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DETERMINERS

DETERMINERS: Articles , Quantifiers

Mario Ernesto Centeno

English grammar II Semester 02-2012 Elmer Jorge Guardado, BA March 23, 2012

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DETERMINERS

DETERMINERS. Researchers have demonstrated that a determiner is a word that is used before a noun or adjectives to show which person or thing you are referring to; the follow research paper tries to explain you how these words work in a sentence, also to find the reason why article isnt a part of speech: HOW MANY CLASSES OF DETERMINERS WE HAVE? HOW ARTICLES WORK IN A SENTENCE? HOW DETERMINERS HELP US IN ACQUISITIONS OF A SECOND LANGUAGE?

CLASSES OF DETERMINERS THERE ARE SEVERAL CLASSES OF DETERMINERS:

DEFINITE AND INDEFINITE ARTICLES THE, A, AN English has two articles: the and a/an. The is used to refer to specific or particular nouns, while a/an is used to modify non-specific or non-particular nouns. We call the the definite article and a/an the indefinite article. (University, 2012) The = definite article A/an = indefinite article There are two types of articles indefinite 'a' and 'an' or definite 'the'. You also need to know when you must not use an article (these are called zero articles) According to Raymond Murphy (1989) when you are learning definitive and indefinite articles the most important is know the different rules between each ones, so you have to know the following articles rules: INDEFINITE ARTICLE: A\AN MARIO CENTENO P. 2

DETERMINERS
Use 'a' with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels), 'an' with nouns starting with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u)

When the listener doesnt know which thing we mean. A car.

We use a \an . . . when we say what a thing or person is. To refer to something for the first time: An elephant and a mouse fell in love. I've finally got a good job.

To refer to a particular member of a group or class Examples: With names of jobs: Celina is a doctor. I want to be a dancer. With nationalities and religions: Noe is an Englishman. Jorge is a Catholic. With musical instruments: Christian was playing a guitar when she arrived. (BUT to describe the activity we say "He plays the guitar.") with names of days: I was born on a Thursday

To refer to a kind of, or example of something: the elephant had a long trunk it was a very strange car

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DETERMINERS
With singular nouns, after the words 'what' and 'such': What a shame! She's such a beautiful girl.

Meaning 'one', referring to a single object or person: I'd like an orange and two lemons please. The burglar took a diamond necklace and a valuable painting.

DEFINITE ARTICLE: THE

Articles in English are invariable. That is, they do not change according to the gender or number of the noun they refer to, e.g. the boy, the woman, and the children 'The' is used: 1. To refer to something which has already been mentioned? Example: An elephant and a mouse fell in love. The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk, and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose. 2. When both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about, even if it has not been mentioned before. Example: 'Where's the bathroom?' 'It's on the first floor.' 3. In sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object: Examples: The man who wrote this book is famous. 'Which car did you scratch?' 'The red one. My house is the one with a blue door.' MARIO CENTENO P. 4

DETERMINERS
4. To refer to objects we regard as unique: Examples: the sun, the moon, the world 5. before superlatives and ordinal numbers. Examples: the highest building, the first page, the last chapter. 6. with adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people: Examples: the Japanese (Nouns - Nationalities), the old 7. with names of geographical areas and oceans: Examples: the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic 8. with decades, or groups of years: Example: she grew up in the seventies (Murphy & Altman, 1989; Murphy & Altman, 1989)

We have already understood the definite and indefinite articles, but we have to learn the last one called zero articles. Use zero article () to refer to generalizations. When referring to something in general, a zero article is used. For example: I like cats. She enjoys talking to old people. He only cares about money. Common nouns with a zero article A number of countable nouns do not take articles a/an, the in special cases, e.g. go by car, go to school, be in bed. The following list gives a number of common expressions with a zero article: Institutions (often with at, in, to, etc) :be in / go to bed, hospital (esp. British English), go to school Means of transport (with by): travel/leave/come/go by bicycle, bus, car, boat, and plane Times of the day and night: (particularly with at, by, after, before) twilight, at/around noon/midnight. MARIO CENTENO P. 5

DETERMINERS
Meals have/before/at/after/stay for : breakfast, brunch, lunch, dinner. Illnesses appendicitis: anemia, diabetes, Influenza, (the) flu. (kong, 2012)

If you dont get the idea, let me give you some rules, There is no article:

With names of countries (if singular) Germany is an important economic power. He's just returned from Zimbabwe. (But: I'm visiting the United States next week.) With the names of languages French is spoken in Tahiti. English uses many words of Latin origin. Indonesian is a relatively new language. With the names of meals. Lunch is at midday. Dinner is in the evening. Breakfast is the first meal of the day. With people's names (if singular): John's coming to the party. George King is my uncle. (But: we're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.) With titles and names: Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son. President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas. MARIO CENTENO P. 6

DETERMINERS
Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend. (But: the Queen of England, the Pope.) After thes possessive case: His brother's car. Peter's house. With professions: Engineering is a useful career. He'll probably go into medicine. With names of shops: I'll get the card at Smith's. Can you go to Boots for me? With years: 1948 was a wonderful year. Do you remember 1995? With uncountable nouns: Rice is the main food in Asia. Milk is often added to tea in England. War is destructive. With the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands: Mount McKinley is the highest mountain in Alaska. She lives near Lake Windermere. Have you visited Long Island?

