Committee) met with the Stakeholder Committee twice during the study. The first meeting was held during Phase 1 of the study to generate dialogue regarding Chatham-Kents general transportation needs as well as associated issues, concerns and community vision. Meeting dialogue focused on the following key issues as they pertain to transportation within the Municipality: Major operational deficiencies Truck movement within the Municipality Connectivity to provincial highways, adjacent municipalities, river crossings, etc. Protection of significant natural environment and/or heritage features Promotion of healthy lifestyles and active modes of transportation into the transportation network Bicycle tourism and trail development Regular and specialized transit service Adequacy of parking supply Enhancement of air and rail transportation Potential for visual / aesthetics improvements within the transportation network

During the second meeting, held during Phase 2 of the Study, the Stakeholder Committee provided key input it on draft recommendations before they were presented to the general public. Specifically, items were discussed concerning opportunities pertaining to Chatham-Kents: Roadway network Transit services Rail services Parking Active transportation facilities

All input received from the Stakeholder Committee was incorporated into the identification and evaluation of the alternative scenarios. Presentation materials and minutes describing the stakeholder meeting discussions are provided in Appendix A-2.

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1.5.4 Public Information Centres Public Information Centre No. 1 The first Public Information Centre (PIC) was held on June 21, 2006 at the Kinette Lounge, in the Kinsmen Auditorium, located at 80 Tweedsmuir Avenue West in the Community of Chatham. Two sessions were conducted, from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. and 6:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. to present and obtain comments on the purpose of the Transportation Master Plan and study process and existing and future transportation issues within the Municipality. Local area residents, property and business owners, Stakeholder Committee members and agencies were invited to attend via email, regular mail and advertisements in the Municipal website and local newspapers. Displays presented at the PIC included aerial reference maps, photos, graphics panels and textual materials. Those attending the PIC were requested to sign an attendance booklet and were encouraged to provide their written comments to the material presented. All submitted comments and concerns were reviewed for consideration in the identification and evaluation of the alternative solutions. Based on the comments received at the PIC, the following general points can be summarized: 1. Active Transportation There is high demand for more on road and off road pedestrian and cyclist facilities within Chatham-Kent. On road improvements such as paved shoulders would create safer areas for utilitarian cyclists (e.g. migrant workers) and encourage clean, healthy and cost effective transportation. Abandoned rail lines converted into pedestrian and cyclist trails would also provide safe and scenic areas for recreational users. 2. Transit Many comments focused on lack of accessible and regular transit service linking the City of Chatham (e.g. Citys commercial, medical, business and recreational facilities) with outlying rural communities. High travel costs and very limited schedule are seen as major deterrents. Numerous comments favored extending service for items such as recreation programs in early evening and church service on Sunday mornings. 3. Roadways Comments received were in several areas: Network Connectivity Poor north-south traffic flow through Chatham; Need for a truck bypass to accommodate heavy truck traffic; and Concern over community safety with dangerous goods being transported.

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Operational Issues Traffic delays and congestion resulting from vehicles entering and exiting the parking area at the Chatham-Kent Secondary School and Athletic Complex Traffic volume and access concerns related to the campus expansion at St. Clair College. 4. Railway Operations Include policies/provisions that recognize the railways importance in goods movement and long-term economic growth and support increased utilization of the rail for goods movement. Public Information Centre No. 2 The second PIC was held on June 19 and 20, 2007 at four locations within the Municipality: Wallaceburg (Trinity United Church, 750 Wellington Street) Ridgetown (Ridgetown Service Centre, 45 Main Street) Chatham (Kinette Lounge, 80 Tweedsmuir Avenue West) Tilbury (Royal Canadian Legion, Branch 206, 4 Stewart Avenue) on preliminary

The PICs were held to present and obtain comments recommendations of the Transportation Master Plan, including:

Future Highway 40 bypass Future bridge crossing west of Chatham Expansion areas for future arterial/collector road corridors Rail operations and transit requirements/improvements Active transportation (cyclist and pedestrian) opportunities Municipality.

within

the

Based on the comments received at the PIC, the following generalizations were made regarding the Municipalitys transportation system: 1. Transit There was general support for the Study recommendations pertaining to transit. Transit availability and cost of the service are key factors. 2. Active Transportation There was general support for the Study recommendations pertaining to active transportation. Key items mentioned include the need for paved shoulders, use of abandoned rail corridors as pedestrian/cyclist links, and need for walking/cycling paths north of Chatham and connections from Blenheim to Rondeau Park, Erieau and Blenheim. 3. Roadway Network Improvements There was general support for the Study roadway network improvements, specifically, the Bloomfield/Bearline connection and the future Highway 40 bypass of

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Wallaceburg. There was considerable concern over increasing truck traffic and its impact on both Chatham and Wallaceburg. Copies of all PIC notification materials, text and graphics panels presented (excluding large-scale drawings and air photos), attendance booklet and submitted comment sheets are provided in the Public Information Centre Summary Reports in Appendix A-3. 1.5.5 Individual Agency and Interest Groups In addition to the Stakeholder Committee meetings and PICs, additional meetings were held, as required, throughout the course of the study with individuals/groups identified as having a special interest in the study. All issues/concerns identified at the meetings were documented and reviewed for consideration in the Study. All study correspondence received from external agencies (e.g. Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, etc) is provided in Appendix A-4. 1.5.6 Summary of Comments/Issues Raised Throughout the study, the Technical and Stakeholder Committees, interest groups, members of the local business community and local residents raised a number of transportation-related issues, specifically pertaining to improvements to the roadway network, transit requirements and walking and cycling within the Municipality. These issues were documented throughout the course of the Study and used in the identification of transportation issues facing the Municipality and in the development of recommendations. 1.6 Report Format

The Transportation Master Plan Report consists of seven main sections, including: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Introduction Existing And Future Environmental Conditions Transportation Strategic Planning Alternatives Roadway Improvement Options Improvement Opportunities For Other Travel Modes Implementation Strategy

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2.0 EXISTING AND FUTURE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS Environmental conditions that must be considered within Chatham-Kent include the Natural, Cultural Heritage and Socio-Economic Environments. 2.1 Natural Heritage and Conservation Areas

The Municipality of Chatham-Kents Official Plan identifies natural heritage features and conservation areas within the Municipality in which no site alteration is permitted. These natural heritage features are briefly summarized below and are illustrated in Appendix 4.4 of the Chatham-Kent Official Plan. Significant Woodlots - Woodlots greater than 2 hectares are scattered throughout the Municipality of Chatham-Kent and are mostly predominant in the northeastern portion of the Municipality. Wetlands - Chatham-Kent is host to 11,500 hectares of provincially significant wetland areas along Lake St. Clair, including the St. Clair National Wilderness Area, a globally important bird area. Nature Reserves - The St. Clair National Wildlife Area is a national wildlife preserve located on Lake St. Clair, south of Mitchells Bay. Part of the Lake St. Clair Marsh complex, the site is comprised of 289 hectares and is designated a Wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention for its waterfowl habitat, and is part of a Provincially Significant Life Science ANSI. Clear Creek Forest is located south east of Highgate, and north of Clearville. The site is more than 300 hectares in size, and includes an area of "old-growth" Carolinian forest and interior forest habitat as well as significant flora and fauna. Provincial Parks - Two provincial parks, Rondeau and Wheatley, are both located on the shores of Lake Erie within the Municipality of Chatham-Kent. Conservation Areas - The Municipality straddles the watersheds of two Conservation Authorities, the Lower Thames Valley Conservation Authority and the Lake St. Clair Region Conservation Authority. The Lower Thames Valley Conservation Authority has over 100 hectares of land in eight Conservation Areas. The Lake St. Clair Region Conservation Authority (SRCA) has jurisdiction over the Sydenham River watershed. SCRCA owns a number of tracts of land along the Sydenham River that provide recreation, nature study, land management and flood control. The St. Clair Region Conservation Authority also owns property in Wallaceburg and Dresden. Watercourses - Major surface water features for Chatham-Kent include Lake St. Clair to the west, Lake Erie to the east and south, the Thames River that flows through the centre of the Municipality from the northeast corner to the southwest, and the Sydenham River in the northwest. 2.2 Cultural Heritage

The Municipality of Chatham-Kents cultural heritage includes historically and architecturally significant buildings and structures, archaeological and cultural sites, and cultural landscapes. In addition to built heritage, Chatham-Kent also has a unique rich history related to the War of 1812 and the freedom end of the Underground Railroad.

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2.3

Socio-Economic Environment

2.3.1 Population and Employment Growth Forecast Based on 2001 Census data for the Municipality of Chatham-Kent, the majority of employment was in the manufacturing and construction industry (29%), followed by wholesale and retail (15%), health and education (14%), business services (11%), agriculture (10%), finance and real estate (4%), and other services (17%). Demographic forecasts provided by Chatham-Kents Planning Department estimated the 2005 population of the Municipality at 109,835 and total employment at 48,882. By the year 2015, the population is anticipated to increase to 116,811 (growth of 0.6% annually) and employment is forecast to increase to 53,519 (growth of 0.9% annually). According to the same source, these figures are expected to continue to increase to a population of 122,444 and employment of 57,367 by the year 2025. Based on the 2005-2025 demographic growth forecast, total population is expected to increase by 12,609 whereas the employment is projected to increase by 8,485 over the same period. Exhibits 2.1 and 2.2 provide the breakdown of population and employment growth forecast per community, whereas Exhibits 2.3 and 2.4 provide the breakdown of population and employment per census zone. Exhibit 2.1 Population Growth Forecast by Community
Population Increase 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 Tilbury Secondary Urban Areas Wallaceburg Remaining Rural Area Ridgetown Blenheim Chatham Dresden Wheatley

Development Location 2005-2015 2015-2025

A review of these graphs indicates that the majority of the population and employment growth will occur in the community of Chatham. Although a large increase in employment has been identified for the secondary urban areas, the majority of this projected growth is attributable to the Bloomfield Business Park which is technically part of the community of Chatham. The only other community of note for employment growth is Tilbury with just under 1,000 new jobs projected within the 20 year planning horizon.

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Exhibit 2.2 Employment Growth Forecast by Community


Employment Increase 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Tilbury Wallaceburg Secondary Urban Areas Remaining Rural Area Ridgetown Blenheim Chatham Dresden Wheatley

Employment Growth Areas 2005-2015 2015-2025

2.3.2 Land Use The predominant land area within Chatham-Kent is prime agricultural land used in the production of crops including soybeans, corn, winter wheat, tomatoes and livestock farming. Due to its proximity to Highway 401 and other major urban centres in Ontario and the United States, Chatham-Kent has also developed a strong industrial land base. There are currently 11 industrial areas within the Municipality with a new Highway 401/Bloomfield Road Business Park currently being established at the Bloomfield Road interchange on Highway 401. The Municipality also contains a diverse range of parks, natural areas, and recreation facilities, enhanced by the Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair shoreline. Two provincial parks and several conservation areas protect the Municipality's most significant natural features and offer recreational opportunities. Of significance are the 11,500 ha of wetlands along Lake St. Clair including the St. Clair National Wilderness Area, a globally important bird area. 2.3.3 Tourism With attractions that include Rondeau Provincial Park, Wheatley Provincial Park and Mitchell Bay, tourism contributes to increasing travel demands and represents an important element of Chatham-Kents local economy. The importance of tourism was recognized by Chatham-Kents Community Strategic Plan. The economy and the environment were identified as key strategic objectives. To achieve these objectives, Strategic Plan recommendations included: Promotion of area amenities to support growth in tourism; and Promotion of eco-tourism with the development of a trails network to enhance access to natural areas.

The TMP should address those future travel requirements within Chatham-Kent and provide a framework that will allow the Communitys future vision, established by the Strategic Planning process, to be achieved.

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Exhibit 2.3 Population Forecast by Census Zone

2005 - 2015

2005 - 2025

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Exhibit 2.4 Employment Forecast by Census Zone

2005-2015

2005-2025

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3.0 3.1 3.1.1

TRANSPORTATION Existing Transportation System Road Classification

One of the elements in achieving a strategic transportation direction for the Municipality is to balance all modes of transportation within designated corridors and right-of-ways. Roads have a variety of functions, ranging from the provision of direct access to adjoining properties to the provision of facilities for long distance trips. Roadways within the Municipality can be classified based on the amounts of traffic they carry or service they provide. There are three primary roadway classifications: local, collector, and arterial. Local Roads The primary function of these roads is to provide direct access to adjacent lands and provide for on-street parking. Through vehicular movements are discouraged by the design and traffic control measures. Collector Roads These roads are intended to serve both through and land-access functions in relatively equal proportions. Collector roads are subdivided into urban and rural categories. Arterial Roads These roads primarily provide service for through-traffic movement. Although some land-access service may be accommodated off arterial roads, it is clearly a minor function. Roadway design and traffic controls are intended to provide efficient through movement. Arterial roads are subdivided into urban and rural categories. 3.1.2 Truck Routes

Trucks are an integral component of both the transportation system and the local Chatham-Kent economy. ChathamKent is bisected by highway 401, the principal Canada U.S. trade corridor. The municipalitys location approximately midway between the border crossings that have traditionally been ranked in terms of commercial traffic as 1st (Ambassador Bridge, Windsor) and 2nd (Blue Water Bridge, Sarnia) contributes to: Truck related issues; The importance of truck routes; and The importance of maintaining a hierarchy of roadway classifications.

While truck traffic is vital for the movement of goods within the urban and rural communities it must be recognized that increasing volumes of truck traffic can also negatively impact the adjacent community in terms of: Traffic operations (ease of traffic movements); Traffic noise; and Traffic safety (requiring higher design standards).

Few restrictions currently exist within Chatham-Kent for the movement of truck traffic. Accommodating truck traffic within the roadway network along the Freeway and Arterial links helps to limit their impacts upon local residential neighbourhoods.

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Access to individual industrial and commercial properties can suitably be provided by designated collector roadways. The municipality is currently utilizing permissive truck routing signage to encourage the use of appropriate roadways. Identified transportation and safety issues related to truck traffic within the Municipality include: Operational problems resulting from the mix of vehicles (transports, tractors, combines, etc.). Impacts of truck traffic being directed through the downtown cores of Chatham and Wallaceburg by Highway 40s designated route. Increasing volumes of truck traffic using the Prairie Siding Bridge as a west bypass of Chatham to reach Highway 40. Increasing demands from Provincial truck traffic being placed upon municipal streets such as Winter Line and Bear Line and the resulting deterioration in roadway conditions. Slower moving truck traffic and limited opportunities to pass is perceived to create delays on Highway 40 between Chatham and Wallaceburg. Highway 401 Emergency Detour Route that redirects external (Highway 401) traffic, including trucks directly through the communities of Thamesville, Ridgetown, Chatham and Tilbury.

