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Chapter Eight: Color

Created & Designed by Mary E Hoffmann

Color | Using Color

elements of design
additive color model

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The two basic color models are additive and subtractive.

The color model that you will use as a designer will depend working on a computer or television screen, the colors you properties of light, as you add colors to the projected light, the resulting color will become closer to white.

upon the medium that you are working with. If you are see on the screen are created with light using the additive color method. The additive color theory deals with the





green and blue (RBG). When other colors are created using these primary additive colors, it is called the Additive Color Process. When two primary colors of light are combined, red+ blue = magenta and blue + green = cyan. The televithe secondary colors of Cyan, Magenta, and Yellow are sion screen and computer monitor produce colored pixels by firing red, green, and blue electron guns at phosphors on the screen. The light from a pixels three phosphor dots

The three primary colors in the additive model are red,

blends together to synthesize a single color. Combining all Computer monitors and televisions are the most common

RBG Color Model

produced. In the additive combination red + green = yellow,

three primary colors in equal intensities will produce white. application of additive color. In a 24-bit RGB color model use for print production. computer screen millions of colors are displayed. RGB is primarily used for Web graphics and is not recommended to

Color | Using Color

elements of design
subtractive color model

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flected or absorbed by the surface of an object. Objects have no color of their own, they only reflect certain rays of through the printing process, we are using the subtractive with white and ends with black; as colors are added, the re-

In the subtractive color model the source of light is reSECONDARY




light and absorb others. When we mix colors using paint, or color method. In the subtractive color method, we begins sult gets darker and tends to black. Our perceptions of colsame light, a color will appear different depending upon colors that are adjacent to it. The color wheel is used to organize the relationships of the ors change with the amount of light present. Even in the










basic colors in the subtractive color model. The primary colors are three colors that can be combined to make a full and blue. When we mix these primary colors together we (blue and yellow), purple (red and blue) and orange (red range of colors. The three primary colors are red, yellow get the secondary colors.The secondary colors are green

bine primary and secondary colors. These colors are: red-

and yellow). Tertiary colors are what we get when we com-

Color Wheel

orange, orange-yellow, yellow-green, green-blue, blue-violet refers to the four colors; Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black.

and violet-red. CMYK is a subtractive color model that is used in offset printing for full-color documents. CMYK All colors are obtained by mixing these four process colors.

Color | Using Color

elements of design
color gamut

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Color gamut is the set of possible colors within a color syscolor model for a device. There are millions of colors that

tem. It is described as the range of colors that exist within a exist, but not all of these colors can actually be created or displayed by a computer monitor or printer. These devices devices uses a different color gamut. are limited to the number of colors they display and each
VISIBLE Color Gamut

There are two types of color Gamut, additive and subtractive. Computer monitors, digital cameras, televisions, and color system is based on combining light to produce color. other light-based devices use the additive gamut. This The more light that is added, the lighter the image becomes, and has a greater color gamut than the CMYK color gamut. RGB has the broadest of all the color Gamut. The subtractive gamut is based on combining ink pigment that is added the darker the image becomes. This and the closer it gets to white. This gamut is RGB based

RBG Color Gamut PANTONE Color Gamut

ments in varying amounts to produce color. The more piggamut. Color space conversion is what happens when the color gamut is seen in printing and uses the CMYK color

CMYK Color Gamut

color management module translates color from one despace will fall outside that of the CMYK space. Colors will be affected when they are converted from RBG to CMYK.

vice's space to another. Because the RGB color range is

much broader than the CMYK color gamut, the RGB color
Color Gamut

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RBG Color Gamut

Color Models:

2. Subtractive Color Model: An object of a specific color absorbs (subtracts) all the other colors, begins with white and ends with black. Primary colors: red, blue, yellow (close to secondary colors of additive method). Secondary colors: purple, green, orange. Subtractive gamut is based on combining ink pigments (printing) in varying amounts to produce color, uses the CMYK color gumat.

