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Teaching of any subject becomes much

effective and more systematic only when the
teacher is fully aware of the aims and values of
teaching that particular subject. Because the
basic principle of teaching is "Know what you
do and only do what you Know". Hence we
have to understand the aims and values of
teaching English.
Aims and Objectives
The words 'aim' and 'objective' are often
used interchangeably in books on education.
There are several words like aims, goals, pur-
poses, objectives learning outcomes used
loosely and indiscriminately by students and
teachers so that a terminological confusion has
taken place. An aim can be defined as a gener-
al expression of intent and an objective is
characterised by greater precision and speci-
ficity. To make it more clear aims are long term
intent and purposes and objectives are short
term goals.
The difference between aims and objectives
is made clear point wise in the following
Aims of Teaching English in India
In India English now exists as a second lan-
guage and it should be taught as a language and
not as a literature. The aim of teaching English in
India is to help students to acquire practical com-
mand of English i.e, students should be able to
understand spoken English, speak English, read
English and write English. Thus these are the
four basic aims of teaching English.
According to Thompson and Wytt the four
specific aims of teaching English at school
stages are:
i) To Understand Spoken English (Listening)
ii) To Speak English (Speaking)
iii) To Understand Written English (Reading)
iv) To Write English (Writing)
To Understand Spoken English
The student should be able to understand
spoken English required in ordinary conversa-
tion, exchange of greetings, receiving orders
and directions, listening to lectures, talks etc.
This aim can be achieved if we give opportuni-
ties to our students to listen to English through
Radio, Tape Recorder, Gramophone etc.
To Speak English
To speak English a student is required to pro-
duce sounds with proper stress and intonation.
Speech occupies a unique position and it is the
base for all the language learning. Many linguists
are of the view that language is primarily speech.
This aim stands totally neglected in our schools.
We expect our students to talk fluently in
English after 5 - 6 years of learning English.
This ability to speak English is required in big
cities to communicate with persons from other
Indian states and to talk with foreigners.
To Understand Written English
We expect our students, when they leave
the school, to be able to understand
the written English in books, maga-
zines, news papers etc. It is also expected that
he will be able to adopt English as the medium
of instructions and examinations in his studies.
At present our students are not able to compre-
hend material published in English. Recognition
vocabulary of students should be increased to
enable them to read English with
To Write English
Writing English is in no way less than
speaking English. In teaching English we aim to
enable our students to write in English simple
letters, applications, description and accounts
of events. Developing note-making and note-
taking skills, paragraph writing, precise writing,
composition writing are the basic skills to be
developed through teaching of writing.
Objectives of Teaching English
According to the dictionary of Education
Objective is "The end towards which a school
sponsored activity is directed". Effecting tangi-
ble changes in pupils behaviour at the end of
schooling is known as objective.
Dr. B.S. Bloom has defined educational
objective as "the desired goal or outcome at
which instruction is aimed". With regard to the
teaching of English is concerned Thompson
and Wytt rightly remarked that it is necessary
that the Indian pupil should not only understand
English when it is spoken or written, but also he
should himself be able to speak and write it.
Objectives of teaching English are framed
keeping in mind questions like what we teach,
whom we teach, why we teach and how we
teach. If the objective of teaching English is to
help students pass examinations it becomes a
short term and immediate objective. This does
not help the learners achieve proficiency in
English. If the students are to be trained to
acquire proficiency in English and mastery in
language skills then the objective is to teach
language as a medium not as a subject. This is
a long-term objective and in the long run helps
the students to become autonomous learners.
So the focus of English language teaching has
shifted from vocabulary and grammar to skill
development and
functional use of lan-
Some of the objec-
tives of teaching
English at the pri-
mary and upper pri-
mary level are :
To familiarise pupils with the spoken and writ-
ten forms of English.
To make learning an enjoyable activity.
To help the learners understand the lan-
guage spoken by the teacher and the class-
To help the learners to speak English words
and short sentences with the help of the
To help learners read and understand simple
words, sentences and passages.
To help the learners to write words,
phrases, sentences and para-
To help the learners recite, rhymes,
Once the aims and objectives are
determined then it would be easy to
frame the curriculum write text books,
design methods and techniques of teaching and
prepare an evaluation system. The objectives
can be materialised if the text books, materials
and methods of teaching are learner friendly
and chosen with care to suit the age and ability
of the learners. Input rich communicational envi-
ronment becomes a pre-requisite for language
learning. Inputs include text books, class
libraries, news papers, magazines, language
games, media, story books, cassettes etc. If all
these are included in the regular class room
activity it can promote the child's engagement
with English language and its performance.