3.1.3

Parking Facilities

Parking is recognized to be fundamental to the vitality of each urban centre within Chatham-Kent. As part of the study, a review of existing parking inventory maps, parking policies and studies, as supplied by the Municipality for each of ChathamKents downtown areas, was undertaken along with one-day duration/accumulation studies in the downtown areas of Blenheim, Dresden, Ridgetown, Tilbury, Wallaceburg and Wheatley. The opinions of the stakeholders and the public were also collected through the Stakeholder Committee meetings and the public information centres. A summary of their comments as they pertain to parking within the Municipality is provided as follows: The distance between stores and parking lots is too large in downtown Chatham. Increased parking supply in the downtown core is needed. Greater concentration of people living in downtown core could reduce the need for parking. Need to consider barriers when locating additional parking within the community. Congested corridors with on-street parking (e.g. King Street, Chatham) is a safety issue. Consider elimination of parking fees within business districts. Tourism growth may create the need for additional parking.

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Parking is available at reasonable rates throughout the Municipality. Not enough handicapped parking spaces throughout Chatham-Kent. Parking may be a problem in downtown Chatham once the Capital Theatre opens. Chatham-Kent Secondary School, Athletic Complex, and at any community parks, arenas and buildings. Parking is a premium and hardly accessible to people with disabilities. Public Transit

3.1.4

Conventional Transit Service Conventional and accessible public transit services are presently offered within Chatham-Kent. Conventional transit service is provided by CK Transit operating accessible buses on four bus routes within the community of Chatham (Northwest, Northeast, Southeast and Southwest). The existing routes operate in a loop formation radiating out from a downtown bus terminal as illustrated in Exhibit 3.1. Exhibit 3.1 - Existing CK Transit Routes

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The hours of service are 6:15 a.m. 7:15 p.m., Monday through Saturday (excluding holidays) and although each route is scheduled to meet downtown on a 30 minute frequency at the bus terminal, no published schedule along the routes is readily available. Cash fares for conventional transit services are set as follows: Adults Seniors Students Child (< 5 yrs) $2.00 $1.75 $1.75 $1.00

A comparison of the transit ridership levels with a peer group of other similarly sized communities (based upon 2004 CUTA statistics) is provided in Exhibit 3.2. Differences in the levels of transit funding, levels of transit service, demographics and the local economies for each municipality make detailed comparisons between individual communities difficult. In general however, while CK Transits ridership rates are the lowest of the peer group, the level of transit service provided is also among the lowest, as identified in Exhibit 3.3. Regardless of this it appears that opportunities should exist for the existing transit system to function more effectively. Typically this is a function of the route design. The attractiveness of transit services is largely a reflection of the convenience and reliability of the services provided. Specifically: Does the route system provide direct access? Do the service hours match the demands? How reliable is the service (schedule adherence)?

Exhibit 3.2 - Comparison of Transit Ridership Levels

18

16

14

12 Rides/Capita

10

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Transportation Master Plan Municipality of Chatham-Kent

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Exhibit 3.3 - Comparison of Levels of Transit Service

0.9 0.8 0.7 Revenue Hours/Capita 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0
ev ille Ja w am ie St. Th om as tfo rd Ch ath ds toc k Wo o Pr air

Transit systems such as these rely almost exclusively upon captive riders, individuals who do not have transportation alternatives to satisfy their mobility requirements. Typically, individuals on fixed incomes including seniors and students are considered to be a target market. Transit service was decreased in 2004. It was reported that since that time: The sale of bus passes to secondary school students has dropped significantly; The round trip travel times (RTT) for the individual routes are too inflexible to maintain the schedules throughout the day; and Entire runs for an individual route can often be missed due to delays resulting from trains, traffic demands or the additional time to load / unload a wheelchair.

Accessible Transit Service A variety of service providers are currently utilized to provide accessible transit service within Chatham-Kent, including: CK Transit (Chatham and Wallaceburg) Four Counties Community Transportation Services (Bothwell, Thamesville, Orford and Zone) Erie Shore Community Accessible Transit Service (Wheatley and Romney)

Gr an de

Mo os e

Be ll

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Transportation Master Plan Municipality of Chatham-Kent

January 2008

Other transit and transportation services within the Municipality are provided by community service agencies established to serve a specific demographic of the population. These transportation services include those offered by: Canadian Cancer Society Family Services Kent-CHAP Transportation (A United Way member agency) Tilbury Information and Help Centre (A United Way member agency) Private Organizations Service Clubs Private Senior Residences

Community of Chatham CK Transit operates three accessible transit vehicles providing curb to curb service to over 600 registered eligible users. Service is provided (excluding holidays): Monday through Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday 8:00 8:00 9:00 9:00 a.m. a.m. a.m. a.m. 6:00 p.m. 11:00 p.m. 6:00 p.m. 5:00 p.m.

The service provides approximately 13,000 rides per year. Community of Wallaceburg CK Transit operates two accessible transit vehicles in Wallaceburg providing curb to curb service to over 350 registered eligible users. Service is provided (excluding holidays) Monday through Friday Saturday and Sunday 8:00 a.m. 6:00 p.m. 9:00 a.m. 5:00 p.m.

The service provides around 4,500 rides per year. Four Counties Community Transportation Services Four Counties Community Transportation Services is operated by the Municipality of West Elgin and provides curb to curb accessible transit service to the Municipalities of West Elgin, Cutton-Dunwich, Southwest Middlesex and to the Chatham-Kent urban Communities of Bothwell and Thamesville and rural Communities of Orford and Zone. Currently, the Municipality of Chatham-Kent subsidizes the Four Counties Community Transportation Services for rides received by registered eligible Chatham-Kent residents.

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Erie Shore Community Accessible Transit Service Erie Shore Community Accessible Transit Service is operated by the South Essex Community Council providing accessible transit service to the Essex Communities of Kingsville, Leamington and surrounding areas and to the urban Community of Wheatley and the rural Community of Romney in the Municipality of Chatham-Kent. Currently, the Municipality of Chatham-Kent subsidizes the Erie Shore Community Accessible Transit Service for rides received by registered eligible Chatham-Kent residents. Based on consultation completed as part of the TMP, members of the public have suggested that to improve the existing accessible transit systems, consideration should be given to expanding the service hours to make church services on Sunday mornings more accessible and extending the service hours to provide evening service during the week. 3.1.5 Active Transportation (Walking and Cycling) The term Active Transportation (and Recreation) could be described as any form of human-powered, non-motorized travel using on-road and off-road infrastructure. These forms generally include cycling, walking, jogging, in-line skating, skateboarding, riding manual wheelchairs, cross-country skiing, snowshoeing and horseback riding. Some jurisdictions (e.g. Northern Ontario) may assume a broader definition of AT to include certain motorized vehicles such as All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) and snow mobiles. Since amalgamation C-K has undertaken several studies that have called for, among others, the development of walking and bicycling facilities to promote healthy lifestyles, tourism and economic activity.1 The Active Transportation component in the C-K Transportation Master Plan study responds to these calls by developing comprehensive objectives and strategies for the two most prominent Active Transportation modes: walking and bicycling. Pedestrians and bicyclists should have access to facilities irrespective of their trip purpose, i.e. both utilitarian and recreational, similar to motorists using Ontario roads and streets irrespective of their trip purpose. The purpose of the Active Transportation component is therefore to guide the implementation of active transportation infrastructure that would improve the mobility for pedestrians and cyclists and would contribute to the overall quality of life in Chatham-Kent. Developing an integrated on-road and off-road pedestrian and bicycling infrastructure plan with associated policies and design guidelines is therefore required. The study does not address the need for or location of trails for mountain bikers, equestrians, cross-cross skiers and users of ATVs and snowmobiles.

The Chatham-Kent Community Strategic Plan, 2nd Edition, 2005

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Benefits of Walking and Cycling Public health agencies across Ontario (and elsewhere) are expressing increasing concerns about the inadequate level of physical activity and the resulting costs to the public health- care system. Providing opportunities for physical activity would improve public health, reduce the incidence of chronic diseases, disability and premature death, thus reducing healthcare costs. Relative simple and enjoyable ways of achieving sufficient exercise most of the year is through regular walking and bicycling. These modes of travel are energy-efficient and non-polluting. Many transportation trips are short and can easily be made by foot or bicycle. According to a 2001 tourism survey a growing number of people are already coming to Chatham-Kent for "gentle, outdoor activities.2 Visitors could be encouraged to stay longer and enjoy the scenic areas, historic sites and parks using sidewalks, roads and trails. Walking and bicycling tourism would not only create opportunities for physical activity but result in increased economic activity and improve the overall livability of the various communities. This type of short-trip recreation activity would, however, need to be promoted and investments to be made in on-road and off-road (trail) facilities. Road improvements such as continuous sidewalks, paved shoulders, bicycle lanes and multi-use paths would not only increase the safety of pedestrians and cyclists but could also enhance the safety of motorists. Trails and greenways are publicly viewed as relatively safe facilities as they are free of motorized vehicular traffic except at intersections and driveways. Existing Conditions Walking in C-K is mostly done on sidewalks, in parks and in conservation areas. Bicycling is not extensive and mostly recreational. Promotion of walking and cycling seems limited. Perhaps the main reason for the limited participation in walking and bicycling is the fact that C-K is an auto-oriented municipality with short duration traffic congestion at a few locations only. High speed vehicular traffic moves on arterial and collector roads both in the urban and rural areas. As in many other Ontario municipalities the street patterns in the newer residential subdivisions have been designed for motor vehicle travel rather than the more pedestrian- and bicycling-friendly grid patterns of older neighbourhoods. Despite the seemingly low cycling participation in C-K, the reported collision rate is well above the provincial average. In 2006, two cyclists were killed in C-K. 2006 pedestrian and bicycle collision rates for C-K are provided in Table 3.1.

An Overview of Tourism in Chatham-Kent, Research Resolutions + Consulting Ltd, 2003

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Table 3.1 - 2006 Pedestrian & Bicycle Collision Rates Collision Rate* Pedestrians Cyclists Chatham-Kent 23.2 37.5 Ontario 41.8 20.4

*Number of annual collisions per 100,000 population C-K average number from 2002-6; Ontario average number 2000-43 The high collision rate for cyclists is likely due to a lack of cycling infrastructure and inadequate motorist and cyclist education. Roads are without bicycle lanes or paved shoulders. The few bridges across Highway 401, the Thames River and the Sydenham River are without special provisions for cyclists. Cycling skills training is not being offered. Like in most Ontario cities enforcement of rules of the road is not a high priority for police forces. Several communities have walking trails but major trails have not been constructed. A short multi-use path exists along the Thames River in Chatham but it terminates in a sidewalk. The reported pedestrian collision rate is lower than the provincial average. This could indicate fewer people walking in C-K than in other parts of Ontario, perhaps due to a lack of sidewalks and trails. Previous transportation studies essentially ignored walking and bicycling as travel modes. The Chatham-Kent Community Strategic Plan and other recent studies have, however, recognized the importance of non-motorized travel in promoting healthy lifestyles and making C-K a business friendly community and desirable leisure destination. Planned Private Initiatives Several private organizations have initiated plans for promoting the development of on-road and off-road facilities in recent years. These initiatives are as follows: The Ontario Bicycling Route (OBR) is an on-road bicycling network across Ontario that will fill an existing gap of bicycling routes between regions and extending to all provincial and international borders.4 In Chatham-Kent the planned OBR consist of three on-road bicycling routes along paved municipal roads. The Trans Canada Trail (TCT) is a linear trail through every province and territory in Canada, linking many communities along its route). In ChathamKent the planned trail follows a circuitous route along paved and unpaved roads. The trail would connect seven of the nine larger communities and is approximately 210 km long. The estimated cost of an off-road trail along the entire route is $ 28 million excluding property acquisition cost and

3 4

Ontario Road Safety Annual Reports (ORSAR), Ministry of Transportation (website) Ontario Bicycling Route, Cycle Ontario Alliance Conference (website)

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maintenance costs.5 In 2003 City Council resolved to designate the trail for signing. In 2003, a grass-root economic and community development organization prepared a rudimentary plan of existing and desired secondary trails connecting to the Trans Canada Trail, where feasible.

Public Input People who attended the stakeholder meetings and the public information centres commented that they would like to see more on-road and off-road facilities for pedestrians and cyclists. Improvements suggested include constructing paved shoulders and converting abandoned railway corridors. Issues Major issues that would affect plan development either positively or negatively include: 3.1.7 High vehicular traffic speeds on most roads Inadequate infrastructure, specifically bridges, on-road bicycle facilities and major trails, rural roads with restricted pavement width Restricted access to riverfronts and lakefronts Few linkages between many of the newer subdivisions and adjacent areas Long distances between communities (20-30 km), i.e. not conducive to bicycle commuting or long-distance hiking Lack of current funding for on-road and off-road projects Long implementation time of the TCT due to the cost of the improvements required Negotiations with railway and hydro companies for acquiring and/or using their rights-of-way for trail development General lack of signage for pedestrians and cyclists Public concerns about pedestrian and bicycling safety Other Modes (Air, Rail and Water)

A review of other modes of transportation within Chatham-Kent was undertaken, including: Chatham-Kents Municipal Airport located in Raleigh; Canadian National and CSX Railways, freight service and VIAs passenger service; Pleasure boating on the Thames and Sydenham Rivers as well as in Rondeau Bay, Lake Erie and Lake St. Clair.

These modes of transportation are summarized below.

Economic Impact Analysis, Trans Canada Trail in Ontario, Price Waterhouse Coopers, 2004

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Municipal Airport Chatham-Kents Municipal Airport located in the Community of Raleigh has a 23m x 1525m paved and lighted runway and currently offers the following services: Limited Corporate Flights Charter Service Private Flights Rentals Instructional Services

There is currently no scheduled travel service, nor is there a plan to introduce this in the near future. The main constraint/challenges that face the airport relate to funding sources and the ability to retain and expand the Municipal Airports capacity to handle the movement of goods. Rail Corridors and Services The Municipality of Chatham-Kent is presently serviced by three Canadian National rail lines, one Canadian Pacific rail line and one CSX rail line. The continued viability and protection of the required rail infrastructure within the municipality of Chatham-Kent is important to meeting both the needs of the railways and the municipality, by helping to ensure long-term economic growth and an effective and efficient transportation system for the movement of goods and people. Major sectors of Chatham-Kents economy such as the agriculture and automotive industry are dependent on the efficient movement of goods. Comments received throughout the study public consultation process focused on protecting the railway corridors and reducing the delay resulting from the lack of a fully grade separated north-south roadway, which would serve to eliminate delays and travel time uncertainty. Canadian National Railway Canadian National has two lines running east /west though Chatham-Kent and one line running north/south between the communities of Blenheim and Chatham. Canadian Nationals northerly east/west line provides freight service and VIA Rail passenger service to the Community of Chatham. Currently there is an average of six freight trains and four to six VIA trains per day using this line. Canadian Nationals southerly east/west line known as the Fargo Station line provides freight service to Fargo Station. Currently the line carries one to two freight trains per day. Both Canadian Nationals east/west lines operate with at grade crossings throughout Chatham-Kent, the one exception being a grade separation (underpass) on Lacroix Street in the Community of Chatham. In regard to the Canadian Nationals southerly east/west Fargo Station Line, CN has started the consultant notification closure process to abandon the CN line from Fargo Station running east through ChathamKent to St. Thomas. CN is also considering abandoning the Fargo Station to Tilbury line in the near future but has not started the consultant notification closure process.

