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Original Title: Distribution Feeder Re Configuration Using PSO

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J. Olamaei

a

, T. Niknam

b,

*

, G. Gharehpetian

c

a

Technical Engineering Department, Ph.D Student, Science & Research Branch, Islamic Azad University-(IAU), Teharn, Iran

b

Electrical Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz, Iran

c

Electrical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Teharn, Iran

Abstract

In many countries the power systems are going to move toward creating a competitive structure for selling and buying

electrical energy. These changes and the numerous advantages of the distributed generation units (DGs) in term of their

technology enhancement and economical considerations have created more incentives to use these kinds of generators than

before. Therefore, it is necessary to study the impact of DGs on the power systems, especially on the distribution networks.

The distribution feeder reconguration (DFR) is one of the most important control schemes in the distribution networks,

which can be aected by DGs. This paper presents a new approach to DFR at the distribution networks considering DGs.

The main objective of the DFR is to minimize the deviation of the bus voltage, the number of switching operations and the

total cost of the active power generated by DGs and distribution companies. Since the DFR is a nonlinear optimization

problem, we apply the particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach to solve it. The feasibility of the proposed approach is

demonstrated and compared with other evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithm (GA), Tabu search (TS) and dif-

ferential evolution (DE) over a realistic distribution test system.

2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Distributed generator; Distribution feeder reconguration; Particle swarm optimization; Distribution networks

1. Introduction

Distributed generation units (DGs) are grid-connected or stand-alone electric generation units located

within the electric distribution system at or near the end user. It is generally accepted that centralized electric

power plants will remain the major source of the electric power supply in future. DGs, however, can comple-

ment central power systems by providing the incremental capacity to the grid or to an end user. Installing

DGs at or near the end user can also, in some cases, benet the electric utility by avoiding or reducing the

cost of transmission and distribution system upgrades. Taking into account the consumers considerations,

a potentially lower cost, higher service reliability, high power quality, increased energy eciency, and energy

0096-3003/$ - see front matter 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.amc.2007.12.053

*

Corresponding author.

E-mail addresses: taher_nik@yahoo.com, niknam@sutech.ac.ir (T. Niknam).

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

Applied Mathematics and Computation 201 (2008) 575586

www.elsevier.com/locate/amc

independence can be the key points for the interest in DGs. The use of the renewable distributed energy gen-

erations such as wind, photovoltaic, geothermal or hydroelectric power can also provide signicant environ-

mental benets. It is expected that the penetration of the distributed generation will surpass more than 25% of

the total generation, in the foreseeable future [1]. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to study their impacts

on distribution systems. The distribution feeder reconguration (DFR) is one of the most signicant control

schemes in the distribution networks which can be aected by DGs.

Generally, the DFR is dened as altering the topological structure of distribution feeders by changing the

open/closed states of sectionalization and tie switches so that the objective function is minimized, and the con-

straints are met.

In recent years, many researchers have investigated loss minimization in the area of network recongura-

tion of distribution systems. The problem of minimizing losses through distribution system reconguration

was rst reported in 1975 by Merlin and Back [2], who modeled the distribution system as a spanning tree

structure, with line sections represented by the arcs of a graph, and the buses by the nodes. The nal cong-

uration that minimized losses was determined from the values found for binary variables associated with

switch status in which system constraints were neglected. In [36], the authors have suggested employing a

method based on heuristic algorithm to determine the conguration of radial distribution networks, which

nally led to loss minimization. In [7], the authors have proposed a solution procedure, employing simulated

annealing (SA), to search an acceptable non-inferior solution. In [8,9], the authors have presented articial-

intelligence-based applications. In [10], the authors have discussed time-varying load analysis to reduce losses.

In [11,12], the authors have combined the optimization techniques with heuristic rules and fuzzy logic for

higher eciency and robust performance. Recently, genetic algorithm (GA) and evolutionary programming

have been used [1320]. In [21,22], the authors have also proposed a solution procedure regarding DGs,

but the impacts of DGs on distribution system performance have not been studied in detail.

In this paper, a novel DFR approach is presented for a distribution network containing DG units. A cost-

based control methodology is proposed as a proper criterion for the real/reactive-power control of the DG

units of a distribution system. In the proposed DFR approach four objective functions have been considered

as follows:

v The cost of the active power generated by DGs.

v The cost of the active power generated by distribution companies.

v The number of switching operations.

v The deviation of the voltage of buses.