1. Additive Color Model: Deals with the properties of light, as you add colors to the projected light, the resulting color will become closer to white. Primary colors: red, blue, & green (RBG). Secondary colors: cyan, magenta, & yellow. Additive Gamut found in light-based de vices such as computer monitors, digital cameras and televisions.

CMYK Color Gamut

Color | Using Color

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to a pure color, one without tint or shade. When you describes the different parts of the color spectrum commonly ferent hue is a different reflected wavelength of light. found in a rainbow or a reflected through a prism. Each dif-

The first property of color is called the hue. The hue refers

scribe a color such as red or blue that is a hue. Hue de-

A tint is a color in which white has been added to a pure color. Mixing a color with white will increase its lightness,
Color Wheel-Hue

lightness and darkness of the hue or adding white or black.

The second property of color is value, which refers to the


Color Wheel-Tints

and add white to it, you are creating a tint of that hue.

the more white, the lighter the tint. When you take any color

Color | Using Color

elements of design
A Shade is a color with black added to a pure color. Mixing a color with black will make the color darker. Take any color and add black to it and you will create a shade of that hue. darker, such as garnet. At times a designer will use dark look in a design. Add black to red will create a shade of red and make it

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shades instead of black to help avoid a too dark or heavy

Adding white and black to a color will create a tone. Add ing the color less intense. Every color can produce a variety of tones; how light or dark the tone is depends upon the seem darker in another if it is surrounded by lighter tones.

Color Wheel-Tones

gray to a color and you will create a tone of that color, makcolor. How dark or light a tone seems also depends on the

surrounding colors. A tone that is light in one context may

Color Wheel-Shades

Color | Using Color

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refers to the brightness of a color. When a color is not mixed value in that it describes the brightness or saturation of a color while value describes the lightness or darkness of a and at the same time change its intensity. How to Lower Intensity color. Adding white or black to a color will change its value

The third property of color is intensity or saturation, which

it is bright and is at its full intensity. Intensity differs from

Lowering the intensity of a color will make it less bright,

duller and more neutral. If white is added the color, it will become lighter in value and the intensity will decrease. and the intensity will also be decreased. Mixing two compleWhen black is added, the color will become darker in value

mentary colors together will also cause the intensity to become duller. How to Increase Intensity Placing a color next to its complementary color (colors di-

Complementary Colors will Increase Intensity

rect opposite of each other on the color wheel) will intensify

the brightness of each color. This effect is know as simulappears to vibrate.

taneous contrast, meaning that each complement intensiWhite and Black will Decrease Intensity

fies the visual brilliance of the other color, so that the color

Color | Using Color

elements of design
browser-safe colors

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Ten years ago most computers were only capable of displaying 8-bit color (256 colors). These 256 colors were determined by a mathematical formula, rather than for their aesthetic qualities. Web designers would use the Browser Safe Palette of 216 colors exclusively. This palette was limcause only these colors would display consistency on all computer monitors and Web Browsers. ited to 216 colors instead of the maximum 256 colors beImage Displaying Millions of Color

Today, the number of screens only capable of displaying

256 colors has greatly decreased. Presently 95% of all called 24-bit color and can display millions of colors that ers today will display colors the way you want them to look.

users have screens with True Color. True Color is also look "true" to the human eye. This means that most computThere still is about 5% of web users that have computer monitor screens that displays High Color. High Color falls somewhere between the old standard 256 colors and the True Color millions of colors.