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Canadian National is expecting economic growth in Chatham-Kent and reports that train lengths on the east/west line will continue to increase and are now approaching up to 150 160 cars at approximately 10,000 feet in length. Canadian National has swapped corridors with CSX and now owns the old CSX North/South Line between the communities of Blenheim and Chatham having given up a Canadian National corridor in the Sarnia area. Canadian National currently has no plans for any grade separation crossings in Chatham-Kent. Canadian Pacific Rail Line The Canadian Pacific rail line runs east/west through Chatham-Kent providing freight service to the Communities of Chatham and Tilbury. This is Canadian Pacifics main line connecting Montreal and Chicago through Toronto, Windsor and Detroit. Currently there is an average of 20 freight trains per day using this line ranging from four car trains shunting to 140 car trains covering between 6000 feet to 7000 feet. The Canadian Pacific rail line operates with at grade crossings throughout ChathamKent and has no plans for future grade separations. Canadian Pacifics main line rail traffic through Chatham-Kent is expected to increase resulting in Canadian Pacific looking at increasing capacity. CSX Rail Line The remaining CSX line connects the communities of Chatham, Dresden and Wallaceburg with freight service. An average of one freight train per day operates between the communities of Chatham and Wallaceburg. CSX operates with at grade crossing throughout Chatham-Kent area and was considering proposals to use the Chatham/Wallaceburg line for a short line operation. The Municipality of Chatham-Kent, following recent discussions with CSX rail, are of the understanding that CSX will be abandoning the Chatham through Wallaceburg line as a result of the high cost of improvements to meet Transport Canadas recommendations. The status of this direction should be followed up by the Municipality to confirm the future of the line as the abandonment could provide opportunities for other modes. Water/Ports Chatham-Kent has commercial docks in Erieau and Wheatley. In Erieau, the commercial dock and seaway channel is owned and maintained by the Federal Government. The Government owns a total of approximately 140 acres. The seaway channel and docks are limited to 60 ton boats (up to 100) and are not able to handle larger boats hauling freight. In Wheatley, the Wheatley Harbour Authority is responsible for the commercial dock. Chatham-Kent currently has water-based tourism and recreation activities in the areas of Lake St. Clair and Lake Erie. The Municipality owns and operates beaches at Mitchells Bay on Lake St. Clair, and at Clearville Park, Getty's Beach (Wheatley),

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Laverne Kelly Memorial Park (Erieau), and Terrace Beach Park (Morpeth). Public recreational docks are operated in Chatham, Mitchells Bay, Erieau, Shrewsbury and Wallaceburg. The last Economic Opportunity Study concluded that water-based tourism including beaches, marinas and fishing is well established within ChathamKent. 3.2 Existing and Future Demands on the Roadway System

The Municipality of Chatham-Kent occupies an area of 2,458 km2 and was established on January 1, 1998 with amalgamation of 22 municipalities. The TMP recognizes the entire Municipality but focuses on primary urban areas and secondary urban areas where the majority of traffic growth resulting from projected population and employment growth will take place. 3.2.1 Existing Traffic Demands Assessing roadway performance measures and identifying travel patterns for the Municipality required the compilation of roadway link traffic volume data as well as turning movement volumes for intersections in primary urban areas. Traffic volumes were obtained from the Municipality of ChathamKent and the Ontario Ministry of Transportation and summarized in a format suitable for analysis. A comparison of 2005 daily link traffic volume data and intersection turning movements revealed the relationship between daily traffic volumes and peak hour traffic volumes. A factor of 0.071 was determined for the AM peak hour traffic volumes, whereas a factor of 0.087 was determined to represent the percentage of the daily traffic volumes observed during the PM peak hour. 2005 traffic volume data was used to document existing traffic demands and travel patterns, to assess existing operational conditions, and to establish existing traffic conditions that provided a base for future traffic volume projections. Geographic Information System (GIS) and its mapping capabilities were utilized to visually display collected data as well as travel patterns observed for the entire Municipality. Appendix B-1 contains 2005 Daily Link Volumes, illustrating a thematic distribution of travel volumes in the transportation network linking the communities of Chatham-Kent. As illustrated in the 2005 Daily Link Volumes, Chatham represents a focal point in attracting and generating the majority of trips in the area. The thematic mapping revealed major traffic corridors with high traffic volumes on Highway 40 (between Chatham and Wallaceburg), Charing Cross Road and Communication Road (between Chatham and Blenheim), Queens Line (between Chatham and Tilbury) and to a lesser degree on Longwoods Road (between Chatham and Thamesville). A review of the 2001 Census data provided a more thorough understanding of the travel demand and socio-economic parameters that underlie current trip making characteristics for the Municipality of Chatham-Kent. The 2001 Census place of work data identified that of morning commuters:

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92% travel to work by car, 6% by walking or cycling, less than 1% by transit, and 1% by other modes.

Approximately 10% of the total trips either originate or are destined outside of the Municipality and are referred to as external trips. Mobility within the Municipality is well oriented towards personal automobile. The base year traffic volumes were developed through a review of both the newly collected 2005 counts and the historical traffic data provided by the Municipality of Chatham Kent and the Ministry of Transportation. Inventories of number of travel lanes, posted speeds and capacity for each roadway classification were obtained and applied in the analysis. For the purpose of the analysis a level of service D was used as the threshold at which facility improvements should be considered. This level of service allows for the planning, design and implementation of required improvements prior to reaching ultimate capacity. The level of service D lane capacities (in passenger car units) for each roadway classification are presented in Table 3.2. Table 3.2 - Lane Capacity Road Class Rural Arterial Rural Arterial Rural Collector Rural Collector Urban Arterial Posted Speed 60 80 60 80 50 Lane Capacity (pcu) 650 850 600 800 550

Volume-to-capacity ratios for the transportation network reflecting the observed peak hour traffic volumes and the assumed lane capacities are illustrated graphically in Appendix B-2. Tabular summaries of these AM and PM peak hour results are summarized below. In the AM peak hour, a number of roadways within Chatham experience traffic volumes that are approaching or exceeding their respective capacities. Table 3.3 summarizes these locations. Table 3.3 AM Volume-to-Capacity Ratio Over 0.95 Street Segment Chatham St. Clair Road Lacroix Street Grand Avenue Keil Drive Richmond Street Location Grande Avenue to Oxley Road Grand Avenue to Richmond Street St Clair Street toWest of Lacroix Street Grand Avenue to Richmond Street Lacroix Street to Merritt Avenue

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Table 3.4 identifies street segments with volumes that are between 85% and 95% of available road capacity. These locations are usually operating at levels of service where any fluctuation in travel demand could exceed the available capacities and create unfavourable operating conditions. Table 3.4 AM Volume-to-Capacity Ratio Between 0.85 and 0.95 Street Segment Location Chatham St. Clair Road Oxley Drive to Gregory Drive Grand Avenue East of Keil Drive Richmond Street Keil Drive to Merritt Avenue Lacroix Street North of Park Avenue Queen Street Park Avenue to Richmond Street As shown in Appendix B-2, the pm peak hour has more roadway segments with capacity deficiencies. Table 3.5 itemizes locations where operational difficulties exist, whereas Table 3.6 provides a list of roadway segments with the volume-tocapacity ratio between 0.85 and 0.95. Table 3.5 PM Volume-to-Capacity Ratio Over 0.95 Street Segment Chatham St. Clair Road Grand Avenue Lacroix Street Richmond Street Keil Drive Queen Street Lacroix Street Location Grand Avenue to North of Gregory Drive St. Clair Road to West of Keil Drive Grande Avenue to Richmond Street Keil Drive to Lacroix Street Grande Avenue to Richmond Street Richmond Street to Park Avenue North of Park Avenue

Table 3.6 PM Volume-to-Capacity Ratio Between 0.85 and 0.95 Street Segment Chatham Richmond Street Lacroix Street Park Avenue Queen Street Wallaceburg Dufferin Avenue Location West of Keil Drive Richmond Street to North of Park Avenue West of Lacroix Street Park Avenue to Tweedsmuir Avenue McNaughton Avenue to Forhan Street

A review of these critical roadway sections indicates that the existing river crossings are currently experiencing degraded traffic operations during the AM and PM peak hours. Additionally, several east west connecting roadways between these

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crossings are also experiencing reduced levels of service. Without any improvements traffic operations along these roadways can be expected to deteriorate, increasing traffic delays / congestion. 3.2.2 Future Traffic Demands

Phase I of the traffic analysis focused on the development of the existing travel demand and evaluation and assessment of the roadway operations based on the observed traffic volumes. One of the main objectives of the TMP for Chatham-Kent is to define the future transportation system and to guide its implementation through new elements of transportation networks and facilities that will be required to meet short- and long-term transportation demands. Phase II of the traffic analysis was undertaken to forecast future travel demand based on the projected growth in population and employment. Over the next 20 years, population and employment figures for the Municipality of Chatham-Kent are expected to grow by 11.5% and 13.7%, respectively. This demographic growth is followed by a concurrent growth in travel demand, which in turn require comprehensive planning and multi-modal transportation system management to meet future travel needs in the years 2015 and 2025. Traffic Analysis Zone System A traffic zone system for Chatham-Kent was adopted from the 2001 Census database where the entire Municipality is subdivided into dissemination areas. Traffic zones were used for the development of a travel demand model. Each zone was assigned its corresponding land use, socioeconomic, and demographic information. In addition to the population growth, the Municipal planning staff identified areas which are anticipated to attract the majority of employment growth. These employment growth areas were important in developing the travel model which estimated travel demand associated with the projected growth in employment. According to the 2001 Census dissemination areas, the Municipality of Chatham-Kent is divided into 178 zones. For analysis, the Census dissemination areas within Chatham-Kent were aggregated to 25 superzones. The major employment growth areas covered 87% of the total employment increase within the Municipality and the remaining 13% was attributed to external-to-internal trips, district-to-district trips, and work at home. Trip Generation and Distribution Spatial distance between the areas of population growth and employment growth creates the demand for mobility and requires sufficient capacity of the transportation system to accommodate these new trips. After ensuring that the employment and population increases are accurately represented and assigned to the adopted zone system, the next step in the travel demand model process was to determine how many new trips will be generated by the proposed increase in employment and how will the future growth in population serve these jobs. The two elements of the modeling process that describe the number of new trips and the way how these new trips are spatially distributed are referred to as Trip Generation and Trip Distribution.

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Trip generation determines how many vehicle trips will be generated based on the employment growth. These trips were then distributed and linked to the areas of population growth to determine the trip volume relationships between zones of employment and zones of population. Based on employment growth and a trip generation rate, 18,000 new daily vehicle trips are anticipated in the transportation system by the year 2015, and an additional 14,300 trips between 2015 and 2025 for a total of 32,300 between 2005 and 2025. Trip distribution relies on the theory of the gravity model where the origin and destination of trips produced in each zone are linked to trips attracted in another zone. A number of trips assigned to each zone is directly proportionate to the relative size of trip attractions and inversely proportionate to the distance between the zones. Distance between zone centroids and Gamma function were used for the development of the impedance factors for each zone-pair combination. Trip distribution on the aggregate zone level was used to determine the estimated traffic flows by direction for each of the major growth areas. By the use of trip distribution patterns, the total travel demand was distributed and assigned to the future transportation roadway network. A screenline analysis was undertaken to determine roadway capacity deficiencies for 2015 and 2025 forecast traffic conditions. Screenline Analysis A comparison of demand to capacity for projected 2015 and 2025 traffic conditions has been completed for a number of screenlines. A screenline can be defined as an imaginary line drawn across a series of roadways to measure the volume and capacity of the roads crossing that line. The purpose of the screenline analysis was to assess when and if additional roadway capacity will be required to accommodate projected future traffic. For analysis purposes, a total of 7 screenlines were identified through Chatham (the principal growth area). These screenlines were located as follows: North South Screenlines - North of Highway 401 - CN Railway - Thames River - North of Pioneer Line East West Sreenlines - CSX Railway - West of LaCroix St - West of Keil Drive

A summary of the existing and projected peak hour volumes crossing each of the screenlines along with the corresponding v/c ratios, are identified in Table 3.7.

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Table 3.7 - Summary of Projected Travel Demands Existing


Screenline Daily Volume (2 way) 22,500 69,900 91,200 19,300 49,800 111,600 44,400 AM Peak Dir Travel Demand* 1102 3425 4468 946 2440 5468 2176 v/c Ratio 43% 71% 95% 42% 54% 83% 43% Travel Demand* 1466 3719 5087 1001 2584 5654 2661

2015
AM Peak Dir v/c Ratio 58% 77% 108% 44% 57% 86% 52% PM Peak Dir Travel Demand* 1796 4556 6232 1226 3165 6926 3259 v/c Ratio 70% 95% 133% 54% 70% 105% 64% Travel Demand* 1756 3953 5580 1044 2698 5802 3046

2025
AM Peak Dir v/c Ratio 69% 82% 119% 46% 59% 88% 60% PM Peak Dir Travel Demand* 2151 4842 6836 1279 3305 7107 3731 v/c Ratio 84% 101% 145% 57% 73% 108% 73%

N. of Hwy 401 C N R

Thames River N. of Pioneer CSX Railway W. of LaCroix W. of Keil Dr

Passenger car units / hour

These v/c ratios identify areas of capacity constraints / deficiencies within the roadway system. These values along with the screenline locations are presented graphically in Exhibit 3.4 and discussed in section 3.3. 3.3 Existing and Future Transportation System Constraints

The transportation systems within Chatham-Kent will be required to overcome a variety of constraints and challenges over the next 20 years. These can be expected to have direct impacts upon: The existing roadway network Chatham-Kents public transit systems, and Provisions for pedestrians and cyclists

Roadway Network Constraints Chatham-Kent, along with all other local municipalities are already facing a common challenge, dealing with the reality of aging infrastructure. In addition, planned development growth within the municipality can be expected to create a variety of additional constraints within the roadway network related predominantly to capacity and network continuity. Most significantly, the travel demands crossing Thames River are already, during peak periods, approaching the capacity of the 5 existing bridges within Chatham. This will be exacerbated by planned residential growth located north of the river with industrial growth planned on the west side of the community, south of the river and along Highway 401. If development proceeds as projected, by the year 2015, two additional traffic lanes (per direction) crossing the Thames River will be needed to accommodate the traffic demands. Alternatively, if the rate of development growth actually realized north of the river is less aggressive than land use projections have anticipated, additional phasing of the required improvements could become feasible with one additional traffic lane (per direction) by 2015 and a second additional lane (per direction) by 2025.