Since the tie and sectionalizing switches and DG units are non-dierentiable and nonlinear, respectively, the

distribution feeder reconguration problem is conventionally considered a mixed-integer nonlinear program-

ming problem. To solve such a problem, classical methods, e.g. linear programming, mixed-integer program-

ming, quadratic programming, etc., can be applied. However, in some cases, the mentioned methods fail to

provide the global minima and only reach local minima. Moreover, some classical methods cannot handle

the integer problems [23]. The two foregoing shortcomings can be overcome if an evolutionary method is uti-

lized. It is independent of the objective function type and constraints renders. In this paper, an evolutionary

optimization method, based on particle swarm optimization (PSO), has been utilized to solve the DFR prob-

lem.The paper has been organized as follows: In Section 2, the proposed DFR has been formulated, and a cost

evaluation method applicable to distributed generation has been presented. In Sections 3 and 4, the basic prin-

ciples of the PSO and its application in the DFR control problem have been discussed, respectively. In Section

5, the eectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated and compared with other evolutionary

methods. Lastly, the conclusion of the paper is provided in Section 6.

2. Modeling of distribution feeder reconguration

In this section, the distribution feeder reconguration considering DG units has been modeled as a multi-

objective, non-dierentiable optimization problem.

576 J. Olamaei et al. / Applied Mathematics and Computation 201 (2008) 575586

2.1. Objective function

In the proposed DFR approach, the objective function consists of four terms: (i) the cost of the active

power generated by the distribution companies, (ii) the cost of the active power generated by DG units,

(iii) the number of switching operations, and (iv) the deviation of the bus voltage. The objective function

of the DFR with its four terms has been demonstrated by the following equation:

f (X) =

X

N

sub

i=1

P

sub;i

Price

i

X

N

g

i=1

C

Pgi

(P

gi

) w

1

X

N

sw

i=1

[S

i

S

o;i

[ w

2

X

N

bus

i=1

[V

i

V

rat

[; (1)

X = [Sw; P

sub

; P

G

; Q

G

[;

Sw = [Sw

1

; Sw

2

; . . . ; Sw

N

sw

[;

P

sub

= [P

sub;1

; P

sub;2

; . . . ; P

sub;N

sub

[;

P

G

= [P

g1

; P

g2

; . . . ; P

gN

g

[;

Q

G

= [Q

g1

; Q

g2

; . . . ; Q

gN

g

[;

where N

sub

, N

g

, N

sw

and N

bus

are the number of substations, DGs, switches and buses, respectively. X is the

state variable vector. P

sub,i

is the active power of the ith substation. P

sub

is the substation active power vector

including active power of all substations. Sw

i

is the state of the ith switch specied in terms of on/o status,

taking 0 or 1 as its value. Sw is the switching state vector including state of all switches. Price

i

is the electrical

energy price at the ith substation. C

Pgi

(P

gi

) is the cost of active power generated by the ith DG. Q

G

is the DGs

reactive power vector including reactive power of all DGs. Q

gi

is the reactive power of the ith DG.P

G

, the DGs

active power vector including active power of all DGs. P

gi

is the active power of the ith DG. S

i

and S

o,i

are the

new and original states of switch i, respectively. And V

i

and V

rat

, the real and rated voltage on bus i, whilst w

1

and w

2

represent weighting factors.

2.2. Cost model for DG units

In general, the cost of each kWh of electric energy generated by a DG unit is assumed to be composed of (i)

the initial investment, including the cost of equipment, infrastructure, commissioning, etc., (ii) operation and

maintenance (O&M) costs, and (iii) fuel cost [24]. This can be expressed by the following equation:

C

Pg

(P) = a b P: (2)

Coecients a and b are calculated as follows:

a =

capital cost ($=kW) capacity (kW) Gr

life time (Year) 365 24 LF

; (3)

b = fuel cost ($=kWh) O&M cost ($=kWh); (4)

where Gr and LF are the annual rates of benet and DG loading factor, respectively.