Image Displaying 216 Colors

Color | Using Color

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#FFFFFF #FFFFCC #FFFF99 #FFFF66 #FFFF33 #FFFF00 #FFCCFF #FFCCCC #FFCC99 #FFCC66 #FFCC33 #FFCC00 #FF99FF #FF99CC #FF9999 #FF66FF #FF66CC #FF6699 #FF9966 #FF9933 #FF9900 #FF6666 #FF6633 #FF6600 #FF6600 #FF3300 #FF0000 #99FF00

#CCFFFF #CCFFCC #CCFF99 #CCFF66 #CCFF33 #CCFF00 #CCCCFF #CCCCCC #CCCC99 #CCCC66 #CCCC33 #CCCC00 #CC99FF #CC99CC #CC9999 #CC9966 #CC9933 #CC9900 #CC66FF #CC66CC #CC6699 #CC6666 #CC6633 #CC6600 #CC66FF #CC66CC #CC6699 #CC6666 #CC6633 #CC6600 #CC33FF #CC33CC #CC3399 #CC3366 #CC3333 #CC3300 #CC00FF #CC00CC #CC0099 #CC0066 #CC0033 #CC0000 #66FFFF #66FFCC #66FF99 #66FF66 #66FF33 #66FF00

#FF33CC #FF3399 #FF3366 #FF3333 #FF33FF #FF66CC #FF6699 #FF6666 #FF6633 #FF00FF #FF00CC #FF0099 #FF0066 #FF0033 #99FFFF #99FFCC #990099 #99FF66 #99FF33

#99CCFF #99CCCC #99CC99 #99CC66 #99CC33 #99CC00 #9999FF #9999CC #999999 #9966FF #9966CC #996699 #999966 #996666 #993366 #990066 #999933 #996633 #993333 #990033 #999900 #996600 #993300 #990000 #33FF00

#66CCFF #66CCCC #66CC99 #66CC66 #66CC33 #66CC00 #6699FF #6699CC #6666FF #6666CC #669999 #666699 #669966 #669966 #663366 #660066 #00FF66 #669933 #666633 #663333 #660033 #00FF33 #669900 #666600 #663300 #660000 #00FF00

#9933FF #9933CC #993399 #9900FF #9900CC #990099

#6633FF #6633CC #663399 #6600FF #6600CC #660099 #00FFFF #00FFCC #00FF99

#33FFFF #33FFCC #33FF99 #33FF66 #33FF33

#33CCFF #33CCCC #33CC99 #33CC66 #33CC33 #33CC00 #3399FF #3399CC #339999 #3366FF #3366CC #336699 #3333FF #3333CC #333399 #3300FF #3300CC #330099 #339966 #336666 #333366 #330066 #339933 #336633 #333333 #330033 #339900 #336600 #333300 #330000

#00CCFF #00CCCC #00CC99 #00CC66 #00CC33 #00CC00 #0099FF #0099CC #009999 #0066FF #0066CC #006699 #0033FF #0033CC #003399 #0000FF #0000CC #000099 #009966 #006666 #003366 #000066 #009933 #006633 #003333 #000033 #009900 #006600 #003300 #000000

Web Safe Palette of 216 Colors

Color | Using Color

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Dithering is a process that produces a desired color by combining two or more colors to create an illusion that a third color is present. Dithering changes pixels in areas of an resulting image appears smoother, but the file size will beimage that have color transition zones thus helps to minicome larger. Another negative effect of dithering is the reduction of the overall sharpness of the image and a grainy pattern may appear. This loss of image detail is more appar-

images that would look acceptable on a 256-color computer image. Save your image as a JPEG or PNG format if you dle. The first image is a JPEG, visible banding can be seen dithered. The bands are feathered but the image is grainy. screen, but today there is seldom any need to dither an need a wider range of colors than the GIF format can hanin the enlarged area. The second image is a GIF that was

palette. Years ago this technique was necessary to create

ent when a color photo is dithered as a GIF using the web

mize banding. This is done by a feathering process and the

Color Image: JPEG, Non-Dithered, Millions of Colors

Color Image: GIF Dithered-Web Palette

Color | Using Color

supplement material

Chapter Nine: Using Color

Color | Using Color

elements of design
color relativity

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Colors deceive us constantly. They can change appearance

in different lighting conditions, with size and their placement next to other colors. The way we perceive a color depends as well as colors that are different but in close proximately. upon its context. We perceive colors in their relationship to other colors. This effect is seen with colors of the same hue
How Color Can Create Unity in a Design

Unity in a design can create an integrated image in which all

Purple color changes depending upon the background

color unity

the elements work together to support the design and create a common goal. Using similar colors can bring about

for attention and will be seen as a single complete piece.