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Exhibit 3.4 Projected Peak Hour Travel Demands

By 2025 a capacity constraint would also exist for north south traffic crossing the CNR corridor. To accommodate the projected pm peak hour travel demands, the provision of one additional lane (per direction) crossing the CNR would be required. West of Lacroix Street the additional east west roadway capacity (1 lane per direction) would be required by the 2015 horizon year.

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Throughout the course of the TMP a variety of public concerns/issues have been raised regarding various segments of the Highway 40 corridor. Highway 40 represents one of the principal north/south corridors in Chatham-Kent, but as a Provincial Highway, improvements to the corridor are beyond the Municipalitys jurisdiction. Issues raised during the TMP process included: The merits of constructing passing lanes along some sections between Chatham and Wallaceburg to limit the congestion that is created by slower moving vehicles. Review of the Highway 40 corridor to better serve the provincial traffic that is currently using municipal roads west of Chatham. Safety concerns related to provincial truck traffic being directed through the downtown cores of Chatham and Wallaceburg. Future requirements for the provision of a Highway 40 truck bypass of Wallaceburg.

Improvements to the Highway 401 corridor through Chatham-Kent that are currently being considered by the Ministry of Transportation would result in modifications to a number of interchanges. A new configuration for the interchange at Queens Line and new access management guidelines being considered in the vicinity of interchanges could result in significantly restricted access to the industrial development lands located at the north end of Tilbury. Although roadway capacity constraints are focused within Chatham where the majority of development growth is anticipated, roadway improvements throughout Chatham-Kent will continue to be required to maintain continuity of the roadway network and a hierarchy of arterial, collector and local roads. Public Transit Constraints Transit ridership within Chatham can be described as low and increasing readership levels will undoubtedly face many constraints and challenges, including: Improving the reliability of the services provided. Providing a service that is also convenient and affordable, particularly for urban residents with few other transportation alternatives. Expanding existing services to newly developed areas of Chatham. Demographics, the reality that we live in an aging society and as the number of seniors in our society rises, so will the demands for convenient transit service.

Economic viability is a cornerstone to any existing or future services. The provision of transit services is reliant upon suitable development densities and the provision of transit supportive land use policies within the Official Plan. There is a need for greater marketing and promotion if transit is to be successful (schedule information is currently not available). Currently, one of the greatest constraints upon CK Transit appears to be that there is no clear understanding of the true market potential. Chatham-Kent has undergone some tremendous changes and Transit providers have relied upon the existing (eroding) transit ridership as their

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sole source of information upon which the services have been designed. Active Transportation Constraints Due to Chatham-Kents flat topography, rural roads and low traffic volumes, the Municipality is extremely well suited for walking and bicycling. Some of the major constraints identified within the Municipality with respect to active transportation are identified as follows: No on-road and off-road bikeways (except a short Thames River multi-use path in Chatham). Lack of cycling skills education and enforcement offered. General signage is not extensive and there is no signage for cyclists and pedestrians. High speed vehicular traffic on arterial and collector roads without bicycle lanes or paved shoulders. One-way street system in downtown Wallaceburg. Lack of linkages between many of the newer subdivisions and adjacent areas. Restricted pavement width (approximately 6.5 m) without shoulders or with graveled shoulders. Long distances for bicycle commuting between communities (20-30 km).

Based on consultation with various interest groups and members of the public, there is a significant demand for more on-road and off-road pedestrian and cyclist facilities within Chatham-Kent.

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4.0 STRATEGIC PLANNING ALTERNATIVES This section outlines the assessment and evaluation of the planning alternatives or strategic options that were considered to address the transportation demands. The identification and assessment of planning alternatives or strategic options was a key element of the Master Plan as it guides the process for the development of specific components on the future transportation network. The strategic options basically address the transportation issues identified both through the technical assessment and the public process. 4.1 Overview of Alternatives Evaluation Methodology for Strategic Planning

The goal of the Master Plan Study was to follow the EA process and in so doing address Phases 1 and 2 for any of the recommended transportation improvements. Within Phase 2 of the EA process, the evaluation of alternatives was carried out in the following steps: Step 1 - Identification and evaluation of strategic transportation alternatives/options to address overall transportation issues. Step 2 - Review of problem areas based on the results of Step 1 and identification of roadway improvement alternatives where needed for each problem area. Step 3 - Evaluation of the roadway improvement alternatives to determine a ranking of the preferred roadway improvements. Step 4 - Development of network options by combining preferred roadway improvements. 4.2 Criteria for the Evaluation of Strategic Planning Alternatives

The assessment of the strategic alternative solutions was undertaken on the basis of the following evaluation criteria groups: 4.3 Operational Effectiveness of Transportation Services Cost Comparison Heritage/Culture/Tourism Impact Socio-Economic Impact Safety Natural/Physical Environment Evaluation of Strategic Planning Alternatives

In developing a strategic transportation vision for the Municipality of Chatham-Kent, several strategic options were considered. The options involved different strategies to address the future transportation demands within the Municipality. This step in the process identifies the alternative or combination of strategic options best suited to mitigate the identified transportation problems in the Municipality: Insufficient roadway capacity;

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Thames River crossing; Vehicle mix (e.g. autos, buses, trucks, agricultural, etc.); Mix of roadways users (e.g. tourist, commuter, local); Provincial highway connections; Roadway safety; Discontinuous bicycle/pedestrian facilities; Variety of cyclist skill levels; Commercial traffic impacts; and Inadequate transit connectivity.

In accordance with the Municipal Class Environmental Assessment, June 2000, the following alternative strategic/planning alternatives were considered: 1. Do-Nothing - This alternative was included to provide a benchmark condition to which all other planning alternatives would be compared. This condition assumes that no improvements outside of committed and programmed transportation projects will be made to increase the vehicular and/or person carrying capacity of the transportation network to the year 2021. 2. Transportation System Management/Demand Management Measures (TSM/TDM) -Transportation Demand Management (TDM) techniques and affiliated changes in societal values have the potential to affect travel demand. Programs such as improved pedestrian and bicycle facilities, high occupancy vehicle lanes, and staggered or flexible work hours can reduce travel demand. Trends in auto occupancy, vehicle ownership and work at home can both increase and decrease travel demand. TDM techniques have the potential to change the level of demand or at least adjust the peak demand times. This may help to reduce some of the transportation problems. Transportation System Management (TSM) techniques include numerous methods of maximizing the existing transportation system efficiency by eliminating localized deficiencies with cost effective minor improvements. This strategy assumes that over the next 10-20 years, there would be a concerted effort to market, implement and manage practical TDM strategies with a Municipality-wide objective to reduce the relative percentage of trips made by private automobile. Some TSM measures considered for the Master Plan Study included: Minor improvements to intersection geometrics including auxiliary lanes; Modification or upgrading in intersection traffic control; Optimizing signal timings; Guide signing; Changes in roadway network circulation; and Improved sidewalks, trails, and bicycle facilities.

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3. Improvements to Transit Service (Plus Strategic Option 2) - This alternative solution includes an increase in carrying capacity and the integration of local transit services within Chatham-Kent in order to encourage increased transit use. This mobility option requires a significant change in public opinion towards their mode choice. If achieved, a growth in the use of all non-automobile modes would be realized. This option includes the measures/enhancements included in Strategic Option 2. 4. Blended Transportation Services - This alternative combines the measures/improvements associated with Strategic Option 2 and increased transit service (Strategic Option 3) as well as the addition of new roadway capacity through the construction of new roadways, widening of existing facilities or upgrading of existing rural roads. The following summarizes the evaluation and discusses the ability of each option to meet the Municipalitys transportation needs. Strategic Option 1 The Do-Nothing Alternative The Do-Nothing alternative will not eliminate the existing and forecast travel demand deficiencies within the Municipality of Chatham-Kent or at its gateways with the Provincial highway system. This alternative will also not address the traffic related problems associated with tourist and agricultural activity in the Municipality and will have a negative impact on tourist travel and the economic health of the community. The option will not provide adequate transportation infrastructure to accommodate future increases in population, employment, and tourism within the Municipality. While the option has no direct physical impacts on the natural environment there will be undesirable local air quality effects within the community as congestion increases. The social impacts of the alternative relate to the effects of increased traffic volumes in the community resulting in a reduced quality of life as a result of the undesirable noise, dust and mobility concerns for the residents. Although the do-nothing alternative has the lowest implementation costs, it does not alleviate the transportation deficiencies and would significantly impair the future growth and development of the Municipality. The Do-Nothing alternative is not a realistic solution to the transportation challenges of Municipality of Chatham-Kent. This type of approach will not address any safety issues. Strategic Option 2 Transportation System/Demand Management (TSM/TDM) Measures The implementation of both TSM and TDM measures has the potential to address some of the Municipalitys transportation challenges, but on its own cannot address all the needs. Minor localized hot spots on roadways and intersections within the community would benefit from the implementation of TSM measures. TDM strategies are generally considered as companion strategies to land use planning and TSM improvements by addressing mobility requirements in an environmentally friendly and socially acceptable manner. Although some strategies

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are not applicable to the Municipality of Chatham-Kent community, others such as developing a pedestrian and cycling network or partnering with business community in the new employment growth areas for transit/rideshare programs have the potential to reduce single vehicle occupant use, thereby reducing auto demands within the community While the option has limited physical impacts on the natural environment, there will be undesirable local air quality effects within the community as congestion increases. The social impacts of the alternative relate to the effects of increased traffic volumes in the community, resulting in a reduced quality of life as a result of the undesirable noise, dust and mobility concerns for the residents. The option of TSM/TDM measures on their own does not adequately address existing or future deficiencies in the transportation system and therefore does not represent a practical solution to the transportation needs of the Municipality of Chatham-Kent. Strategic Option 3 Improvements to Transit Service With the addition of an enhanced transit service, some community needs can be addressed such as movement between urban nodes for work, shopping and medical trips. However, with residents working outside the community and a proportion of the workforce residing outside the community, notable reductions in daily travel by automobile would also require the implementation of convenient and reliable intermunicipal transit connections. A societal shift in the way commuting is viewed will also be required given the high rate of vehicle ownership in the Municipality. To the extent that greater use of transit can be achieved, some air quality improvements can be expected. However, given the current geography of ChathamKent and the future development patterns within the Municipality, the provision of a cost-effective service is very difficult to attain because of the amount of non-revenue bus hours that are created by the separation of the urban nodes. In summary, this alternative on its own is not likely to reduce the trend of increased congestion in areas of the community, resulting in increased deterioration of local air quality. Roadway traffic demands will still increase, resulting in similar social and economic impacts as those described in the Do-Nothing alternative. Strategic Option 4 Blended Transportation Services This alternative includes measures/improvements associated with Strategic Option 2 and Strategic Option 3 as well as the addition of roadway capacity through the construction of new roadways, widening of existing facilities or upgrading of existing rural roads. This is the only strategic option that could solve many of the existing and anticipated mobility challenges in the community. A blended transportation system plan which includes a proper mix of roads, transit and TDM/TSM strategies is seen as the most responsible solution to mobility challenges in the Municipality of Chatham-Kent. Although the blended transportation option has socio/cultural, natural environment, and economic impacts associated with it, many of the impacts can be mitigated. In

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addition, this option is the only alternative which can completely address existing and future travel demands and includes items such as parking, bicycle and trails facilities, roadway improvements and transit improvements. Since Strategic Option 4 can solve the problem and minimizes impacts through proper planning and design, it was rated as preferred over Options 1, 2 and 3. 4.4 Recommended Strategic Planning Solution(s)

Strategic Option 4, a blended transportation system which includes roadway capacity improvements, TDM/TSM measures and improved transit services was carried forward in the study as the recommended planning solution for Chatham-Kent. Specific roadway improvement options were developed and evaluated that could be considered to address the remaining transportation deficiencies, following the implementation of appropriate TDM/TSM and transit improvements. An objective of this approach is to encourage a modal shift away from single occupant vehicles (SOVs) within the daily trips that are currently made by ChathamKent residents. Opportunities to promote this objective will require education programs and other sources including: Increased public transit usage / accessibility; Promotion of rideshare programs (working in partnership with major employers); Designation of carpool lots (in cooperation with MTO); and The promotion of active transportation (walking, cycling or rollerblading) as an alternative to the private automobile and to encourage a healthier lifestyle.

It is important to note that a 10% reduction in daily single occupant vehicles may have little impact upon peak hour traffic volumes. Therefore, in the short term, the implementation of TDM/TSM measures should not be expected to immediately reduce SOVs to a significant degree since Chatham-Kent has only minor traffic congestion and an abundance of low cost parking. Improving the accessibility of public transit along with the provision of improved pedestrian and cycling infrastructure would, however, send a positive message that the Municipality is beginning to address environmental and public health concerns. Specific targets for individual mode shares should be developed, but to be meaningful, municipalities must first establish a benchmark of where are we now?. This can be established through transportation based surveys of residents travel behaviour and trip making characteristics. Undertaking these required surveys will ultimately be essential, however, the Municipality should not defer implementing basic (initial) network improvements as they serve to maximize the viability of these alternative modes.

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5.0 ROADWAY IMPROVEMENT OPTIONS A variety of alternative roadway improvement options have been identified to address projected capacity constraints and network continuity concerns. Upon completion of their evaluation, these preferred roadway improvement options are coordinated with the needs identified for other modes as part of the implementation strategy presented in section 7.0. 5.1 Alternative Roadway Improvement Options

It is anticipated that the projected increase in development would result in a limited number of roadway capacity constraints within the Municipality of Chatham-Kent. To accommodate the projected development growth and avoiding some of the localized operational constraints which are already beginning to materialize it is equally important that concerns related to the continuity of the Arterial and Collector roadway networks are addressed. Capacity Contraints The limited roadway capacity that is available crossing the Thames River in Chatham represents the most significant capacity constraint identified by the study. Consistent with the Class EA process the options which have been identified to address this constraint include: 1) Do Nothing 2) Improvements to Existing River Crossings (a) Replacement of the Keil Drive Structure (Widening to 5 lanes) (b) Widening of the existing Highway 40 Structure 3) Construction of a New River Crossing (a) In the vicinity of Bloomfield / Bearline Roads 3 lane structure 5 lane structure (and require a new

(b) Connecting Dillon and Winter Line Roads interchange at Hwy 401 and Dillon Road)

To address the projected capacity constraint crossing the CNR screenline by the year 2025 the options include: 1) Do Nothing 2) Widening of the existing Bloomfield Road Corridor 3) Provision of a Realigned Bloomfield Road (from south of Fifth Line) 4) Widening of Keil Drive By the year 2015 the forecast development would also generate the need for additional east/west capacity, west of the Lacroix Street screenline. Options to be

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considered to address this constraint include: 1) Do Nothing 2) Improvements to Gregory Drive 3) Improvements to McNaughton Avenue 4) Provision of a realigned Bloomfield / Bear Line Road connection (to redirect truck traffic north of Chatham and relieve congestion along Grand Avenue and Richmond Streets) Network Continuity As noted previously, maintaining a hierarchy of Arterial, Collector and Local roads and ensuring the long term continuity of those corridors is fundamental to addressing the municipalities transportation requirements and the provision of orderly development planning. To suitably accommodate the planned development growth, improvements to a range of arterial corridors are anticipated. These would include: Extension of Keil Drive (Park Avenue to Indian Creek Road) Extension of Indian Creek Road (to Bloomfield Road) Extension of McNaughton Avenue (to realigned Bear Line Road) Widening of Park Avenue to 4 lanes(West of Keil Drive) Widening of Bloomfield Road to 4 lanes (Hitchcock to South of Eight Line) Upgrade Pioneer Line to Arterial Standard (Bear Line to St. Clair Road)

To maintain suitable access to and from expanding developments a network of collector roads is equally important. Improvement opportunities to existing collector roadways would include: Extending Tweedsmuir Avenue to Hitchcock Road Upgrade Given Road to urban standard Extend Delaware Avenue (South of Gregory) Extend Taylor Trail (South of Gregory) Upgrade Gregory Drive to urban standard Upgrade Baldoon Road to urban standard Upgrade Creek Road (Park Avenue to Indian Creek) to urban collector standard Upgrade Fairview Line to urban collector standard

Access from Highway 401 to the industrial development in the north end of Tilbury is currently provided along Jeannettes Creek Road from the Queens Line interchange. The Highway 401 Corridor Planning Study that is currently being conducted by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation will need to address how this access will be maintained. Consideration will need to be given to the provision of a Parclo A2 interchange configuration and the realignment of Jeannettes Creek Road opposite the E-N/S and N/S-W ramps.

