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(cavum tympani), (tuba auditiva), (aditus ad antram), (antrum)


(cellulae mastoidea).
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, (tegmen tympani)
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(semicanalis m.tensoris thympani), -
(ostium tympanicum tubae auditivae).
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(aditus ad antrum), (attic)
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The middle ear consists of a series of interconnected pneumatic cavities: the tympanic cavity (cavum tympani), the
auditory tube (tuba auditiva), entrance to the cave (aditus ad antram), Caves (antrum) and associated pneumatic
mastoid cells (cellulae mastoidea). Through the auditory tube middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx.
Under normal circumstances, this is the only message of the middle ear cavity with the external environment.
Tympanum
Tympanic cavity can be compared with the cube of irregular shape up 1 cm . "There are six walls: top, bottom,
front, back, inner and outer.
The walls of the tympanic cavity:
The upper wall or roof of the tympanum (tegmen tympani) is represented by the bone plate thickness of 1 to 6
mm . It separates the drum from the cavity of the chick middle cranial fossa. In the roof there are small holes,
through which the blood vessels that carry blood from the dura mater of the middle ear mucosa. Sometimes at the
top of the wall are degistsentsii. In these cases, the mucous membrane of tympanic cavity immediately adjacent to
the dura mater.
The lower (jugular) wall or floor of the tympanum fanichit with lying beneath the jugular fossa, which is located in
the jugular bulb. The bottom wall may be very thin or have degistsentsii through which the bulb of the vein is
sometimes stuck out in the tympanic cavity, which explains the possibility of injury to the bulb vein during surgical
intervention.
The front wall (pipe or sleeping) is formed by a thin plate of bone, which is located outside of the internal carotid
artery. The front has two holes, top of which a narrow leads into the canal for (semicanalis m. tensoris thympani),
and the lower broad - in the mouth of the drum auditory tube (ostium tympanicum tubae auditivae). In addition
the front wall is penetrated by thin tubules (canaliculi caroticotympanici). through which the tympanic cavity in the
blood vessels and nerves. In some cases it has degistsentsii.
The back wall (mastoid) to the mastoid 1ranichit. In the upper part of the wall there is a broad stroke (aditus ad
antrum), tells nadbarabannos space (attic) with a constant cell mastoid - Cave (antrum). Below this ledge there is
progress - the pyramidal process, which begins on the stapedius muscle (m. Stapedius). On the outer surface of the
pyramidal process of the drum is the hole through which the tympanic cavity tympanic enter the string extending
from the facial nerve. In the interior of the rear of the bottom wall is downward knee facial canal.
Outdoor (membranous) wall is formed by the eardrum, and partly in the attic bony plate, which departs from the
top of the bone wall of the outer ear canal.
Internal (labyrinth, medial) wall is the outer wall of the labyrinth and separates it from the middle ear cavity. On
this wall in the middle of a rise ovachnoy forms - Cape (promotorium), formed by the projection basic helix snails.
Backwards and upwards from the Cape is a niche of the window arches (foramen ovale), a private foundation
stirrup. The latter is attached to the edges of the window by the annular ligament. Backwards and downwards from
the Cape is another niche in the bottom of the window that contains the cochlea (round window), leading to the
cochlea and the closed secondary tympanic membrane. Above the threshold of the inner wall of the tympanic
cavity from front to back is a horizontal knee bone canal of the facial nerve (fallopian canal).