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Marcos Lund


Environmental Management
- Water cycle
Evaporation takes place due to heat; water droplets are changed to water vapour in the atmosphere. Transpiration is the process in which water is also lost from trees and plants. The term evapo-transpiration is used to cover all water losses from land surfaces. With height air temperature decreases, forming clouds in the process of condensation. Further cooling leads to precipitation, which is all type of moisture that reaches the surface. Besides of rain, snow and hail can also occur. In the interception, water is prevented from falling directly on the ground by the vegetation. Some flows over the ground surface, which is called run off. Remaining water seeps underground, downwards by infiltration and sideways by groundwater flow.

- Water availability
Water-rich countries: these are countries with plentiful fresh water supplies. Some are very large and have plenty of land for the rain to fall on, and some of the worlds greatest rivers flow through them. Water-poor countries: these are countries dominated by deserts. Some recieve a lot of precipitation, but are so little that they only have small areas for water to fall on. Worries over present and future water supplies is called water stress. Brazil Russia Canada

Saudi Arabia Mauritius Oman

Water-poor countries obtain their water supplies either by desalination plants, in which sea water is changed into fresh water by taking out the salts, but requires a lot of energy, or by aquifers, natural underground stores from which countries pump up water to the surface. Some countries are fortunate in having large rivers which have captured water from other countries with a wetter climate.

- Uses of fresh water

Marcos Lund World organizations subdivide water use into three sectors: Domestic: in the home and for waste disposal Industrial: in factories and for power Agricultural: mainly for irrigation


- Flooding and drought

Facts that increase the risk of flooding 1. Heavy rain 2. Impermeable rock 3. Hard dry soil 4. Steep slopes 5. Waterlogged soil 6. No vegetation to intercept moisture Effects of flooding Immediate Loss of human life Houses destroyed Offices, factories and work places flooded out Livestock carried away Crops ruined Road and rail bridges washed away Communications disrupted Short-term People in need of medical treatment Homeless people People suffering from water-related diseases Shortage of safe drinking water Food shortages Problems of moving between places Long-term Repair and build new houses Replace bridges, roads and railway lines Restore essential public services Reclaim farm land Buy new seeds and animals

Ways to reduce flooding in a river 1. Alter the rivers channel 2. Control water level 3. Build barriers The risk of flooding in Bangladesh is one of the highest in the world. This is because of: the tropical monsoon climate, tropical cyclones, relief and drainage. Drought A drought is a period of dry weather longer or worse than normally expected, and occurs when wind and pressure patterns are different from normal, so that expected rainfall doesnt fall. Rural areas are deeply affected, as crops can die or wither, reducing yields. Also, livestock may die due to the shortage of grazing. Lack of food lead to malnutrition, famine and death. Farmers try hardly to raise crops and keep animals alive, increasing soil erosion and desertification, which can result in permanent environmental damage. People turn into underground water supplies, and their overuse leads to falling water levels and dry wells.

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- Water pollution
Causes 1. Agricultural waste: surpluses of phosphorus and nitrogen not absorbed by plants are washed away or percolate. Also, animal manure, synthetic fertilizers and chemical pesticides are great pollutants. 2. Domestic waste: human waste carries many pathogenic micro-organisms, as well as adding to the quantities of nitrates and phosphates released. Detergents, metals, and other manufactured products are also great pollutants. 3. Industrial waste: processing of metal ores, metal-using industries, and the leaching of metals from waste heaps and dumps are responsible for the traces of metals in rivers, such as mercury or arsenic. Consequences 1. Eutrophication: rivers and lakes are no longer able to support fish life. 2. Warm water released from power stations cause thermal pollution. 3. Water-releated diseases 4. Wildlife and vegetation is lost

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