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5.2

Evaluation of the Recommendations

Roadway

Improvement

Options

and

In accordance with the Municipal Class Environmental Assessment planning and design process, the evaluation of alternatives was based upon a defined set of criteria representing the broad definition of the environment as described in the Environmental Assessment Act. The assessment of the alternative solutions was undertaken based on the following criteria: 1. Operational Effectiveness of Transportation Services Having regard for overall network efficiency (for all modes of travel), level of service, roadway geometrics, transit, and heavy vehicle support. 2. Cost Comparison Having regard for capital and maintenance costs. 3. Socio-economic Impact Having regard for residents, neighbourhoods, businesses, social cohesion, and community features. Evaluation of Alternatives to Address Capacity Constraints The comparative evaluations of the alternative solutions to address north/south capacity constraints over the Thames River and CNR Screenlines are provided in Tables 5.1 and 5.2. Table 5.3 presents the comparative evaluation of alternatives to address identified east/west capacity constraints west of the Lacroix Street screenline. Table 5.1 - Evaluation of the Thames River Screenline Alternatives
Criteria Do Nothing Does not address existing / future capacity issues. Capacity issues would continue to worsen under this alternative. Improve Existing River Crossings Would not satisfy capacity requirements. Construct a New River Crossing Would satisfy capacity requirements. Bloomfield / Bearline would directly connect areas with greatest residential and employment growth potential. Dillon Road / Winter Line would offer little benefit to planned development growth. Traffic congestion on arterial road network would increase traffic impacts through local neighbourhoods. Significant property impacts. Significant staging / construction impacts on area residents and businesses. Could divert truck traffic from Chathams downtown core. Bloomfield/Bearline would relieve congested corridors and improve service to N/S provincial traffic. Significant disruption due to increased traffic in Paincourt (Dillon/ Winterline Road). N/A Cost Significant property costs. Moderate capital costs. 2
nd

Operational Effectiveness

Socio-economic Impacts

Moderate Property Costs for undeveloped land. Significant capital costs. 1st (Bloomfield / Bearline)

Overall Rank

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Even though the Do Nothing alternative does not address the identified capacity issues, it has been included in the evaluation as a bench mark for evaluating the other options. Table 5.2 - Evaluation of the CNR Screenline Alternatives
Criteria Do Nothing Does not address existing/future capacity issues. Widen Bloomfield Road Limited opportunities exist to extend this existing corridor north of the Thames River. Significant impacts to existing residential development. Realign Bloomfield Road Diversion of traffic would also relieve demands along Richmond St, Grande Ave and St Clair St. Would divert truck traffic from Chathams downtown core. Widen Keil Drive Access to/from the Keil Drive corridor would be limited.

Operational Effectiveness

Socio-economic Impacts

Traffic congestion on arterial road network would increase traffic impacts through local neighbourhoods. N/A

Significant impacts to existing development along the corridor.

Significant property costs. Moderate capital costs. 2nd

Cost

Moderate property costs for undeveloped land. Significant capital costs. 1st

Significant property costs. Moderate capital costs. 3rd

Overall Rank

Table 5.3 - Evaluation of Lacroix Street Screenline Alternatives


Criteria Do Nothing Does not address existing/future capacity issues. Improve Gregory Drive Would service new residential growth but offers no significant relief to the Richmond and Grand Ave corridors Significant local neighbourhood traffic impacts to access the corridor. Minor property costs. Moderate capital costs. Improve McNaughton Avenue Provides no direct connection to the downtown core area. Residential character is unsuitable as a truck route. Significant impacts to existing residential development. Realign Bloomfield / Bear Line Road Connection Diversion of traffic would also relieve traffic demands along Richmond St, Grand Ave and St Clair St. Could divert truck traffic from Chathams downtown core.

Operational Effectiveness

Socio-economic Impacts

Traffic congestion on arterial road network would increase traffic impacts through local neighbourhoods. N/A

Significant property costs. Moderate capital costs. 3rd

Cost

Moderate property costs for undeveloped land Significant capital costs. 1st

Overall Rank

2nd

Based on the comparative evaluations undertaken, the provision of a new roadway connection in the area of Bloomfield Road and Bearline Road, plus additional improvements along the corridor, would suitably address a range of identified capacity constraints in the following locations:

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Thames River Crossing(North/South Capacity) CNR Crossing (North/South Capacity) West of Lacroix Street (East/West Capacity)

Additional roadway improvements, as described in section 5.1, are required for future network continuity. 5.3 Parking Facilities

Parking programs are presently in place in the Chatham-Kent Downtown areas of Blenheim, Chatham, Dresden, Ridgetown, Wallaceburg and Wheatley. Parking accumulation surveys were carried out in the above downtown areas to identify surplus or deficit supply of parking spaces now to plan for the next 20 years. Table 5.4 provides on street and off street parking supply and the findings of the parking accumulation surveys for each of the above mentioned downtown areas. The parking accumulation survey indicated that all downtown areas have on street sections and or off-street facilities that exceed 80% utilization but each overall parking program has an adequate supply of parking with sufficient reserves for growth. The downtown parking areas of Blenheim, Dresden Ridgetown, Tilbury, Wallaceburg and Wheatley should continue to be monitored on a bi-annual basis to ensure adequate supply of parking is being provided. Blenheim and Tilbury will require the identification of opportunities to develop addition off-street parking. The Chatham Central Business District Parking Review (completed December 2002) provided improvement opportunities for Chathams Downtown Parking Program. Many of the recommended improvements are in place today and others will address concerns raised by the public with relation to location and accessibility of new lots in relation to the down area. Table 5.4 - Municipality of Chatham-Kent Parking Supply and Utilization Downtown Parking Area Blenheim Chatham Dresden Ridgetown Tilbury Wallaceburg Wheatley Parking Supply OffOn-street Total street 205 166 371 293 1127 1420 154 91 245 227 94 321 160 41 201 113 322 435 85 73 158 Parking Utilization OffOn-street Total street 70% 63% 67% 72% 53% 56% 56% 27% 45% 51% 43% 49% 56% 80% 61% 55% 52% 53% 55% 43% 50%

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6.0 IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR OTHER TRAVEL MODES 6.1 Public Transit

With an objective to improve transit ridership and to satisfy provincial funding requirements, the Municipality of Chatham-Kent has developed a CK Transit Ridership Growth and Asset Management Plan (CK-RAMP). The plan (CK-RAMP) is an initial step that was presented as a living document and called for a variety of service improvements including: Additional Peak Hour Transit Service Expansion of Accessible Transit service areas in Chatham and Wallaceburg Downtown Chatham Transit Terminal improvements Expansions of CK Transits conventional transit service (ultimately to include integration with a municipality wide inter-community transit system) Integration of CK Transits Accessible Transit with a municipality wide intercommunity transit system

The low ridership levels that are currently being experienced by CK Transit indicate that the transit system operations are not operating effectively. This is most typically a function of the route design. Route design can affect the overall convenience and attractiveness of using transit (travel times, directness of travel and level of service). It also suggests however, that opportunities do exist to improve to improve public transit so that it is truly a valuable component of transportation in Chatham-Kent. A comprehensive Operational Review of CK Transit is required as the next step towards encouraging broader use of Public Transit in Chatham-Kent. The Operational review should first obtain a more thorough understanding of the true market potential for public transit. A survey (designed by a transit specialist) can be cost effectively distributed to the general population with Water or Utilities bills. Understanding the total market should be seen as the foundation for implementing a more effective route network. A network that is suited to the existing and future needs of the municipality. Reliability and Convenience are essential components for this to be successful. Once changes to the transit network have been implemented a transit marketing and promotion program should be introduced to raise the current image of transit in the community. This is essential for the efforts to be successful and economically viable while building upon the objectives presented in CK-RAMP. 6.2 Rail Corridors and Service

In order to maintain an efficient movement of goods within and through ChathamKent, it is essential that conflicts between truck/auto traffic, the railways, and development are minimized. Currently there are no railway crossings that meet the requirement for federal requirement for grade separations. However, given the rationalization of lines and the increasing length and frequency of trains, the Municipality should retain within

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their Official plan the goal to protect for future grade separations both in the eastwest and north south directions. Currently the Official plan only identifies the protection of a grade separation of the CSX Railway at Park Avenue in Chatham. A north south grade separation should be protected and the location should be established in conjunction with the expanded municipal or provincial roadway network. With the planned decommissioning of the CN Fargo Station Line and the proposed abandonment of the Chatham/Wallaceburg CSX line the Municipality should move to protect these right-of-ways for active transportation uses. 6.3 Active Transportation (Walking and Cycling)

The flat topography and many paved rural roads with low vehicular traffic volumes make C-K ideal for walking and bicycling. Sidewalks, community trails and residential streets with low vehicular traffic volumes exist in many parts of the urbanized areas of the municipality. Similar to other medium-sized Ontario communities there seems good potential for greater participation in walking and cycling. Both City planning studies and private initiatives are recommending providing on-road and off-road facilities, including the use of hydro and railway corridors, when they would become available. Exhibit 6.1 shows the existing rural roads divided into three classes according to average daily (24 hour) traffic volumes: less than 800, 800 to 2000 and over 2000 vehicles. The Exhibit also indicates the planned location of the Trans Canada Trail, railway corridors and HEPC owned transmission line rights-of-way. Leased hydro line right-of-ways are not being considered for trail development because of existing farm operations and the expected lengthy negotiating time for any easements. 6.3.1 Planning Considerations The main objective in developing a plan is to establish a network of relatively safe on-road and off-road walking and cycling facilities that would allow for future changes as opportunities arise. The specific aims of such network would be to: Facilitate transportation and recreational bicycling between and within local communities Promote recreational/tourist bicycling and walking through selective trail development Encourage walking within local communities C-K is a municipality with many communities, nine of them with more than 1000 residents. The C-K Urban Design Study mentions that C-K is ideally suited for initiating a bicycling infrastructure that would encourage exploration of all parts of The study report also advocates the Chatham-Kents diverse landscapes.6 rediscovering the value of the pedestrian by drawing people from their motor

C-K Urban Design Study, Final Report: Urban Design Framework and Urban Design Guidelines, Brown & Storey Architects (and others), 2005

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Insert Exhibit 6.1 Existing Infrastructure Rural Area

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vehicles to the public spaces of cultural attractions, parks and shopping areas is best made through the encouragement of pedestrian systems. It is recognized that pedestrians and cyclists want to go to most of the destinations that can be reached by motor vehicles. Since even an extensive trail system could not serve all destinations or would be extremely expensive, roadway rights-of-way are required for pedestrian and bicycling travel. The following paragraphs describe the needs of pedestrians and cyclists to get a better understanding of the facilities required and aspects of community design that could lead to modified roadway sections. This is followed by the description of some general user participation and promotional trends, and guiding principles for the development of facilities in C-K. Trip Types and User Needs Pedestrians and cyclists can be divided into various groups according to their trip purpose, such as commuting, going to the store or library, recreational, exercise or sightseeing. Cyclists can also be divided into two main groups of cyclists according to their cycling skills in and attitudes towards motorized traffic: experienced utilitarian and recreational cyclists, and casual recreational cyclists. Experienced cyclists are competent in sharing the road with motorized traffic; casual cyclists prefer bicycling lanes and, in particular, multi-use paths (trails and greenways). This less experienced user group, however, holds the greatest potential for increasing bicycling use. North American bikeway guidelines generally specify that no bicycle facilities are required for two-lane rural roads with two-way 24-hour traffic volumes lower than 800 vehicles; these roads are suitable for all cyclists. Experienced cyclists will comfortably ride on two-lane rural roads without bicycle facilities and two-way 24hour traffic volumes up to 2,000 vehicles. This threshold is based on limited research and many bicycle racers and other cyclists will use roads with higher volumes (see Chapter 3.4). Community Design The C-K urban design study emphasizes the importance of Main Street in each community as an important cultural centre. Main Streets usually have higher densities and mixed use development and may also have some special characteristics such as waterfronts, historic sites, special public spaces and other unique features. There may be attractive facades and buildings facing the street and closer to sidewalks, creating a more pedestrian-friendly environment (Exhibit 6.2). On-street car parking and off-street car parking lots behind the buildings and bicycle parking close to the buildings would encourage cycling as well.