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DETERMINERS
With most names of towns, streets, stations and airports: Victoria Station is in the centre of London. Can you direct me to Bond Street? She lives in Florence. They're flying from Heathrow. (English Grammar and technical writing, 2004)

Quantifiers
Quantifiers are words that precede and modify nouns. They tell us how many or how much. Selecting the correct quantifier depends on your understanding the distinction between COUNT AND NON-COUNT NOUNS For our purposes; we will choose the count noun trees and the non-count noun dancing: The following quantifiers will work with count nouns: many trees a few trees few trees several trees a couple of trees none of the trees

The following quantifiers will work with non-count nouns: not much dancing a little dancing little dancing a bit of dancing a good deal of dancing MARIO CENTENO P. 8

DETERMINERS
a great deal of dancing no dancing

The following quantifiers will work with both count and non-count nouns: all of the trees/dancing some trees/dancing most of the trees/dancing enough trees/dancing a lot of trees/dancing lots of trees/dancing plenty of trees/dancing a lack of trees/dancing . (College, 2012) In fact Quantifiers answer the questions "How many?" and "How much?" Quantifiers can be used with PLURAL COUNTABLE NOUNS and UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS, There are 3 main types of quantifiers. Quantifiers that are used with COUNTABLE NOUNS Quantifiers are used with UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS. And the 3rd type is quantifiers that are used with either cOUNTABLE NOUNS or UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS. (way, 12) Quantifiers that are used with COUNTABLE NOUNS

Use MANY and A FEW with Countable nouns because they have a singular and a plural form. In plural, these nouns can be used with a number (that's why they are called 'countable nouns'). Countable nouns take many MARIO CENTENO P. 9

DETERMINERS
Plural count nouns: There are a few students here. Many roommates become friends. (Fuchs, 2004)

Quantifiers are used with COUNTABLE AND NON-COUNTABLE NOUNS. A lot of and lots of are used to express that there is a large quantity of something. We use a lot of in positive sentences, negative sentences and questions. This expression can be used with countable or uncountable nouns. There are a lot of dogs in the street. (Countable noun) I have a lot of time to answer your questions. (Uncountable noun) I saw a lot of people waiting in the queue. (Countable) We did have a lot of fun, didn't we? (Uncountable) We use lots of in positive and negative sentences, however it is more informal. It can be used with countable or uncountable nouns, and occasionally in questions. We have lots of time to catch the plane, lets relax. (Uncountable noun) There are lots of people in the queue today. (Countable) Oh my, you have spent lots of money on clothes! (Uncountable) I have lots of questions. (Countable)

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DETERMINERS
She has a lot of money = She has lots of money (English Grammar, 2012)

ONLY
UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

WITH

WITH

UNCOUNTABLE

ONLY
COUNTABLE NOUNS

WITH

AND COUNTABLE NOUNS

HOW MUCH?
A LITTLE A BIT (OF)

HOW MUCH? OR HOW MANY?


NO/NONE NOT ANY SOME (ANY) A LOT OF PLENTY OF LOTS OF

HOW MANY?
A FEW A NUMBER (OF) SEVERAL A LARGE NUMBER OF A GREAT NUMBER OF

A GREAT DEAL OF A LARGE AMOUNT OF

+ NOUN

DEMONSTRATIVES

The same four words this, that, these, those are used as demonstrative determiners and demonstrative pronoun. The difference lies only in fact that: When these four words are followed by nouns which they refer to, they are determiners. These four words become pronouns when they themselves stand for nouns. I like this shirt very much These shoes are really soft MARIO CENTENO P. 11

DETERMINERS
Please, do not take that pen May I have those books? (Platottam, 2006)

Possessives

The words my, your, his, her, its, our and there are used before nouns to Show ownership, they are called possessive determiners. -I gave my candies to Milton -These are our books -I think that Your PC needs cleaning. -Their PCs are covered in dirt. -My computer is clean. (sargeant, 2007)

Distributive
Is one that denoted the noun qualified (Serving to distribute or disperse?)

-Each soldier had a gun in his hand. -We go on a tour every year. -You should take neither side -In these sentences: -Each is a determiner that means each soldier taken singly. -Every is a determiner that means any one of many years.

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DETERMINERS
-Neither is a determiner that means neither the one nor the other side (T.R.Bhanot, 2008) Although the determiners studies, you have realized that determiners are important within spoken and written grammar.

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DETERMINERS

REFERENCES College, C. C. (2012, marh 18). Guide to grammar and writing. Retrieved from Guide to grammar and writing: http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/determiners/determiners.htm English Grammar. (2012, marh 19). Retrieved from woodward: http://www.grammar.cl/Notes/Much_Many_Lot_Few.htm Fuchs, M. (2004). grammar express basic. In M. Fuchs, grammar express basic (pp. 100-104). 10 Bank street , White Plains,NY 10606: Logan. kong, T. c. (2012, March 20). The Independent Learning Centre. Retrieved from The Independent Learning Centre: http://www.ilc.cuhk.edu.hk/english/articles/ilc_articles.pdf Master, P. (2004). English Grammar and technical writing. Washington: TReginal Printing center of the U.S Department of states. Murphy, R., & Altman, R. (1989). Grammar in use. In R. Murphy, & R. Altman, Reference and practice for intermediate students of english . (pp. 66-68). United kindom: Cambridge university press. Platottam, G. (2006). Handling english grammar5. In G. Platottam, Handling english grammar5 (p. 24). Model Basti, new delhi-010005: Scholar publishing house (p) ltd. sargeant, h. (2007). Basic English Grammar 2. In h. sargeant, Basic English Grammar For Englis language learners 2. singapore: Saddleback educational publishing ptc Ltd. T.R.Bhanot, H. &. (2008). steps to funtional english grammar and composition. In H. &. T.R.Bhanot, steps to funtional english grammar and composition (p. 52). Singapore: Scholar Publishing House (p) Ltd. University, T. W. (2012, march 19). Purdue online writing lab. Retrieved from Purdue online writing lab: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/540/01/ way, E. t. (12, MARCH 21). English the easy way. Retrieved from English the easy way: http://www.english-theeasy-way.com/Determiners/Quantifiers_English_Grammar.htm

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