Yellow fades in the same hue but is bright next to green

the page. Your elements will not compete with each other Unity can provide cohesiveness in your design and pull your

look like they belong together and not placed arbitrarily on

unity in your design and can help to make your elements

elements together both visually and conceptually.

Color | Using Color

elements of design
color harmony

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Colors create emotional responses when combined together. As a designer, you can create a powerful color comgether that are pleasing to look at. The design will engage visual experience. bination with hues, tints and shades. Color harmony can be described as sets of two or more color relationships tothe viewer and create a sense of order or a balance in the Knowing how to use colors in relationship to order and proportion will create a desired mood, communicate ideas and elicit a response from your desired audience. Color harmony focuses on the relationship between hues and comaround the color wheel. When a design is not harmonious ing and create a sense of order.

plements. Colors are described by their relative positions it could bring on a response of being boring or chaotic. Using color harmony will make your design visual interest-

Complementary Colors Make a Powerful Combina-

Color | Using Color

elements of design
color schemes

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Many things can determine how colors will appear from the viewer.

It is important to have a basic understanding of colors and colors are used to evoke emotional responses, how different cultures interpret colors and how colors interact with each other. Making the right choice when choosing a color

light that is reflected or absorbed, to the colors that are in and as a designer you will have to determine which color scheme is best for your design.

different color schemes. It is also important to know how

close proximity and to the interpretation of the colors by the There are many color schemes to choose from

will help to convey the right tone, message, and evoke the desired response in a brochure, newsletter, ad, Web site or a form of non-verbal communication that can create a physical and emotional reaction from your viewer. other publication. It is important to remember that colors are

Warm colors are associated with objects that emit heat or objects that are hot to touch such as the yellow in the sun orange are all colors associated with warmth. Warm colors and the red-orange flames in a fire. Red, pink, yellow and are more energetic, vivid, outgoing, aggressive and send a message that demands our attention. They are frequently
Warm and Cool Colors

warm colors

used to grab the viewers attention; red and yellow are used

Color | Using Color

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vance in space, use a warm color to allow an element in your design to stand out. Warm colors can be comforting and welcoming. In nature warm colors are found in a beauIt is important to understand the psychological effects of warm colors and when to use them within your design. tiful sunset, flowers, butterflies and the warmth from the sun.

Cool colors are associated with objects that are cool to pond. Blue, green and violet are all cool colors. At one end

cool colors

touch such as the water in the ocean or an ice covered of the spectrum, cool colors can represent comfort and nurturing and have a calming effect. They can make a person feel more relaxed and restful and are frequently used in the
Warm Colors

medical setting for this reason. At the other end of the spectrum, a cool color would be cold, such as a fully saturated blue, and give the impression of being dominating and imuse cool colors or your design my seem cold or impersonal. Cool colors that are in nature are soothing and tend to have

in traffic signs to grab our attention and warn us of danger.

As a designer you may want to use warm colors to convey different emotions. Warm colors can represent danger; use warm colors to show anger and violence. They also ad-

personal. As a designer, you should be careful not to over-

Color | Using Color

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smaller and will not overpower the main content or message in your design. For this reason, cool colors are a good or orange to give your make your design more vivid look. choice to use as background colors in your design. If your design has too many cool colors you can use a touch of red

Warm and Cool Colors:

1. Warm Colors: Red, pink, yellow and orange Appear hot to touch or emit heat Are energetic, vivid, outgoing, aggressive and represent danger Demands our attention Allows elements to come forward 2. Cool Colors: Blue, green and violet Appear cool to touch Can comfort and nurture or be dominating and impersonal. Can create feelings of renewing and refreshing. Tendency to recede on the page