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Exhibit 6.2 Downtown Building Facades, Chatham

The typical layout of many suburbs with their circuitous streets and cul-de sacs discourages walking and cycling. Sidewalk connections are often lacking near bus stops, discouraging walking and transit use. Several colleges in C-K house students in apartments on their campuses and in private buildings in the surrounding areas. Thus, many students walk, bike or take the bus between home, campus and other destinations. Traffic calming is the combination of mainly physical measures that reduce the negative effects of motor vehicle use, alter driver behaviour and improve condition for non-motorized street users.7 Traffic calming measures are most often used on residential or central business district streets where increasing pedestrian and cyclist access and safety are desirable. A bicycle priority street (in the US called a bicycle boulevard) is essentially a shared roadway modified to function as a through-street exclusively for bicycles and allowing local motor vehicle traffic but discouraging cutthrough motor vehicle traffic. Exhibit 6.3 shows a typical bicycle priority street as illustrated in the Oregon Bikeway manual.8 Exhibit 6.3 Typical Bicycle Priority Street

The C-K urban design study has recommended consideration of traffic calming measures at the entrances to the various communities as well as policies to maintain low speeds in congested pedestrian areas and residential neighborhoods.
7 8

Canadian Guide to Neighbourhood Traffic Calming, Transportation Association of Canada, 1998 Oregon Bicycle and Pedestrian Plan, Part 2, Figure 26, Oregon Department of Transportation, 1995

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Hence, there are opportunities to meet the infrastructure needs of pedestrians and cyclists by modifying street designs in commercial and residential areas. General Trends In recent years studies have been conducted about demographics, health promotion, bicycle tourism and other topics that might guide the development of walking and bicycling in C-K.9 In recent years detailed bicycling studies were conducted in several larger Ontario cities. Among others, these studies indicate cycling participation rates and car and bicycle trip lengths based on telephone surveys of adults (age 15 and over), including: The number of households with bicycles: 62-73% The number of adults cycling at least once a year: 44 - 57% Percentage cyclists riding more than 20 km: 3% Percentage cyclists riding for sports/competition: 1-2% 50 percent of all car trips are 5 km long or less.

Some general trends that may influence participation in walking and cycling are: More people retire early, at least part-time, resulting in more leisure time and a search for smaller retirement communities. Increasing physical activity should be a priority for the health of the community, for both adults and youth. Higher fuel prices might be an incentive for people to make short utilitarian trips by foot or bicycle. People may walk more if transit usage were increased. Spread out locations of employment areas mitigate against pedestrian and bicycle commuting trips. Most cyclists in Ontario are recreational cyclists but a substantial portion of them also use their bicycles for utilitarian purposes. Most recreational trips are within the cities, towns and villages where people live. Spoke-and-hub recreational trips are increasing in popularity. Most cyclists prefer paved roads and trails. Walking and cycling tourists need adequate amenities; in turn they will stimulate the economy of communities that provide these amenities. Cycling education for motorists and cyclists has been lagging in many communities despite initiatives by local police forces and cycling organizations.

9 Ways to Achieve Greater Participation in Cycling - The Potential for Cycling, Cycle Ontario Alliance Conference, 2005

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Guiding Principles Based on the assessment of opportunities, current issues and expressed public desires about promoting walking and bicycling, the following guiding principles for the development of on-road and off-road walking and bicycling facilities apply: Provide connections within and among the various communities. Serve key destinations/attractions, i.e. where demand is expected. Follow attractive and scenic routes, where feasible. Account for different skill and comfort levels of users in relation to vehicular traffic. Account for potential implementation issues. Expect realistic financing from different sources. Space primary bicycling routes in urban areas at about 2-2.5 km.

6.3.2 Conceptual Corridor Framework The approach taken for an on-road and off-road corridor framework is to build upon the existing network of city streets and paved country roads with low vehicular traffic volumes, and to provide connections between the various communities. In various locations, however, there are no other alternatives than using roads with higher vehicular traffic volumes and improvements for pedestrians and/or cyclists have to be made. The development of a conceptual framework of on-road and off-road corridors is governed by the bicycling mode due to the higher speeds at which bicycles can be operated. No distinction will be made between bicycling corridors for recreation or for transportation since many corridors have a dual purpose. Exhibit 6.4 illustrates the concept of two east-west and three north-south broad corridors that could provide connections among the various communities: Thames River corridor Lake Erie shoreline corridor Essex County Line corridor Central corridor from Wallaceburg via Chatham to Erieau Sydenham River corridor extended via Thamesville and Ridgetown to Lake Erie

The Exhibit also indicates the location of the Trans Canada Trail route, railway lines and hydro company owned transmission line rights-of-way since the framework should allow for future changes as opportunities arise. Many sections of the Trans Canada Trail route could potentially be incorporated in the conceptual framework. The use of any hydro corridors may, however, be limited due to potential health concerns for people traveling along these corridors. Railway rationalization is resulting in the abandonment of some railway corridors but the scope of rationalization is unknown at this time. Section 6.2 identifies two railway corridors that are in the process of being abandoned and could become

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available for purposes such as trail development: CN railway: Fargo Station to Elgin County CSX railway: Chatham via Dresden and Wallaceburg to Lambton County Exhibit 6.4 Conceptual Corridor Framework

Abandoning existing railways follows a procedure set out in the Canada Transportation Act 1996.10 Other railway companies followed by senior governments have the first rights of refusal. Thereafter a municipality will be asked to consider purchase; the time to react is short (see Appendix C-1).

10 Canada Transportation Act, 1996, Transferring and Discontinuing the Operation of Railway Lines, Division V, Clause 145, Transport Canada (website)

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The following sections describe the primary route networks developed for the rural and the urban areas, and based on the conceptual corridor framework. 6.3.3 Primary Route Networks Rural Chatham-Kent Potential route alternatives in each corridor were identified and recorded by section, number of traffic lanes, 24-hour vehicular traffic volumes (AADT) and details about pavement, scenic or other details. The alternatives were evaluated using the guiding principles set out above. Appendix C-2 presents the potential rural route alternatives in each corridor with the preferred routes highlighted. Opportunities may, however, arise for future changes. The primary route network would consist of mainly paved roads with low traffic volumes, roads with higher traffic volumes requiring improvements such as paved shoulders and multi-use paths in future railway and utility rights-of-way, if available. This primary network is connected with routes identified in Essex and Lambton counties In some locations the paving of an existing unpaved road section or the construction of a separated multi-use path or a walking trail within the road right-of-way may be considered (Exhibit 6.5). Separated multi-use and equestrian trails could also be located in railway and/or utility corridors (Exhibit 6.6). Some changes to the Trans Canada Trail alignment should be considered to minimize overall costs. Exhibit 6.7 shows preferred on-road primary routes, (to be) abandoned railway rights-of-way that need to be acquired and the Trans Canada Trail route. Recognizing the potential for tourism and recreational activities in C-K, the Lake Erie shoreline and three tourist zones were identified as having the greatest potential for increased recreational /tourist walking and bicycling in Chatham-Kent because of their scenery, attractions/destinations and available amenities. Exhibit 6.8 depicts the following four areas: Lake Erie shoreline Thames River Valley area from Chatham westerly; Mitchell Bay / Wallaceburg / Dresden area; and Blenheim / Ridgetown / Rondeau Park area

The initial improvements in rural C-K focus on sections of roads and trails within the four areas as well as on sections of roads leading from Chatham to these areas. The improvements would consist of paved shoulders for those road sections with traffic volumes that are currently greater than approximately 2000 motor vehicles per day. Exhibit 6.8 illustrates the following road sections that would require initial improvements: MR 3 from Bloomfield Road to Blenheim MR 11 from Blenheim to Shrewsbury MR 10 from Chatham to MR 8

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Exhibit 6.5 Typical Rural Roadway with Walking and Bicycling Facilities

Paved shoulders along the MR 3 and MR 11 sections would improve safety for both motorists and cyclists along the Lake Erie Shore route and in the Blenheim area. These sections would also accommodate cycling farm workers and slow moving farm vehicles. Improvements along MR 10 would enhance the direct cycling route between Chatham, Lake Erie and Blenheim

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Exhibit 6.6 Railway/Utility Corridor with Separated Trails

The location of existing Highway 40 with its high traffic volumes is a major deterrent for cyclists from Wallaceburg South to Mitchells Bay and beyond. A primary cycling route connection between Bear Line/Electric Line and Baseline/Baldoon Line should therefore be determined in conjunction with the proposed Highway 40 By-Pass Planning study. Exhibit 6.8 indicates the general location of this important cycling route connection. The planning study would determine the most appropriate location for the cycling route connection, the construction of which could be well in advance of the actual construction of the Highway 40 By-pass. Improvements in the focus areas would include: Examining sections of the Trans Canada Trail route as part of or separated from on-road routes Identifying loop routes for recreational cycling 6.3.4 Primary Route Networks Urban Communities Due to their population size and urban development Chatham and, to a lesser extent, Wallaceburg are considered having the greatest potential for bicycling and requirements for bicycling routes that would serve cyclists. The networks in the urban communities would be linked to the rural corridors shown in Exhibit 6.7 above.

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Insert Exhibit 6.7 (Primary Route Network Rural Area)

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Insert Exhibit Improvements)

6.8

(Primary

Route

Network

Rural

Area

Initial

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The following paragraphs describe primary on-road networks for utilitarian and recreational bicycling, and primary off-road corridors for recreational walking and bicycling in Chatham and Wallaceburg. Local streets and secondary trails would allow pedestrians and cyclists to reach most destinations. Chatham There are four bridges across the Thames River in the Chatham urban area. Three of these bridges, at Keil Drive, Lacroix Street and Third Street, pose a major constraint to cyclists due to the lack of road space and the high vehicular traffic volumes; the cross sections at these bridges are too narrow to accommodate wider curb lanes or bicycle lanes. The Fifth Street Bridge is the only bridge that can be considered adequate for road sharing because of lower traffic speeds and volumes. Table 6.1 provides details of the Chatham Bridges Crossing the Thames River. Table 6.1 - Chatham Bridges Crossing the Thames River Road Location Keil Drive Sandys / Lacroix Street St. Clair / Third Street Victoria Avenue / Fifth Street William Street AADT (2005) 31,500 22,800 14,000 7,000 7,000 No. of Lanes 4 4 2 2 2 Bridge Width (m) 12.2 14.3 12.2 11.2 13.2

Accordingly, and due to its location in the commercial downtown core, the Fifth Street Bridge was chosen as the focal point of the primary bicycling route network, giving access to spine routes in both the north-south and east-west directions. These routes are: Victoria Ave - Queen Street, and Riverview- King-Colborne Street

The primary route network was developed following the guiding principle that residents in urban areas should have access to a primary bicycling route within a five minute ride, i.e. approximately 1-1.25 km. Hence, bicycling route spacing should be about 2-2.5 km. Another criterion is locating primary bicycle routes close to major destinations and attractions, i.e. downtown, St. Clair College, community centres and major employment areas. Based on the route spacing and destination criteria the following routes were identified (see Exhibit 6.9). In the east-west direction: Gregory Drive, McNaughton Ave, Riverview / King West / Colborne Streets, Richmond Street from Bloomfield Road to Merritt Avenue and Tweedsmuir Avenue. In the north-south direction: Baldoon Road / Merritt Ave, Victoria Avenue / Queen Street and the potential CSX railway corridor.

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Exhibit 6.9 Primary Route Network - Chatham

Grand Avenue (MR2) is a major arterial and truck road and not conducive for cycling. There is, however, a need for a continuous bicycling route on the north side and adjacent to the Thames River, i.e. in the Grand Ave corridor. It is also recognized that access to the riverfront is quite limited. It is therefore proposed to develop a greenway concept along the river, i.e. a linear open space corridor along the river with a pathway that would connect major destinations, parks and neighbourhoods. The greenway should be designed to accommodate pedestrians, cyclists, in-line skaters and wheelchair users The Thames River Greenway would be located between the Bear Line/Grand Ave intersection and the CSX railway corridor, including the existing short multi-use path on the north side of the river across the Thames-Lea Plaza. In certain areas (e.g. parts of downtown) the concept would likely include a pathway for pedestrians only

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and (connecting) street sections for cyclists. The greenway and downtown streets with wider sidewalks (see Exhibit 6.10) could help in revitalizing the downtown. Exhibit 6.10 Typical Downtown Street with Wide Sidewalk

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The Greenway concept would also include a pedestrian/cyclist bridge across the Thames River to connect Baldoon Road and Merritt Ave. The Baldoon Ave / Keil Drive was rejected as primary bicycling route because of the inadequate road space available for cyclists on the river bridge and the high traffic volumes at the Grand Ave intersection. Cyclists are now using the narrow bridge sidewalks that may lead to potential hazardous conflicts with motor vehicles at the intersections. The new river bridge at Merritt Ave would be more comfortable for casual and experienced cyclists. A new railway crossing for pedestrians and cyclists would also be required. Several streets identified as primary routes would require improvements such as the installation of bicycle lanes; other streets would need traffic calming measures to reduce traffic speeds and/or traffic volumes. In some cases, this would involve modifications such as road narrowing by removing travel lanes. A growing number of Ontario municipalities are converting four-lane or wide streets with relatively low AADTs to two-lane streets with two-way centre left turn (TWCLT) lanes and bicycle lanes (see Exhibit 6.11). Appendix C-3 presents potential route alternatives and the preferred primary cycling routes highlighted. The primary off-road corridors for recreational walking would be the Thames River Greenway and the CSX railway corridor, if acquired following abandonment. Exhibit 6.9 above indicates initial and ultimate road improvements as well as potential trail corridors. The scope and schedule of ultimate road improvements would be subject to a more detailed Bicycle Study for Chatham. Specific aspects would include traffic calming measures and/or reducing number of traffic lanes along some primary routes. Meanwhile improving the central east-west primary bicycling route along Riverview Drive, King Street and Colborne Street should be started. Wallaceburg The three branches of the Sydenham River divide the urban area of Wallaceburg in three geographical sections. Four road bridges and a pedestrian bridge, as identified in Table 6.2, connect these sections; an additional bridge could be available if the CSX railway line would be acquired for trail development. The primary bicycle route network should include some of these bridges to serve major destinations and attractions in the various geographical sections. Most cyclists are not comfortable using the McNaughton Bridge because of the heavy traffic volumes and limited road space. The McNaughton Bridge is part of existing Highway 40 through Wallaceburg. This highway does not only carry through traffic between Sarnia and Chatham but it also serves many commercial properties along Dufferin Avenue and McNaughton Ave. It is unlikely that any bicycling improvements along this highway will be made until the results of a forthcoming Highway 40 By-Pass study by MTO are known.

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Exhibit 6.11 Typical Urban Roadway Conversions From Four Traffic Lanes

Appendix C-4 presents details of potential alternative routes. Exhibit 6.12 shows the following primary on-road bicycling routes through Wallaceburg: In the east-west direction: Dufferin Ave / Dauw Ave / Elgin Street / Duncan Street / Margaret Avenue and Base Line from Gilliard Street westerly In the north-south direction: Wallace / Bruce / Gilliard Street

The CSX railway corridor, if acquired by C-K following abandonment, could become a valuable part of the overall primary pedestrian and bicycling network. For example, paving the shoulders along Dufferin Avenue from Dauw Ave westerly would not be required if the northwest part of the CSX railway corridor would be converted to a paved trail.