Listening and speaking skills should be
strengthened first before the child gets ample
practice in regarding and writing skills.
Certain milestones in school education and
teacher education with special reference to
English education:
NCERT (National Council of Educational
Research and Training), a premier institute in
the field of school education was established
in 1961 by the Government of India.
NCERT's principal function is to assist the
central and state Government's in the imple-
mentation of policies on education and to
ensure quality in education and teacher
The NCERT has developed Curriculum
Frameworks for School Education (NCFSE)
in 1988, 2000 and 2005.
The National Curriculum Frame work-2000
advocated to introduce English from class III.
Many states including Andhra pradesh intro-
duced English as one of the subjects from
class III.
The National Curriculum Frame work-2005
envisaged child centred education with an
attempt to link it with life outside school.
Chapter-3 of NCFSE deals with language
education in general and English in particular.
NCTE (National Council for Teacher
Education) was established in 1995 under
the National Council for Teacher Education
Act, 1993. The main objective of the NCTE is
to achieve planned and coordinated develop-
ment of the teacher education system.
The Government of Andhra Pradesh intro-
duced English medium in Government run
schools from class-VI onwards. As per GO
MS No.76 (10 - 06 - 2008) English was intro-
duced as the medium of instruction with
CBSE syllabus from class-VI in the academ-
ic year 2008 - 09 in about 6500 schools. This
move is a part of the world Bank Aided
Project. These schools are known as SUC-
CESS schools. SUCCESS- stands for
Strengthening and Universalisation of Quality
and Access to Secondary Schools.
The CBSE syllabus was replaced with State
Government syllabus after a resentment
from the public and teachers in the year
2010 - 11.
English has been introduced as one of the
subjects from class-I in the academic year
2011 - 12.
1. The specific aims of teaching English may
also be called-
1) principles 2) goals
3) objectives 4) aims
2. Objectives of teaching English as a Second
Language will be achieved through-
1) Work book 2) Story book
3) Text book 4) Supplementary material
3. The premier institute in the field of school
education- NCERT was established in ....
1) 1961 2) 1962 3) 1966 4) 1995
4. The focus of English language Teaching is ..
1) To pass the examinations
2) To develop functional use of language
3) To get an employment abroad
4) None of these
5. NCFSE-2000 advocated to introduce
English from ....
1) I Class 2) III Class 3) V Class 4) VI Class
6. CBSE syllabus was replaced with State
Government syllabus in Government run
'SUCCESS' schools in A.P in the Academic
year ....
1) 2008 - 09 2) 2010 - 11
3) 2009 - 10 4) 2007 - 08
7. 'SUCCESS' stands for .....
1) Successful Universalising of Secondary
2) Successful Utilisation of Quality and
Access in Secondary Schools
3) Strengthening and Universalisation of
Quality and Access to Secondary
4) Strengthening and Uplifting of Quality
and Access in Secondary Schools
8. Chapter-3 of NCFSE deals with ....
1) Pre service teacher education
2) In service teacher education
3) Language education with special refer-
ence to English
4) Quality education
9. A pre-requisite for language learning is ....
1) Curriculum
2) Updated teaching methods
3) learner's interest
4) input rich communicational environment
1) 3 2) 3 3) 1 4) 2 5) 3 6) 2 7) 3 8) 3 9)4
SA - ENGLISH (Methodology)
S. Rahamathulla
SUCCESS Stands for...?
... :.e .. .eo ,e- - e.e, ..... ee .-- -.. .t-e ---e e.- -.- --.-.
1.Objectives form
the basis for cur-
riculum construc-
2. Objectives are
particular and
3. Objectives are
limited and clear
cut in their
4. Objectives are
short term goals.
5. Objectives can be
achieved within
specified time lim-
6. Objectives
express the spe-
cific purpose of
curriculum at a
given stage.
1. Aims form the
basic elements in
educational plan-
2. Aims are very
general in char-
acter and impre-
3. Aims are broad
and often
abstract in their
4. Aims are long
term goals.
5. It is difficult to
specify the exact
time limits for the
achievement of
6. Aims express the
general purpose
of education.
(Writer- School Assistant in English,
ZPHS Bhakaraopet, Kadapa)