Cool Colors

a calming effect. They have the addition of yellow that creates a yellow-green, green and blue green color. They remind us of spring and make us feel renewed and refreshed. They have a tendency to recede on the page and appear

Color | Using Color

elements of design
monochromatic color schemes

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The monochromatic color theme is one color family in vari-

image will lack contrast. If you want to achieve more contrast in your image, use a wider range of values.

ous values or intensities. This color theme uses a variation and soothing. If the values of one color are very close the

of lightness and saturation of a single color creating a har-

monious and unified feeling. The effect can be both elegant

Analogous colors are those colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel. What makes these colors harmonious is the fact that they are related to each other. They share a common color such as red shares red-violet on one dominant color and the other colors are used for enrichment. This color theme is similar to the monochromic color a feeling of harmony and tranquility. side and red-orange on the other. One color is usually the theme but looks richer because it has a greater variety of

analogous color schemes

values and tones. Use an analogous color theme to express

Examples of Monochromatic Color Schemes

Examples of an Analogous Color Scheme

Color | Using Color

elements of design
complementary color schemes

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Complementary colors are those colors that are directly opposite each other in the color wheel. In the complementary color theme contrast is high creating a vibrant look especially when the colors are fully saturated. The colors almost seem to vibrate when placed together. The color red will ap-

pear redder when place with its complementary color green. something to stand out in your design, but care must be very difficult to read.

Complementary color schemes work well when you need used not to overdo the effect. Complementary colors are not recommended to use with text since it can make the text

The split-complementary color scheme is related to the rectly opposite on the color wheel, the split-complementary

split complementary color schemes

complementary scheme, but instead of using the color dicolor scheme uses the two colors that are adjacent to its the complementary color theme. Careful consideration complement. This color scheme will retain a strong visual should be used with these colors, some color combinations layouts because of its expressive effects.

appearance but will not have the same dramatic tension as still create a vibration when placed together. The spit-complementary color theme is a popular color scheme used in
Complementary Color Scheme

Color | Using Color

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scheme is popular because it offers a strong visual contrast offers a more harmonious appearance than the complementary schemes.

but retains it balance and color richness. The triadic scheme

The double tetradic complementary scheme uses four col-

double triadic complementary scheme

ors arranged into two complementary color pairs. The com-

The triadic color scheme is any three colors that are equally spaced around the color wheel. A combination of any three colors that form a triad on the color wheel can be used in this color scheme. The primary colors, secondary colors

triadic color schemes

Split-Complementary Color Scheme

and the tertiary colors are all triadic color schemes. This

Triadic Color Scheme

Color | Using Color

elements of design
plementary pairs are those colors that are direct opposites on the color wheel. This color scheme more color variety schemes because of this. than any other scheme and is consider the richest of all the The double tetradic complementary scheme is hard to bal-

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a dominant color and stay away from pure colors in equal amounts.

ance and harmonize if all the colors are used in equal amounts in the layout. To help balance your design, choose

Colors Schemes:

1. Monochromatic Color Theme: One color family in various values or intensities. 2. Analogous Color Scheme: Colors that are adjacent to each other on the color wheel. 3. Complementary Color Scheme: Colors that are directly opposite each other in the color wheel.

4. Split-Complementary Color Scheme: Uses the two colors that are adjacent to its complement. 5. Triadic Color Scheme: Any three colors that are equally spaced around the color wheel.

Double-Triadic Complementary Color Scheme

6. Double Tetradic Color Scheme: Uses four colors arranged into two complementary color pairs.

Color | Using Color

elements of design
feeling colors

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The way we perceive colors is very subjective. We respond ation in which it is used. One persons reaction to a color

to colors on both a subconscious and emotional level. The

way we respond to a color may also depend upon the situmay be quite different from another. This can be related to our personal preference or our cultural background. Our cultural background and traditions will influence our reactions other culture depressed. to colors. Colors have different meanings in various cultures. A color that makes one culture happy may make anColors can influence our emotions and actions. The study of color and how it affects individuals has intrigued us for generations. Colors have hidden meanings and symbolism. Symbolism in color has developed over centuries of history, envy. Over a period of time humans have identified with difreligion, tradition and superstition. Some phrases we may be familiar with are feeling blue, seeing red and green with ferent colors and their meanings. Researchers have found that there are some color effects that have universal meanhow our audience will perceive certain colors and their meanings.
Red-Powerful as a Design Element

ing. As a designer, we need to examine colors and what they symbolized, to give us a better understanding as to