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Table 6.2 - Wallaceburg Bridges Crossing the Sydenham River Road Location Margaret Avenue Murray Street McNaughton Avenue Base Line Road McDougall Street AADT (2005) 8,000 10,000 14,300 4,000 Pedestrian Bridge No. of Lanes 2 4 2 2 Bridge Width (m) 9.1 14.8 9.8 8.5 1.0

Exhibit 6.12 Primary Route Network - Wallaceburg

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Connections between the east-west and north-south routes would be via the existing McDougall Street Bridge and the Murray Street Bridge (for more experienced cyclists), and potentially via the CSX railway bridge. Other Urban Communities The urban areas of the other communities with a population of 1,000 residents or more are approximately 2 to 5 km2 in size. The street patterns generally consist of two main streets intersecting in the centre of town with parallel local streets, except in some newer subdivisions (e.g. in Tilbury). The rectangular grid street patterns with short blocks keep traffic speeds low and give pedestrians and cyclists many route choices to move from one place to another. Ridgetown College is located off Main Street less than 1 km from the centre of Ridgetown. Many students live in town and the college is an easy commute by foot and bike. Since most cyclists would use Main Street and Erie Street in Ridgetown, selective traffic calming measures should be considered if vehicular traffic speeds are deemed to be excessive for these streets. In all communities traffic calming measures should be considered for their main streets when reconstruction takes place or safety issues are raised. The C-K Urban Design study also suggested traffic calming measures such as narrowing road surface at approaches of small communities like Highgate, Merlin and Morpeth. Special consideration should, however, be given to provisions for cyclists to prevent them to swing out into vehicular traffic flow. Several communities have walking trails, mostly in the form of sidewalks and in parks. There is a 6 km long trail to Uncle Toms Cabin in Dresden, one of the main historic sites in C-K. New walking linkages could be created by making use of natural land features and future railway and utility rights-of-way (if available). Multi-use paths could be developed in these rights-of-way located at the periphery of Dresden, Ridgetown and Tilbury. 6.4 Municipal Airport

As part of the public consultation process feedback received on the role of the Airport focused on whether there was a potential to expand the Airports use for corporate flights. For any significant changes to occur in any of these areas there must be a trigger or catalyst for the change or growth. To achieve this strategy must be developed which identifies not only the opportunities that exist, but the elements that must be put in place to lead/fuel the growth in airport use. It is recommended that a study be carried out to determine the future of Chatham-Kents Airport and to investigate the feasibility for the expansion of corporate flights, the implementation of a scheduled service and the increased use for the movement of goods to and from the Chatham-Kent area.

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6.5

Water Ports

As part of the public consultation process some limited feedback was received on the future and role of the water ports. The comments focused on investigating the ability of the water ports to serve as an alternate mode of exporting local agricultural products. It is recommended that a study be carried out to determine the future of the Erieau and Wheatley commercial docks and how they can contribute to the movement of goods to and from the Municipality of Chatham Kent. 6.6 Utility Corridors

Similar to abandoned railway corridors, several hydro transmission corridors throughout the Municipality could potentially be used for trail development, if acceptable to the hydro companies that own them.

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7.0 IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 7.1 The Preferred Improvement Plan

Implementation of the Transportation Master Plan to provide a blended transportation system for Chatham-Kent will require implementation of some travel demand management (TDM) measures combined with strategic investments to improve the roadway network, public transit and to safely accommodate active transportation. 7.1.1 Roads The priorities of the recommended roadway network plan to accommodate the projected increased travel demands are presented in Exhibit 7.1. These roadway network requirements have been identified to address projected capacity constraints and the importance of network continuity. These are considered fundamental to minimize the occurrence of local neighbourhood traffic concerns. Additional localized operational improvements including the incorporation of traffic calming measures may still be necessary to optimize the operation of the existing roadway network and to assist in promoting pedestrian friendly local neighbourhoods. Exhibit 7.1 Roadway Improvement Priorities

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The Transportation Master Plan will require periodic monitoring and updating to suit the changing needs of development within such a diverse community as ChathamKent. The planning of these recommended roadway improvements must conform to the requirements of the Municipal Class Environmental Assessment process. The recommended network improvement priorities and preliminary construction cost estimates (excluding property acquisition) are summarized in more detail in Table 7.1. In addition, the provincial highway system also provides important linkages to the roadway network within Chatham-Kent. A study examining planned improvements to the Highway 401 corridor is currently being completed by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation (MTO). The Highway 40 corridor provides a vital link in the roadway network which services both local and provincial traffic. Jurisdiction over the corridor is predominantly the province (MTO) but is shared with Chatham-Kent through connecting link agreements within the communities of Chatham and Wallaceburg. It is recommended that the Municipality of Chatham-Kent and MTO undertake a joint study of the highway 40 corridor to address a variety issues that were reported as part of the Transportation Master Plan, including; Increasing demands of provincial truck traffic on municipal roadways; Limited opportunities to pass slower moving vehicles along the corridor between Chatham and Wallaceburg; Routing alternatives to better serve the inter-regional (provincial) traffic; and Future railway grade separation requirements for a provincial highway. The long term vitality of economic growth within Chatham-Kent is closely related to access to / from the highway 401 trade corridor. The Transportation Master Plan has examined the mobility requirements within Chatham-Kent to a planning horizon of 2025. In cooperation with MTO, to maintain suitable longer-term access to the highway 401 corridor, beyond the timeframe of this Transportation Master Plan, the feasibility of providing future interchanges on highway 401 at Charing Cross Road and at Dillon Road should be examined. 7.1.2 Transit A comprehensive operational review of CK Transit is required to improve the accessibility of the current services if broader use of public transit in Chatham-Kent is to be achieved. The operational review should first obtain a more thorough understanding of the true market potential for public transit. A survey (designed by a transit specialist) can be cost effectively distributed to the general population with water or utilities bills. Understanding the total market should be seen as the foundation for implementing a more effective route network. A network that is suited to the existing and future needs of the municipality. Reliability and convenience are essential components for this to be successful.

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Table 7.1 Recommended Roadway Network Improvements


Enhanced Capacity
1 2

Capital Cost $M 13.9 4 5.7 2.0 2.6

0-5 X

5-10

10-20

20+yrs

3 4 5

Bloomfield Road Hitchcock Road to Bearline Road Realigned 5 Lane Arterial * Park Avenue West Keil Drive to Realigned Bloomfield Road - Widen to 5 Lanes and Upgrade to Urban Standard Bloomfield Road Eighth Line to Hitchcock Road Widen to 5 Lanes * Park Avenue Maple Leaf Drive to Seimans Drive Widen to 5 Lanes and Upgrade to Urban Standard Grand Avenue West Keil Drive to Bearline Road Widen to 5 Lanes and Upgrade to Urban Standard

X X X X

Enhanced Connectivity and Operations


Community of Chatham
6 7 8 9

0-5 1.6 4.7 5.3 2.8 -1.8 0.8 1.4 1.4 0.4 2.8 1.8 2.9 0.2 1.0 2.1 1.5 2.6 1.5 2.1 2.3 1.7 3.8 X X X X

5-10

10-20 X

20+yrs

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Sandy Street Grand Avenue to McNaughton Avenue Widen to 3 Lanes Pioneer Line Bearline Road to St. Clair Street Upgrade to Rural Arterial Standard Keil Drive McNaughton Avenue to Riverview Drive Widen to 5 Lanes Indian Creek Road West East of Braemar to Bloomfield Road - Extend to Bloomfield Road and Upgrade to Urban Arterial Standard Indian Creek Road Eastlawn Road to Communication Road - Urban Arterial Extension Howard Road Indian Creek to Park Avenue Upgrade to Urban Collector Standard Hitchcock Road Howard Road to Bloomfield Road Upgrade to Urban Collector Standard Tweedsmuir Avenue Howard Road to West of Wedgewood Place - New Urban Collector McNaughton Avenue Bearline Road to Bloomfield Extension - New Urban Arterial Connection McNaughton Avenue Fergie Jenkins to Bearline Road - Upgrade to Urban Arterial Standard McNaughton Avenue Sandy Street to Keil Drive Upgrade to Urban Arterial Standard Baldoon Road OLFS to Gregory Drive Upgrade to Urban Collector Standard Gregory Drive School to Bearline Road Upgrade to Urban Collector Standard Given Road Limit of Subdivision to McNaughton Avenue - Upgrade to Urban Local Road Standard Taylor Trail Idelwild Drive to Gregory Drive New Urban Collector Connection Landings Pass McNaughton Avenue to Gregory Drive - Upgrade to Urban Collector Standard Delaware Avenue South of Gregory Drive Future Urban Collector Connection Keil Drive Park Avenue to Indian Creek Road New 3 Lane Urban Arterial Keil Drive Dale Drive to Gregory Drive New Urban Collector Connection Keil Drive Gregory Drive to Pioneer Line Future Urban Collector Connection Fairview Line Creek Road to Communication Road Upgrade to Urban Collector Standard Creek Road Park Avenue to Indian Creek Road Upgrade to Urban Collector Standard Richmond Street Keil Drive to Bloomfield Road Extention - Upgrade to Urban Arterial Standard

X X X X X X

X X

X X X X X X X X X

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Capital Cost $M

January 2008

Enhanced Capacity
Community of Mitchells Bay
29 30

0-5 0-5

5-10 5-10

10-20 10-20 X X

20+yrs 20+yrs

Main Street Winter Line Road to Park Street Upgrade to Collector Standard Angler Line West of Winter Line Road Upgrade to Local Standard Coutts Line Monpetit Road to Jeannettes Creek Road - Upgrade to Rural Collector Standard Jeannettes Creek Road Coutts Line to Hwy 401 Upgrade to Rural Collector Standard Arnold Road Dufferin Ave to Baseline Road Upgrade to Arterial Standard Baseline Road Arnold Road to Baldoon Road Upgrade to Arterial Standard Baldoon Road / Border Road Baseline Road to Hwy 40 - New Arterial Connection Crossing Sydenham River 1 Concession Road South of Erie Street Upgrade to Urban Local Standard Drovers Drive Erie Street to Klondyke Road Upgrade to Urban Collector Standard Klondyke Road Talbot Trail to Drovers Road Upgrade to Urban Collector Standard Middleton Line Klondyke Road to Harbour Road Upgrade to Urban Collector Standard Harbour Road Talbot Trail to Middleton Line Upgrade to Urban Local Standard Middleton Line West of Harbour Road Upgrade to Urban Collector Standard McLean Road East of Erie St South Upgrade to Urban Local Standard Golf Course Line- Erie Street South to Moore Road Upgrade to Collector Standard Moore Road Golf Course Line to Victoria Road Upgrade to Collector Standard
st

1.5 1.9 0-5 1.5 0.9 X X 0-5 ---0-5 1.3 0.3 1.5 0.8 0.4 0.3 0.2 0-5 1.1 1.1 5-10 X 5-10 X 5-10 5-10

Community of Tilbury
31 32

10-20

20+yrs

Community of Wallaceburg
33 34 35

10-20

20+yrs X X X

Community of Wheatley
36 37 38 39 40 41 42

10-20

20+yrs

X X

X X X 10-20 20+yrs X X

Community of Ridgetown
43 44

* Potential for a controlled access facility to be reviewed.

Once changes to the transit network have been implemented, a transit marketing and promotion program should be introduced to raise the current image of transit in the community. This is essential for the efforts to be successful and economically viable while building upon the objectives presented in CK-RAMP. 7.1.3 Walking and Cycling The implementation of the primary route networks of pedestrian and bicycling facilities requires setting priorities and preparing planning policies / design guidelines. The following paragraphs set out objectives and strategies for implementing priority improvements.

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The following objectives for priority improvements were set: Improve on-road bicycling routes to and within three tourist zones in rural C-K, and along the Lake Erie shoreline Implement an east-west and a north-south primary spine bicycling routes through the centre of Chatham Facilitate recreational walking and bicycling through the development of the Trans Canada Trail (TCT) route and other trails

A key strategy to promote walking and bicycling in C-K within a limited budget is to focus initially on local cycling infrastructure improvements to primary cycling routes identified that could be implemented at low cost and would make the routes safer and more convenient. Local improvement projects could demonstrate the potential of pedestrian and bicycling infrastructure. Typical local improvements would include shoulder paving, minor pavement widening, bicycle lane striping, signage, changing catch basin grates, curb cuts for trails, etc. This would be a City led initiative with input from local cycling and trail organizations. Concurrently two separate and more detailed investigations need to be conducted to determine project feasibility and approvals: Bicycling Plan and Thames River Greenway Concept studies in Chatham. The two studies should be interrelated but separate since it is expected that their durations and financing are quite different. The Bicycling Plan study could be completed within 6-9 months and financed from an Active Transportation budget. The study would be followed by on-going development of the primary route networks set out in the previous chapter. The Thames River Greenway Concept study could likely be completed within two years with funding from other level of government and private partnerships. The high collision rate involving cyclists should be a major concern. It needs to be addressed not only through facility improvements but also through motorist education and cyclist skills training. Educational and promotional initiatives such as offering Can-Bike cycling skill courses, identifying and promoting safe walking and cycling routes to school, and producing a map of on-road and off-road cycling facilities should be considered as part of an overall AT program. A Citizens Committee should be established to advise in all matters related to safety and promotional issues. Construction Preferably road improvements should be carried out according to the schedule of the Citys multi-year roads program of reconstruction and resurfacing. In some instances, however, consideration should be given to move a reconstruction or resurfacing project ahead in the regular schedule because of safety concerns or the Citys Active Transportation strategy. Recommended rural road improvements include paving the shoulders of MR 3 / MR 11 in the vicinity of Blenheim and Charing Cross Road from Chatham to MR 8. (see Exhibit 6.8 in Section 6.0). These two road sections with moderate to high traffic volumes serve as important linkages and have no low traffic volume road or off-road

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alternatives. Paving the shoulders in these locations would also benefit the movement of farm workers and farm vehicles. Recommended local improvements in Chatham would be along Riverview, King West, Victoria and Queen Street as these streets form the primary spine east-west and north-south routes through Chatham. Providing bicycle lanes and/or paved shoulders along Colborne Street would extend the east-west route to east urban limits. Building the TCT as an entirely off-road trail within existing road rights-of-way would not be financially justified in terms of expected usage and infrastructure needs. TCT initiatives should focus on the three tourist zones. The trail is mostly along low volume asphalt and gravel roads that do not require off-road improvements; tarand-chip paving may be all that is needed. Where traffic volumes warrant them, it is recommended that shoulders be paved for cycling and off-road gravel trails built within the road rights-of-way for walking. Alternatively, paved off-road multi-use paths may be appropriate along rural roads having few driveways and minor intersections, subject to the proper design of entry and exit access. When rural roads on the TCT alignment are being reconstructed or resurfaced designers should carefully examine whether to recommend paving the shoulders with or without offroad walking trails, or paved off-road paths. Developers are required to build sidewalks in all new subdivisions under the Citys subdivision service agreements. But in older areas section of sidewalks are in poor repair or missing, including near schools, parks and bus stops, i.e. locations frequented by pedestrians. An annual sidewalk program should therefore be initiated to eliminate these deficiencies over time. Also, selling shortcuts between adjacent areas at the requests of adjacent property owners has often an adverse affect on walking patterns. The merits of these sales should be carefully considered before approval. All future new urban road construction or widening projects along the identified primary cycling routes should include bicycle lanes or paved shoulders. Appendix C-5 sets out simplified guidelines related to pedestrian and bicycle design issues. The guidelines include modified current C-K pedestrian standards as well as selective bikeway guidelines adopted by the Ontario Ministry of Transportation11, Transportation Association of Canada12) and other agencies.