2.3. Constraints

The constraints can be listed as follows:

v Active power constraints of DGs:

(P

gi

)

2

(Q

gi

)

2

6 S

2

gi;max

; (5)

P

gi

and S

gi,max

are the active and apparent power of the ith DGs.

v Distribution line limits:

[P

Line

ij

[ < P

Line

ij;max

; (6)

J. Olamaei et al. / Applied Mathematics and Computation 201 (2008) 575586 577

[P

Line

ij

[ and P

Line

ij;max

are absolute power owing over distribution lines and maximum transmission power be-

tween nodes i and j, respectively.

v Distribution power ow equations:

P

i

=

X

N

bus

i=1

V

i

V

j

Y

ij

cos(h

ij

d

i

d

j

);

Q

i

=

X

N

bus

i=1

V

i

V

j

Y

ij

sin(h

ij

d

i

d

j

);

(7)

P

i

and Q

i

are the net injected active and reactive power at the ith bus. V

i

and d

i

are the amplitude and the

angle of voltage at the ith bus, respectively. And Y

ij

and h

ij

are the amplitude and the angle of the branch

admittance between the ith and jth buses.

v Capacity margin of transformers:

[S

i

[ < S

i;max

; (8)

|S

i

| and S

i,max

are absolute and maximum powers of the ith transformer, respectively.

v Radial structure of the network.

3. The basic principle of PSO algorithm

PSO is a population-based optimization tool, where the system is initialized with a population of random

particles and the algorithm searches for optima by updating generations and is originally developed by Ken-

nedy and Eberhart [24,25] and inspired by the paradigm of birds ocking. PSO consists of a swarm of particles

and each particle ies through the multi-dimensional search space with a velocity, which is constantly updated

by the particles previous best performance and by the previous best performance of the particles neighbors.

In an n-dimensional search space, let the position and velocity of the ith individual be represented as vectors

x

i

= (x

i1

, . . ., x

id

, . . ., x

in

) and v

i

= (v

i1

, . . ., v

id

, . . ., v

in

), respectively. The best previous experience of the ith par-

ticle is recorded and represented by Pbest

i

= (Pbest

i1

, . . ., Pbest

id

, . . ., Pbest

in

). The global best position of the

swarm found so far is denoted by Gbest

i

= (Gbest

i1

, . . ., Gbest

id

, . . ., Gbest

in

). The modied velocity of each

particle can be rst calculated regarding the personal initial velocity, the distance from personal (local) best

position and the distance from global best position as expressed by the following equation:

v

(t1)

id

= x v

(t)

id

c

1

rand

1

() (Pbest

id

x

(t)

id

) c

2

rand

2

() (Gbest

d

x

(t)

id

); (9)

x

(t1)

id

= x

(t)

id

v

(t1)

id

: (10)

Eq. (9) determines the direction in which the ith particle should be taken along. Therefore, the new position of

that particle can be determined by applying Eq. (10).

In these equations i = 1, 2, . . ., m is the index of each particle, t is the iteration number,rand

1

() and rand

2

()

are the random numbers between 0 and 1.The constants c

1

and c

2

are the weighting factors of the stochastic

acceleration terms, which pull each particle toward Pbest and Gbest positions. Low values allow particles to

roam far from the target region before being togged back. On the other hand, high values result in abrupt

movements toward, or backward the target region. Hence, the learning factors c

1

and c

2

are often set to

2.0 according to early experiences [26]. We bear in mind that the PSO has been found to be robust and fast

in solving nonlinear, non-dierentiable, multi-objective problems. Shi and Eberhart [27] has introduced the

parameter x into the PSOs equation to improve its performance. The appropriate selection of inertia weight

x in (7) provides a balance between global and local explorations, requiring less iteration on average to nd a

suciently optimal solution. As originally developed, x often decreases linearly from about 0.9 to 0.4 during a

run. In general, the inertia weight x is set according to the following equation [27]:

x

(t1)

= x

max

x

max

x

min

t

max

t: (11)

In Eq. (11), t

max

is the maximum number of iterations and t is the current iteration number. Fig. 1 represents a

graphical depiction of the basic idea of the particle swarm optimizer.

578 J. Olamaei et al. / Applied Mathematics and Computation 201 (2008) 575586

4. Application of PSO in the proposed DFR

In this section, the PSO algorithm has been applied to the DFR problem. It should be noted that the state

variables are real and reactive power values of the DG units, status of switches and active power value of sub-

stations. To apply the PSO algorithm, the following steps have to be taken:

Step 1: The input data including network conguration, line impedance and status of DGs and switches are

to be read.

Step 2: The proposed DFR problem needs to be transformed into an unconstrained one by constructing an

augmented objective function incorporating penalty factors for any value violating the constraints:

F (X) = f (X) k

1

X

N

eq

j=1

(h

j

(X

i

)

2

)

!

k

2

X

N

ueq

j=1

(Max[0; g

j

(X

i

)[)

2

!