Color | Using Color

elements of design
the color red

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Red is a very emotionally intense color. Physiological the color red will enhance our metabolism; increase our blood pressure, pulse and flow of adrenaline. Red is a hot color lights are red to warn drivers of dangerous intersections. and is associated with fire, violence and war. Red is also associated with anger, power and danger. Stop signs and

tive tool in the marketplace. Using red in small amounts can be more effective than large amounts in grabbing your audiences attention. Red brings text and images to the foreground. As an accent red will stimulate people to make wide variety of advertising ads.

quick decisions and is a perfect choice of color to use in a

In other cultures the color red has different meanings. In China red represents happiness, prosperity and good luck. In the East brides wear red wedding dresses while in South Africa red is worn to represent mourning. Many national the Tsar.

flags use the color red. Red is associated with communism,

Russia the Bolsheviks used a red flag when they overthrew In design, red is used to attract the consumer. Red can be seen as passionate, provocative, exciting and dynamic. Red is also associated with strength, desire and love. Red is considered the sexiest of all colors and is used as a seduc-

Red-Frequently Used in Logos

Color | Using Color

elements of design
the color pink

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The color pink is the soft side of red and is seen as delicate

In the United States the color pink represents little girls. Pink is thought of as a feminine and delicate color and denotes a childish-innocence. The color pink is used in advertisement to represent a flirtatious personality and the purity of girls. Multiple shades of the color pink can be used to maincan give a rosy glow to any skin tone and represent a of products related to these areas. tain the soft, delicate, and playful nature of the color. Pink healthier look. It is an excellent choice to use for health care products, cosmetics products, salon, spas or any packaging

and playful. Pink that is vivid or a hot may share the same romance. Pink is associated with such things as bubble resents tenderness, love, playfulness and caring.

high energy and spirit as red to represent hot passion and gum, cotton candy, little girls and babies. The color pink rep-

Orange is a vibrant color that is associated with autumns fowarmth from the sun. Orange represents pumpkins and sion and drama of red and the cheerfulness and good

the color orange

liage or the radiant sunsets. It symbolizes the energy and Halloween. Orange is a happy and playful color with an almost childlike quality. Orange contains some of the aggresPink-Frequently used to Represent Little Girls

humor of yellow. Use the color orange to represent enthu-

Color | Using Color

elements of design
siasm, happiness, fascination, creativity, determination, attraction, success, encouragement and stimulation. As a warm color, orange stimulates the autonomic nervous system and can increase the appetite. Restaurants will use orange for instant appetite appeasement. Orange is used frequently in many types of food service including the packaging of food products. It is thought to have an invigorating effect and stimulates mental activity. It is a color that is well elty products for the young at heart. accepted among children and young people and is a great

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color to use for childrens toys, games and inexpensive novLighter shades of orange such as peach, apricot, coral and melon are softer more pleasant shades. They appeal to the market place. This color is often seen in makeup salons, more sophisticated age group and are used in the upscale beauty spas and packaging of beauty products. Orange is sign to be noticed. a very visible color, used in small amounts, it can be a great
Orange Rose-Symbolizes Passion and Excite-

The color yellow represents sunshine, warmth and light. It is thought of as a cheerful and energetic color and represents happiness. On the other hand yellow can be thought yellow is used for mourning, in Japan yellow represents of as the color of cowardice and deceit. In Egypt the color

the color yellow

color to use when you want important elements in your de-

Color | Using Color

elements of design
courage and in India yellow represents peace. To some people yellow symbolizes wisdom and joy. Because it is a highly visible color, yellow is used for hazard signs, emergency vehicles, and safety equipment. Yellow is an eye-catching color and for that reason it is an

