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Approaches in Second and Foreign Language Teaching Teacher-Oriented Methods and Approaches

Levels of Conceptualization and Organization Approach


A set of correlative assumptions dealing with the nature of language teaching and learning It describes the nature of the subject matter to be taught It is the level at which assumptions and beliefs about something to be learned are specified

Method
An overall plan for the orderly presentation of language material no part of which contradicts, and all of which is based upon, the selected approach. It is the level at which theory is put into practice and choices are made about the particular skills and content to be taught, and the order by which the content will be presented.

Technique
The level at which classroom procedures are described. It is a medium of implementation (e.g., a particular trick, strategy, or contrivance) used to accomplish an immediate objective.

1. GRAMMAR TRANSLATION METHOD


GOALS 1. To read literature in the target language 2. To memorize grammar rules and vocabulary of the target language Characteristics 1. The major focuses are reading and writing with little or no systematic attention to listening and speaking. 2. Vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading text used. Words are taught through bilingual word lists, dictionary study, and memorization. 3. The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. Much of the lesson is devoted to translating sentences from and into the target language. 4. Grammar is taught deductively. Rules are presented and studied then practiced through translation exercises. 5. The students native language is used to explain new items in the target language and to enable comparisons between the foreign language and the students native tongue. 6. Accuracy is emphasized. Students are expected to attain high standards in translation.

Sample Activities
1. The students are asked to translate, for example, the Spanish poem Adios Patria Adorada by Dr. Jose Rizal into English or into the native language or vice versa. 2. The students answer questions in the target language based on their comprehension of a story. 3. The students are directed to find synonyms and/or antonyms of given words in an essay. 4. The teacher helps the students to recognize cognates by learning the spelling or sound patterns that correspond to the target language. 5. The students are asked to memorize a list of target language vocabulary words and their native language equivalent. 6. Grammar rules and examples are presented. Then the students memorize the rules and give original examples (e.g., rules for forming the plural nouns).

2. Direct Method
Goals
1. To communicate in the target language Characteristics 1. A foreign language is taught without the use of the students native language. 2. There are extensive drills in listening, imitating, and speaking so that the students' use of the different forms of the language becomes second nature to them. 3. There is no memorization of grammar rules. Grammar is taught inductively by generalizing from examples. 4. Oral communication skills are developed in a carefully graded progression and organized around question and graded progression and organized around question and answer exchanges between the teacher and the student. 5. New teaching points are introduced orally. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught. 6. Concrete expressions are taught through demonstration, objects, or pictures. Abstract words are taught by association of ideas. 7. The emphasis is on correct pronunciation and grammar 8. The teacher directs the class activities, but the students and the teacher are partners in the teaching and learning processes.

Sample Activities
1. The students read aloud a passage on a historical event in the Philippines. 2. Using a map, the students point out places where the event took place before recounting it. 3. The teacher asks questions in the target language on the passages read. To which the teacher or other students give their answers. 4. The teacher drills on the pronunciation of certain terms (e.g., names of persons, places or events). 5. The teacher corrects grammar errors made by the students and briefly explains why such corrections are necessary. 6. The students work on exercises using the prepositions taught in the lesson. 7. The teacher corrects a paragraph each student wrote on historical figure. Errors to be corrected will include those made on the mechanics of writings such as a spelling, punctuation, and capitalization

3. Audio-Lingual Approach
GOALS
1. To use the target language communicatively

2. To master the target language to enable the students to use it automatically as new habits are formed and native language habits are overcome Characteristics 1. New vocabulary and structures are presented through dialogs which are learned through imitation and repetition. 2. The students interact through chain drills or role playing in dialogs, all at the teachers direction. 3. Grammars are induced through models. 4. There is a set natural priority of skillslistening, speaking, reading, and writing---with emphasis on the first two skills 5. Pronunciation is taught from the beginning, often with language laboratory work and minimal pair drills.

6. Emphasis is given to everyday speech and a graded syllabus is used, from simple to difficult linguistic structure. 7. The native language is not used in the classroom. 8. Discrete-point tests are given to check the students knowledge of structure. 9. The teacher strives to prevent student error by predicting trouble spots and tightly controlling what to teach the students to say.

Sample activities
1. The teacher reads out a dialog between two people while the students listen carefully. 2. The students ( as a group) repeat the dialog after the teacher. They continue to do this until mastery of the dialog is achieved. 3. The teacher initiates a chain drill where the students practice the lines of the dialog individually. 4. The teacher gives clues for substitutions to be made in the dialog already mastered, starting with simple substitutions before using correlative and moving-slot substitutions. 5. The teacher introduces a pronunciation lesson on expected trouble areas., i. e., based on knowledge of the native language ( e.g., /i/ vs. // as in ship vs. sheep). 6. The teacher conducts a grammar exercise ( e.g., a little vs. a few) to show the difference between mass and count nouns (until the students master the lesson because no rule is given by the teacher). 7. The teacher writes a dialog on the chalkboard which the students copy.

4. Situational Language Teaching (Oral Approach)


Goals a practical command of the four basic skills of a language, through structure accuracy in both pronunciation and grammar ability to respond quickly and accurately in speech situations automatic control of basic structures and sentence patterns.

Typical procedures in Situational Language Teaching include: a) Procedures that move from controlled to freer practice of structures b) Procedures that move from oral use of sentence patterns to their automatic use in speech, reading and writing.

A typical Situational Language Teaching lesson would start with stress and intonation practice. Then the main body of the lesson might consist of four parts: a) revision (to prepare for new work if necessary) b) presentation of new structure or vocabulary c) oral practice (drilling) d) reading of material on the new structure, or written exercises. References: Villamin, Araceli M. et al. Innovative Strategies in Communication Arts. Quezon City: Phoenix publishing cl1996. http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/languagelearning/waystoapproachlanguagelearning/situationallanguagete aching.htm Presented by: Merry Grace P. Haino MaED- English Presented to: Mrs. Rosalia F. Soriano Professor