; (12)

f (X) is the objective function values of DFR problem. N

eq

and N

ueq

are the number of equality and

inequality constraints, respectively. h

i

(X

i

) and g

i

(X

i

) are the equality and inequality constraints. k

1

and k

2

are the penalty factors, respectively.

Step 3: The initial population and initial velocity for each particle should be generated randomly.

Step 4: The augmented objective function (Eq. (12)) is to be evaluated for each individual by using the result

of distribution load ow.

Step 5: The individual that has the minimum objective function should be selected as the global position.

Step 6: The ith individual is selected.

Step 7: The best local position (Pbest) is selected for the ith individual.

Step 8: The modied velocity for the ith individual needs to be calculated based on the local and global posi-

tions and Eq. (9).

Step 9: The modied position for ith individual should be calculated based on Eq. (10) and then checked

with its limit.

Step 10: If all individuals are selected, go to the next step, otherwise i = i + 1 and go to Step 6.

Step 11: If the current iteration number reaches the predetermined maximum iteration number, the search

procedure is stopped, otherwise go to Step 4.

The last Gbest is the solution of the problem. The owchart of PSO algorithm is shown in Fig. 2.

5. Simulation results

In this section, the PSO algorithm is utilized to solve the DFR of a distribution test feeder, whose one-line

diagram is given in Fig. 3. It is assumed that every branch has a sectionalizing switch. This system has three

X

i

X

i + 1

V

G b e s t

V

L b e s t

V

i

V

i + 1

X

i

: Current searching Point X

i+1

: Modified searching Point

V

i

: Current Velocity V

i+1

: Modified Velocity

V

Gbest

: Velocity based on Gbest V

Lbest

: Velocity based on Lbest

Fig. 1. Concept of a searching by PSO. X

i

: current searching point; X

i+1

: modied searching point; V

i

: current velocity; V

i+1

: modied

velocity; V

Gbest

: velocity based on Gbest; V

Lbest

: Velocity based on Lbest.

J. Olamaei et al. / Applied Mathematics and Computation 201 (2008) 575586 579

feeders and four tie switches. The tie switches and sectionalizing switches are normally open and closed,

respectively.

It is assumed that there are three generators, whose specications are given in Table 1.

The active power prices at each substation are 0.05, 0.045 and 0.051 $/kW, respectively.

Read data including network configuration, line impedance

and status of DGs and switches

Create initial population and initial velocity based on

DGs, load values

Convergence condition is satisfied

Stop and print the results.

Yes

No

Calculate the next position for each individual based on eq. (10)

Calculate the modified velocity for each individual based on eq. (9)

Calculate the objective function for each individual,

based on distribution load flow results

Select the global position based on the objective

function values

Calculate the next position for each individual based on eq. (10)

Check the new position with its limits

i=i+1

Select the i

th

individual

Select the local position for the i

th

individual

All individuals are selected

No

Yes

Fig. 2. PSO owchart.

580 J. Olamaei et al. / Applied Mathematics and Computation 201 (2008) 575586

The parameters required for the implementation of the PSO algorithm are c

1

, c

2

, x

min

and x

max

. In this

paper, the best values for the mentioned parameters are c

1

= c

2

= 2, x

min

= 0.4 and x

max

= 0.9 determined

by 100 times running of the algorithm. The number of particles is 20.

Table 2 provides the simulation results carried out on the test system of Fig. 3, using MATLAB software,

and includes the best and the worst solutions. Furthermore, Table 2 provides the simulation results based on

the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, genetic algorithm (GA), Tabu search (TS) and dierential

evolution (DE) whilst their simulation parameters are presented in the Appendix, for 300 times running of the

algorithms. In Table 2, the smallest and the largest values of the minimized objective function are referred to

as the Best Solution and the Worst Solution, respectively. Comparison of the best and the worst solutions

of the proposed optimization algorithm with the other evolutionary methods conrms the eectiveness of the

proposed method. In addition to the best and the worst solutions, Table 2 provides the standard deviation and

the average value of the objective function (minimized) value for the PSO, GA, TS and DE.

Figs. 47 illustrate the convergence performance of the PSO algorithm, GA, DE and TS for the best solu-

tions. It can be evidently seen from these gures that the value of the objective function settles at the minimum

after about 130 iterations.