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excellent color to use for point of purchases and displays. Some shades of yellow can be describes as delicious such as those shades of yellow used in custard or banana cream pie. For this reason, yellow is frequently used in food services areas for linens and tabletops. The color yellow and black are an excellent color combination to use for signage market shelves. and packaging of products to make them stand out on the

Yellow-Stands Out

Brown is a warm neutral color and represents both wholemountains, trees and stone. The color brown is associated honesty, dependable, health and wholesomeness.

the color brown

In recent years brown has earned greater visibility due to

the numerous designer coffee shops that showcase richly brewed espresso coffee. Brown is an important color in the grains, cereals, and breads that are all brown and represent a healthy, wholesome and organic lifestyle. The color brown food industry. We can correlate the color brown to rice, can have an opposite meaning and represent delicious and

someness and earthiness. It is found mostly in the earth, with such terms as stability, organic, natural, nature, earthly,

Color | Using Color

elements of design
enticing foods like candy, icecream and soda that could possible lead to an unhealthy life style and obesity. Since the color brown is regarded as an earthly it is thought

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of in terms of reliability. The color brown can also represent

integrity and hard work. Use brown in your designs to help

your customers to believe in the company's trustworthiness, dependability and honesty. Using the color brown will add credibility to an advertising message. Many men favor the color brown and consider it a safe color that represents inmen, brown might be a good color choice to use within your design.

telligence, reassurance, and trust. If your audience is mostly

The color blue is strongly associated with the sky and water; it is a color that is constantly in our lives. Because of this, blue is seen as loyal, trustworthy, constant, reliable, dependable and committed. The color blue is associated with
Brown-Used to Represent Unhealthy Foods Leading to Obesity

the color blue

Brown-Earthly and Wholesome Side

terms like peaceful, restful and orderly. The cool, calming

effect of blue can help us sleep at night and is a good choice

Color | Using Color

elements of design
for a bedroom color. We feel soothed and replenish when we view the blue sky, lakes or oceans. Blue can give us feelings of tranquility, calmness and serenity and is one of the best colors to use for medical products, hospitals and relaxation spas. Blue has been show to slow Blue is also a color of inspiration, sincerity and spirituality and symbolizes the Virgin Mary. Blue can be related to strong emotions of sadness where the expressions feeling the calm feelings associated with the color blue. a person's heart rate and can reduce ones appetite, because of this is not a good color to choose for a restaurant.

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blue or getting the blues represents the extreme effects of When designing, the color blue is a good choice for a busi-

ness to help build customer loyalty. Blue will represent the is also considered a corporate color and is associated with that is worn by mail carrier, policeman and security guards and can be used to represent figures of authority. intelligence, stability, unity and conservatism. Blue is a color

company as strong, loyal, trustworthy and dependable. Blue

Blue-tranquility, calmness and serenity

Color | Using Color

elements of design
the color green

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The color green symbolizes nature, fertility and life. Green

green into the environment. Green can also represents tranquility, good luck, health and jealousy. Such phases about green are green thumb, green with envy and greenhorn. Green is the traditional color of peace. Use the color green when you want to represents balance, harmony, tranquility and stability within your design. There are so many green hues; this makes the color green

is a color that is abundant in nature and signifies growth. bring the color green into their surroundings. Green is also thought to relieve stress; many work places incorporate

Green has a calming and restful effect and is often used in

home design. Many people have plants in their home to

a very flexible color. It can be warm in the yellow-green side green can be used if you want an element in your design to spring and being refreshed. Combining green with blue will of the color wheel and cool in the blue-green side. Lime stand out. A light green will give your design the feeling of to use in healthcare, dinning areas, boats or airplanes since this color is associated with nausea and illness. The best color greens to use in relationship to food are the colors of vegetables like broccoli, spinach and lettuce. These colors of green will work well for food services, dinning areas and packages that support a healthy living style.