Ontario Bikeways Planning and Design Guidelines, MTO, 1996 Geometric Design Guide for Canadian Roads, Chapter 3.4 Bikeways, Transportation Association of Canada, 1999; Bikeway Traffic Control Guidelines for Canada, Transportation Association of Canada, 1998
12

11

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Planning Studies The following more detailed studies should be carried out as a follow-up to this TMP: Determine a primary cycling route connection between Bear Line/Electric Line and Baseline/Baldoon south of Wallaceburg in conjunction with the Highway 40 By-Pass study (MTO / City partnership) Carry out a Bicycling Plan study in Chatham to detail the various elements from this Transportation Master Plan and to set a more precise implementation schedule. Specific aspects include: - The Baldoon Road / Merritt Ave route and its pedestrian / bicycle bridge across the Thames river; - Traffic calming measures and/or reducing the number of traffic lanes of five candidate streets: Victoria, Queen Street, Baldoon, Tweedsmuir (all in Chatham) and Margaret Ave (Wallaceburg) Carry out a Thames River Greenway Concept study Protect City lands for the Thames River Greenway and Baldoon- Merritt corridors in Chatham and along the Sydenham River in Wallaceburg Pursue the acquisition of (to be) abandoned railway lines Identify and promote the use of cycling loop routes in the three identified tourist zones (Stakeholders / City partnership)

AT Funds Allocation and Staffing To proceed with an effective AT program (walking and cycling) the municipality needs to allocate adequate financial and staff resources. Based on the City unit cost for shoulder paving of $60,000 / km, the initial improvements in the rural area, approximately 24 km of shoulder paving, would be in the order of $ 1.5 million. The costs could be substantially lower if the shoulder paving is done at the same time as the road would be resurfaced. Local improvement costs for the spine routes in Chatham would need to be detailed in the Chatham Bicycling Plan study. The 2008 budget needs also to include items to conduct this study and for an annual sidewalk improvement program. In 2006 the total C-K road construction and maintenance budget was approximately $ 10 million. A percentage of the annual budget should be designated to the costs of the sidewalk and cycling infrastructure improvements. The proposed future Thames River pedestrian /cyclist bridge across the Thames River at Merritt Ave and the Thames River Greenway project would require financing from other levels of government and private partnerships Bicycle lanes or paved shoulders that are part of a new road construction or widening project should be financed as part of that project in view of equity and investments in all modes of transportation. To administer an effective program promoting walking and cycling the City would need to appoint a senior staff person in the Engineering & Traffic or Planning Division. This person could manage the program as part of other responsibilities

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assigned. To be most effective this person should have direct access to infrastructure plans and designs and preferably be committed to active transportation. As part of the duties this person should be the contact person with other departments (e.g. Public Health and Recreation & Parks Departments) and with local cycling and trail groups. 7.2 Proposed Roadway Classification

Maintaining a hierarchy of local, collector and arterial roads and ensuring the continuity of those corridors is fundamental to addressing the municipalitys transportation requirements and the provision of orderly development planning. Upon reviewing the existing roadway classifications it is recommended that the changes identified in Exhibit 7.2 be implemented as an update to the Official Plan. Exhibit 7.2 Proposed Roadway Classification Changes

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7.3

Transportation Planning Policies

7.3.1 Roads The Official Plan is one of the instruments available to Municipal Council and Staff to plan its transportation network and to implement recommendations contained in the Transportation Master Plan. For planning purposes, it is recommended that the Chatham-Kent Official Plan classify roads relative to their function. Modify OP Section 2.4.2.2.1 as follows: Provincial Highways serve mainly inter-regional and regional travel high degree of access control along rural sections in accordance with Ministry of Transportation requirements Urban Arterial Roads serve intra-urban and through travel direct access from abutting properties is limited particularly near major intersections right-of-way widths vary from 26.0 m. to 35.0 m posted speeds vary from 50 km/hr to 70 km/hr Rural Arterial Roads serve local and regional travel direct access from abutting properties is limited near major intersections right-of-way widths vary from 26.0 m. to 35.0 m posted speeds vary from 60 km/hr to 90 km/hr Urban Collector Roads serve moderate volumes of inter-neighbourhood traffic connect collector and local roads to arterial roads or provincial highways direct access from abutting properties is normally permitted except near major intersections right-of-way widths vary from 20.0 m. 26.0 m. may contain on-street parking on one or two sides posted speeds vary from 50 km/hr to 60 km/hr Rural Collector Roads serve local travel connect collector and local roads to arterial roads direct access from abutting properties is normally permitted except near major intersections right-of-way widths vary from 20.0 m. to 26.0 m. may contain on-street parking on one or two sides posted speeds vary from 60 km/hr to 80 km/hr Local Roads serve residential and/or employment areas connect individual properties to collector roads, arterial roads and provincial highways

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direct access from abutting properties is permitted except near major intersections right-of-way widths of 20.0 m. minimum provision for on-street parking on one or two sides posted speeds vary from 40 km/hr to 60 km/hr

New OP Section: Council adopt Traffic Impact Study Guidelines as a requirement of all new development proposals expected to generate more than 50 peak hour vehicle trips. 7.3.2 Access Management It is recommended that the Chatham-Kent Official Plan provide for access management in OP Section 2.4.2 in order to support Section 2.4.2.1.1, 2.4.2.1.2 and 2.4.2.2.1. 7.3.3 Transit ChathamKent supports continued development of expanded transit services and the promotion of transit friendly development. Retain OP section 2.4.3. 7.3.4 Walking and Cycling The Official Plan is a policy document that guides City Council in its decisions about how land in C-K should be used and how growth can be managed. The Official Plan contains objectives, policies and development standards for, among others, the location of public services such as roads and utility corridors. As such this document is important for the implementation of facilities for walking and bicycling. The planning policies in the 2005 C-K Official Plan reflect the strategic directions described in the Community Strategic Plan under the headings: health, economy, environment, heritage and implementation (leadership and learning). References to walking and bicycling can be found throughout the OP but specific objectives and policies are set out in Section 2.4 (Community Infrastructure), specifically under Road Network (Section 2.4.2) and Recreational Trails and Pedestrian Linkages (Section 2.4.5). Throughout the existing Official Plan the word bicycle paths is being used. Since these paths generally accommodate also pedestrians, the terms multi-use paths and (recreational) trails should be used instead. Similarly, the term pedestrian linkages should be replaced by linkages since they generally accommodate cyclists also. OP Sections 2.4.2 and 2.4.5 have each one or two objectives and several policies but the distinction between objectives and policies is not entirely clear and sequential. Other OP Sections contain some general references to walking and cycling; they would need some clarification in the context of their respective policies. The following paragraphs set out proposed modified and new objectives and policies

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as they relate to walking and cycling, and according to the OP structure of goals and strategic directions. Modifications are indicated in italics. Road Network (OP Section 2.4.2) Objectives The proposed amended objectives are as follows: Retain OP Section 2.4.2.1.1: Plan and protect road corridors to make provision for the future urban and rural road system in the Municipality. Modify OP Section 2.4.2.1.2: Establish and maintain a safe and efficient road network that will support the various modes of transportation including motor vehicle traffic, transit, walking and bicycling. New OP Section: Adopt strategies and programs that would increase participation in walking and cycling. New OP Section: Adopt access management strategies to help provide for a sustainable transportation network for the movement of people and goods and at the same time preserve the safety and efficiency of its urban and rural road system as outlined in Section 2.4.2.2.1.

Policies The proposed amended policies are as follows: Rights-of-Way Criteria 1. Retain OP Section 2.4.2.2.3. 2. Modify and consolidate OP Sections 2.4.2.2.11 and 2.4.5.2.5: The rights-ofway widths for roads are intended to accommodate users of all modes of transportation, including pedestrians and cyclists. Ensure that all new road construction and reconstruction projects incorporate provisions for pedestrian and cycling facilities where warranted and appropriate. Bicycle lanes within arterial and collector road rights-of-way in the larger Primary Urban Centres shall be considered. 3. Retain OP Section 2.4.2.2.15. Rights-of-Way Modifications 4. Retain OP Section 2.4.2.2.5. 5. Retain OP Section 2.4.2.2.6. 6. Modify OP Section 2.4.2.2.7: Additional land takings may also be required for sight triangles, road cuts and fills, extra lanes at intersections, wider sidewalks, bicycle lanes, and landscaping where appropriate. 7. Retain OP Section 2.4.2.2.8. 8. Retain OP Section 2.4.2.2.10.

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Development 9. New OP Section: Use the development process to require all developers of new residential subdivisions, development and redevelopment proposals to incorporate traffic calming measures and provisions for cyclists and pedestrians, including people with disabilities. 10.Retain OP Section 2.4.2.2.4. 11.Retain OP Section 2.4.2.2.12. 12.Retain OP Section 2.4.2.2.13. 13.Retain OP Section 2.4.2.2.14. 14.Modify OP Section 2.4.5.2.6: Incorporate in the Citys zoning by-law provisions for adequate bicycle parking at schools, public buildings and shopping areas. The Municipality shall undertake a program to install bicycle racks at existing facilities. Access Management 15.Access mamagement is the process that manages the location of roads and private entrances onto urban and rural roads to provide for a sustainable transportation network for the movement of people and goods and at the same time preserve the safety and efficiency of the transportation network. 16.Use the development process to require all developers of new residential subdivisions, new commercial and industrial development and redevelopment of existing commercial and industrial development to limit the number of access connections onto urban and rural roads. Planning and Design Considerations 17.New OP Section: A Bicycling User Master Plan shall be undertaken to detail the network of primary bicycling routes for the larger Primary Urban Centres outlined in this Transportation Master Plan. 18.New OP Section: Exhibit x in the TMP identifies the longterm primary route network. The network shall be updated periodically without an amendment to the Plan. 19.New OP Section: Adopt provincially and/or nationally recognized engineering guidelines to assist in the planning, design and maintenance of pedestrian and bicycle on-road and off-road facilities and as referred to in Appendix C of the TMP. 20.New OP Section: Ensure that all new road construction and reconstruction projects incorporate provisions for pedestrian and cycling facilities where warranted and appropriate. 21.New OP Section: Develop a maintenance schedule to ensure all pedestrian and bicycle facilities in a good year-round condition according to a priority schedule. 22.New OP Section: Develop and maintain a continuous system of sidewalks and walkways within and between adjacent subdivisions with safe and convenient access to bus stops and activity areas such schools, recreational and shopping areas; Guidelines are provided in Appendix C of this TMP.

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23.New OP Section: Ensure that on-road bikeways and multi-use trails, and their connections are clearly signed. 24.Modify OP Section 2.4.2.2.9: The Municipality may accept a level of service which is less than the optimum in return for a more pedestrian- and/or bicycle-friendly environment in the downtowns and main streets of its Primary and Secondary Urban Centres. To achieve this environment, the Municipality may apply a variety of traffic calming techniques such as the following: a) reduced lane width b) provision of a centre median which may be landscaped c) provision for on-street parking (motor vehicles and bicycles) d) provision for widened sidewalks and road cutouts e) provision of bicycle lanes. 25.New OP Section: Implement traffic calming measures at locations proposed in the TMP and in other locations, where appropriate, e.g. at the entrances to small urban communities. 26.Retain OP Section 2.4.2.2.16. 27.Retain OP Section 2.4.2.2.17. 28.New OP Section: Provide appropriate funding in the annual budget for implementing pedestrian and bicycle facilities. 29.New OP Section: Develop access management policies and standards for arterial roads. 30.New OP Section: Implement access management measures at locations proposed in the TMP and in other locations, where appropriate, e.g. priority road improvement projects. Recreational Trails and Linkages (OP Section 2.4.5) The title is amended to include both pedestrians and cyclists. Similarly the first two sentences of the description should read: Pedestrian and bicycling facilities such as sidewalks, bicycle lanes and multi-use paths contribute to the development of healthy communities. Walking and bicycling would reduce auto dependency, traffic congestion, fuel consumption and local air pollution. Objective The proposed amended objective is as follows: Section 2.4.5.1: Promote and facilitate a system of walking trails and multiuse paths.

Policies The proposed amended policies are as follows: 1. New OP Section incorporating parts of OP Section 2.4.5.2.1 and 2.4.5.2.2: Develop and maintain an integrated system of sidewalks, low traffic volume roads and selective recreational trails including the Trans Canada Trail, connecting various communities as per Exhibit x of the TMP. 2. New OP Section incorporating part of Section 2.4.5.2.1: Facilitate the planning

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of the Thames River Greenway linking the river front, downtown, residential neighbourhoods, parks and open spaces in Chatham as per the concept in the TMP. 3. Modified OP Section 2.4.5.2.2: Recreational trails and linkages shall be permitted in all land use designations. The location of the Trans Canada Trail through Chatham-Kent is shown on Schedule B to the Official Plan. Changes to this location shall be permitted to incorporate on-road sections without the need for an amendment to this Plan. 4. New OP Section incorporating part of OP Section 2.4.5.2.3: A Trails Master Plan study shall be undertaken to examine, among others, the feasibility of railway corridors (if abandoned) and shareduse utility corridors. 5. New OP Section: Pursue the acquisition of (to be) abandoned railway lines. 6. New OP Section: Asses carefully request for selling off unopened road allowances in view of pedestrian and bicycle connections. 7. New OP Section: Promote the development of secondary local trails connecting to the primary network outlined in the TMP and providing access to schools, recreational activity areas, etc. 8. Deleted OP Section 2.4.5.2.5, moved to Road Network. 9. Deleted OP Section 2.4.5.2.6, moved to Road Network. 10.New OP Section. Other Official Plan Sections OP Section 3.4 - Developing a Diversified Economic Base (Economy Goal). Strategic Direction: Develop and promote C-K as a desirable tourist destination. Description: While the general intent is evident a more precise wording of objectives and policies would be advisable. Walking and bicycling tourism should be added to the list of tourism opportunities to be investigated. Also, there seem to be an overlap with Section 3.11 - Recreational Area Policies. OP Section 4.6 - Air Quality (Environment Goal). Description: None; it could include a general reference on the effects of walking and cycling in reducing air emission pollution. OP Section 4.7 Open Space and Conservation (Environment Goal). Description: This section deals essentially with parks, open space and land acquisition. The paragraphs on Trails and Greenways should be edited with a reference to Section 2.4.5 Recreational Trails and Linkages . OP Section 6.3 - Plan Implementation (Implementation Goal). Description: Planning tools: Primary Urban Centre Plan and Secondary Plan, and Zoning By-law. Policy Clause B.2.5.8.1 g) for Power Centre Commercial Areas (B2.5) should also be included in the policies for Shopping Centre Commercial Areas (B2.6) and Community Commercial Areas (B2.7).

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