The average computing times for the PSO, DE, TS and GA algorithms are ~30, 210, 250 and 200 s in run-

ning on a P4 1.8 GHz/512 MB RAM, respectively.

Substation 1

Substation 2

Substation 3

1 2 3 8

10

11

12

20

21

22

23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

19

18

17 16 15 14 13

9

7 6 5 4

Tie Sw1

Tie Sw2

Tie Sw3

Tie Sw4

Fig. 3. Distribution test feeder.

Table 1

Characteristic of generators

Capacity

(kW)

Max reactive

power (kVar)

Min reactive

power (kVar)

Capital cost

($/kW)

Life time

(year)

Fuel cost

($/kWh)

O&M cost

($/kWh)

Location

G1 300 240 180 3674 12.5 0.029 0.01 17

G2 1000 800 600 1500 20 0 0.005 31

G3 1000 800 600 715 20 0.067 0.006 8

Table 2

Simulation result based on dierent optimization methods

Method Best solution Worst solution Average Standard deviation

PSO 122.45 126.78 124.31 2.01

TS 123.78 128.36 126.01 3.43

DE 124.95 128.73 126.58 2.78

GA 123.49 127.67 125.73 2.47

J. Olamaei et al. / Applied Mathematics and Computation 201 (2008) 575586 581

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

1 21 41 61 81 101 121 141

Iteration

O

b

j

e

c

t

i

v

e

F

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

V

a

l

u

e

Fig. 4. Convergence performance of PSO for the best solution.

123

124

125

126

127

128

129

130

1 51 101 151 201 251 301

Iteration

O

b

j

e

c

t

i

v

e

F

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

V

a

l

u

e

Fig. 5. Convergence performance of GA for the best solution.

100

120

140

160

180

200

220

1 51 101 151 201

O

b

j

e

c

t

i

v

e

F

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

V

a

l

u

e

Iteration

Fig. 6. Convergence performance of DE for the best solution.

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

1 51 101 151 201

Iteration

O

b

j

e

c

t

i

v

e

F

u

n

c

t

i

o

n

V

a

l

u

e

Fig. 7. Convergence performance of TS for the best solution.

582 J. Olamaei et al. / Applied Mathematics and Computation 201 (2008) 575586

For the best solution, nal simulation results for two cases (dispatchable DGs (case 1) and non-dispatch-

able DGs (case 2)) are shown in Table 3. For the non-dispatchable DG units case, it is assumed that each DG

unit delivers half of its rated real power.

Before reconguration, the total power loss of the system is 276.2 kW and the minimum voltage is

0.8821 p.u.

As shown in Table 3, the total real losses and minimum voltage in case 1 are less than case 2 and those of

both cases are less than the case without reconguration. Considering Table 3, it can also be seen that in case 1

only one tie switch and one sectionalizing switch have been changed, whereas the remaining tie switches and

sectionalizing switches have not been changed.

6. Discussion

In this section, with reference to the tables and gures presented in the previous sections, the following dis-

cussion can be put forward:

v The comparison amongst convergence times of solutions based on PSO, GA, TS and DE shows that the

PSO has the capability of being used in practical systems.

v The PSO algorithm is precise. In other words, not only does this method reach a much better optimal solution

in comparison with GA, DE and TS, but also the standard deviation for dierent executions is very small.

v Since most of DG units have private ownership, the cost of active power generation can be used as a signal

for generating active power by DG units.

v When DG units are dispatchable, active power loss is 56.44 kW. This amount is 97.46 kW less than that of

DG units when they are not dispatchable. On the other hand, it can be concluded that the system perfor-

mance can be improved under proper control.

v The active power losses in cases 1 and 2 are less than those before the reconguration.

v The minimum voltage in case 2 (non-dispatchable DGs) is less than case 1 (dispatchable DGs).

v In case 1, only one tie switch and one sectionalizing switch are changed whilst in case 2, four sectionalizing

switches and four tie switches are changed. In other words, number of switching operations in case 1 is less

than case 2.

v The active power of DG1 is zero. The corresponding reason can be explained from the data of Table 1;

DG1 has the shortest life-time, the largest capital cost, and the largest O&M cost.

v The method can be applied to a wide variety of similar optimization problems with non-dierential and

non-continuous objective functions and constraints.