represent water. A vivid yellow-green is not recommended

Green-Vegetable Colors Works Well for Healthy Food

Color | Using Color

elements of design
the color purple

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The color purple can be sensual, spiritual, elegant and mys-

terious. The deeper royal purple is viewed as regal and maIt has been traditionally associated with royalty in many culwear purple and in the U.S. military, a purple heart is awarded to a soldier wounded or killed in battle. Purple is in meditation.

jestic and is associated with royalty, wealth and prosperity. tures. In Thailand widows in mourning of their husbands associated with good judgment and for those people seeking spiritual fulfillment, making it a good color choice to use
Purple-Magestic, Spiritual, Mysterious and Sen-

Using the color purple can be both unique and powerful in your designs. Because the color purple grabs attention, it is often used for packaging, point of purchase as well as signage. It is very effective to use in projects to give a sense

of luxury and wealth. A bright purple can be fun, playful and

exciting, and is a great color to use to represent a child. A light purple can give feelings of romance, calmness and peacefulness. In nature light purples are found in the laven-

ativity, eccentricity and unpredictability and is associated with imagination and inspiration.

vice applications. The color purple is also connected to cre-

grapes and berry's can be very effective to use in food-ser-

ment use this lighter color purple. The purple color found in

and nostalgic feeling associated with gentility and refine-

considered precious. To show a softer, more sentimental

der, orchid, lilac, and violet flowers that are delicate and

Color | Using Color

elements of design
the color white

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The color white symbolizes purity, innocence, virginity, cleanliness and neutrality. When we think of white we think safety, strength and cleanliness. White is associated with brides wear the color white, white daisies are a symbol of of clouds, Heaven and angels. It is considered the color of perfection in both balance and harmony. White represents hospitals, doctors, nurses and dentists. In many countries

at different levels.

The color white is thought to heal the body, mind and spirit

love and white is associated with heroism and goodness.

color. You may think the color white color is not appealing to websites use white. Using the color white can make your White in your design can represent a new beginning, enyour audience, but some of the best graphic designs and work appear clean and simple. White is great to use in Websites for a font color, background color, link and images..

predictable. White is a very simple, elegant and peaceful

It is a misconception to think that the color white is boring or

against which any color may contrast. Because it has a personal hygiene products and infants products. Off white is more friendly and creamy whites are delicious, excellent
White-Simple, Elegant and Peaceful

project. Pure white is a symbol of absolute minimalism

pose. White works well for contrast in any graphic design

thusiasm, spiritual insights, inspiration and clarity of pur-

sense of clarity and cleanliness, it is a good color to use for for dinning areas and food packaging products.

Color | Using Color

elements of design
the color black

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Black is the absence of all colors and has many conflicting connotations. It has both a negative and positive meaning. The color black can represent authority, power, mystery, with fear or it can represent strength and authority. It can be formal and elegant as when attending a black tie dinner. and in China black is the color to represent happiness. Black can be serious, conventional or conservative. In Western countries black is the color of mourning and death Over the years the positive associations with black have out black. The color black can convey elegance and add a identify with black limos, polish granite and expensive black potency, longevity and weight is implied. Black will always death, poverty and sophisticated. Black can be thought of

weighted the negative ones. If you want to present your de-

sign as highly stylized and with sophistication, use the color touch of mystery to your design. The consumer sees black as powerful, dramatic, elegant and very expensive. People leather. Use black for consumer products whenever power,

brighter and still maintain the feeling of power and strength. strength, clarity power and purity.

Use other colors against black, this will make them appear

black can evoke too strong emotions and be overwhelming.

seem to weigh more than any other color. Using too much

Black-Powerful, Dynamic and Elegant

Black is the extreme contrast to white, making them a perfect opposite. Black and white are a classic combination of

Color | Using Color

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