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Appendix L

A. Illustration of Balancing Procedures

FEED AND EXPANSION TANK CONST ANT / VARIABLE SPEED SECONDARY PUMP 6 DIFFERENTIAL BY-PASS VALVE SET (SEE NOTE)

EVAPORATOR EVAPORATOR

SECONDARY VENTURI

ENTHALPY METER

FLOW METER PRIMARY VENTURI CONSTANT PRIMARY PUM P 7

C C' C2

C1

KEY PRESSURE/ TEMPERATURE TAPPING

B B' B3 a

STRAINER b REGULAT ING VALVE WITH BUILT-IN PRESSURE TAPPING DOUBLE REGULATING VALVE M OTORIZED ON/OFF VALVE B2 M OTORIZED MODULATING VALVE GATE VALVE GLOBE VALVE B1 AIR/ WATER HEAT EXCHANGER (TERMINAL UNIT)

A 5 A' A5

NOTE: DIFFERENTIAL BY-PASS VALVE SET APPLIES ONLY TO CONSTANT SPEED SECONDARY PUMPS

A4

A3

A2

A1

Fig. L1- Example of Water Distribution System

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Appendix L

B. General Description of the Water Distribution System (i) a chilled water system as shown in Fig. L1 will be used to illustrate the balancing procedures. The procedures for chilled water circuitry are equally applicable to heating and condensing water circuitry; the performance of terminal plant in chilled water systems is considerably more sensitive to any deviations from the design water flow rate. Hence, the T & C procedure for chilled water systems requires more exacting tolerances than heating system when balancing;

(ii)

(iii) the flow to each branch circuit is controlled by a two-way motorized on/off control valve. (iv) the return line from each terminal unit is fitted with a motorized modulating valve. Downstream in series is a regulating valve which has built-in pressure tapings. This valve is used for both the water flow regulations and measurement. This valve is locked in position after the balancing procedure is completed. C. Initial Check of System Water Flow Rates (i) check the pressure drop across the associated flow regulating valve of each terminal unit and branch by connecting a manometer between points a and b of the regulating valve with built-in pressure tapping. (Refer to Fig. L1); compute the square root of the ratio of the actual-to-design pressure drop for each branch and terminal;

(ii)

(iii) determine which is the least favoured (index) branch and which is the most favoured branch. The branch with the highest ratio is taken as the most favoured branch, whereas the branch with the smallest ratio is the least favoured branch, i.e. the index branch; D. Balancing of Terminals (i) (ii) start by balancing the most favoured branch first; balance the water flow rate of each terminal unit to the water flow rate of the index terminal unit in that branch;

(iii) balance the water flow rate of each branch independently. (The main branch valves A, A, B, B, C, C regulating valves with built in pressure tappings and motorized modulating valves of terminal units in Fig. L1 are all fully open at this stage); (iv) assume branch A-Ahas the highest ratio (i.e. the most favoured) and unit A1 (remote in hydraulic terms relative to the circulating pump) is the least favoured. If it is not, connect one manometer across valve No. 1 and a second manometer across the regulating valve at the least favoured terminal unit; (take regulative valve No.2 in this case for illustration)

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Appendix L

(v)

regulate valve No. 2 until the percentage of design water flow rate across the two valves are equal (or within the designer tolerances); s

(vi) leave the first manometer connected across valve No. 1 (a and b) while the rest of the branch A-Ais balanced; (vii) connect the second manometer across valve No. 3. Regulate valve No. 3 until the percentage of design water flow rate is the same (or within the designer tolerances) s as valve No. 1; (viii) repeat this procedure for all valves on branch A-A; (ix) remove both manometers and start on the next most favoured branch; (x) repeat until the water flow rates of all terminal units on all branches are balanced within each branch.

E. Balancing of Complete Branches (i) for this stage, the branch regulation valves (A, B and C) will be the measuring stations; check the percentage of design water flow rate across each branch regulating valve and determine which is the index branch (say B-B);

(ii)

(iii) set the first manometer across valve No. Band the second manometer across valve A until the percentage of design water flow rates across the valves A and B are equal (or within the designer tolerances for branch balance); s (iv) leave the first manometer connected across valve B. Repeat this procedure for all branches (in this example for branch C-C) working back from the most remote branch to the branch nearest the pump. (Where, at the start of branch balancing, if the most remote branch is not the index or least favoured branch, it should be made so, in the manner described for terminal balance.) F. Balancing of Secondary Pumps (i) (ii) set the pump speed at designed maximum flow conditions for variable speed pump; measure the water flow by connecting a manometer across the regulating valve No.6. Adjust the regulating valve until the pressure drop across the valve equals the design pressure drop;

(iii) counter check the flow by using the secondary venturi or other flow meters in the circuit; (iv) repeat the procedures for all secondary pumps.

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Appendix L

G. Balancing of Primary Pumps (i) measure the water flow by connecting a manometer across the primary venturi. Adjust the regulating valve or globe valve No.7 until the pressure drop across the venturi equals the design pressure drop; counter check the flow by referring to other flow meters in the circuit;

(ii)

(iii) repeat the procedures for all primary pumps; (iv) re-scan all measuring stations for record and monitoring purposes including the pump differential pressures.

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