Table 3

Optimal dispatch schedule for the two cases

Dispatchable DGs (case 1) Non-dispatchable DGs (case 2)

Electrical energy losses (kW) 56.44 153.9

Tie switch 1 Open Close

Tie switch 2 Open Close

Tie switch 3 Close Close

Tie switch 4 Open Close

Sectionalizing switch of branch 2229 Open Open

Sectionalizing switch of branch 96 Close Open

Sectionalizing switch of branch 67 Close Open

Sectionalizing switch of branch 1617 Close Open

Minimum voltage 0.9351 0.9111

Number of switching operations 2 8

P

g1

(kW) 0

P

g2

(kW) 899.44

P

g3

(kW) 856.90

Q

g1

(kVar) 77.0

Q

g2

(kVar) 31.50

Q

g3

(kVar) 267.57

J. Olamaei et al. / Applied Mathematics and Computation 201 (2008) 575586 583

7. Conclusion

As pointed in the previous sections, issues such as environmental pollution, restructuring in electrical indus-

try and technology advancement have resulted in an increase in the usage of distributed generators which most

of the time connect to the distribution networks. Therefore, with an increase in connecting these generators to

the distribution networks, it is a necessity to study the eects of these generators on distribution systems. This

paper has presented an ecient approach to distribution feeder reconguration in presence of DG units. Due

to private ownership of DG units, a cost-based compensation method has been used to dispatch DGs. The

simulation results have prominently shown that the performance of the system is much better when DG units

are dispatchable. Also the PSO algorithm has been applied to nd the best solution for the DFR problem. The

results have demonstrated that PSO has better performance than GA.

Appendix. Genetic algorithm

In this paper, integer strings instead of binary coding are used to represent value of variables, and include

these processes:

1. Representation and initialization.

2. Fitness function.

3. Reproduction operation.

4. Crossover operation.

5. Mutation operation.

Simulation conditions are:

Initial population = 1000.

Selected population = 300.

Mutation = 4%.

Crossover probability = 0.20.3.

Dierential evolution

Dierential evolution (DE) is similar to genetic algorithm, but diers from GA with respect to the mech-

anism of mutation, crossover, and selections. In an overall view, the DE, based on mutation rules, is classied

into ve dierent strategies as follows [28]:

v Best/Rand:

Xp

i;j1

= X

best

a

+

(X

r1;j

X

r2;j

): (A:1)

v Rand/Rand:

Xp

i;j1

= X

r1;j

a

+

(X

r2;j

X

r3;j

): (A:2)

v Old/Best/Rand:

Xp

i;j1

= X

i;j

a

+

(X

best

X

i;j

X

r1;j

X

r2;j

): (A:3)

v Best/RandRand:

Xp

i;j1

= X

best

a

+

(X

r1;j

X

r2;j

X

r3;j

X

r4;j

): (A:4)

v Rand/RandRand:

Xp

i;j1

= X

r1;j

a

+

(X

r2;j

X

r3;j

X

r4;j

X

r5;j

): (A:5)

584 J. Olamaei et al. / Applied Mathematics and Computation 201 (2008) 575586

where X is the set of population; Xp

i,j+1

is a partner to mate with the next generation; X

i,j

is the ith member

of the current population; X

best

is the best member in population; a is constant factor in range of [0, 2]; j is

the current generation; j + 1 is the next generation; X

r1,j

, X

r2,j

, X

r3,j

, X

r4,j

and X

r5,j

are the randomly selected

populations in the current generation.

After the creation of the partner for mating, the crossover is applied on the member as follows:

X

i;j1

= X

+

i;j

(1 P

c

) Xp

+

i;j1

P

c

(A:6)

where P

c

is the crossover probability.

New generation is compared with its limits:

Initial population = 1000.

Selected population = 300.

Mutation = 4%.

Crossover probability = 0.20.3.

Tabu search

Tabu search is a heuristic algorithm for guiding the search to nd a good solution to a combinatorial prob-

lem. It is derived from the works of Fred Glover with seminal ideas and contributions from various other

sources. Tabu search has been successfully applied to obtain optimal or sub-optimal solutions to problems

such as timetables, the traveling salesman and so on [29].

To apply the Tabu search algorithm to solve the DFR problem the following steps should be repeated [29]:

Step 1: Generation of initial population.

Step 2: Selection of good population and generation of the Tabu list.

Step 3: Creation of new population.

Step 4: Evaluation and selection.

Step 5: Updating the Tabu list.

Step 6: Checking the convergence.

Simulation conditions are:

Initial population = 1000.

Selected population = 300.

Tabu list = 30.

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