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AUGUST/SEPTEMBER 2011

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TECHNOLOGY IN MOTION

Tuesday 27th September 2011


Heritage Motor Centre & Museum Gaydon, Warwickshire

CONTENTS 3

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Make sure you attend the UKs only technology event on vehicle electronics

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The most productive small show we have attended in the UK Lauterbach

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CONTENTS
News Diary Microcontrollers Vitor Ribeiro and Maik Strietzel explain how efficient software algorithms and the latest microcontrollers can improve motor control on electric vehicles Autosar Alain Gilberg provides an update on the latest Autosar developments Infotainment A look at how an Atom-powered PC can be deployed within in-vehicle digital multimedia applications to display rich multimedia content for the delivery of instant information and entertainment Security David Kleidermacher discusses the important emerging security threats and the core principles and approaches that must be used to counter them in next generation automotive systems Software Tools How software tools helped the Ohio State University set a new land speed record Driver Assistance Jeff Postupack and Sam Weinstein explain how integrated radar systems can bring high-end technology to affordable cars Autosport Engineering Show report Steve Rogerson reports from the Autosport Engineering Show in Birmingham Product news
Automotive Electronics is available to readers in the United Kingdom not meeting the terms of control at an annual rate of 55. The overseas subscription rate is US$130. Automotive Electronics is published six times a year by MT Publications Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of Automotive Electronics may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording on any information storage system without the written consent of the publisher. The publisher cannot be held responsible for loss or damage to unsolicited press releases and/or photographs. Views of contributors and advertisers do not necessarily reflect the policy of Automotive Electronics or those of the publisher. Printed in the UK by Hastings Printing Company Ltd.

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Advanced Automotive Electronics (AAE) is the UKs only technical conference and exhibition focused on vehicle electronics where delegates converge to discuss the key issues and challenges facing their industry, as well as learn about the very latest technological developments, industry standards, and new products to assist their current projects and future design and development strategies. The event creates the ideal forum for the exchange of ideas and views, to develop technical knowledge and new skills, to network with other automotive industry professionals, and meet with key suppliers of leading-edge solutions covering both software and hardware products. It is, therefore, an essential diary date for every engineering professional involved in automotive electronic systems design and development working in vehicle manufacturing sites, OEMs, race teams, research and development, consultancy, academia, or one of the major industry associations.

We found the show excellent in terms of leads and the quality of the delegates attending. Also, the attention to detail and quality of organisation from start to finish was amongst the best we have experienced. Many thanks, and hope to see you next year ebm-papst

Just a quick note to say thanks to you and everyone at UMR for the event organised yesterday - We thought you did a terrific job and will be looking to support the event again next year ETAS

I wanted to congratulate you on a great conference. As well as being enjoyable it was very informative. I was especially impressed by the Frost & Sullivan paper but all papers I saw were of a high calibre. Congratulations and I look forward to next years event already Automotive EMC

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Published by: MT Publications Limited, Prudence Place, Proctor Way, Luton, Bedfordshire LU2 9PE, United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0)1582 722460 Fax: +44 (0)1582 722470 Email: enquiries@automotiveelectronics.co.uk Web: www.automotive-electronics.co.uk ISSN: 1749-1819 Editor Steve Rogerson, Steve@automotive-electronics.co.uk Editorial Contributors Vitor Ribeiro, Mauk Strietzel, Alain Gilberg, David Kleidermacher, Jeff Postupack and Sam Weinstein

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Congratulations on a very successful event no mean feat in the UK electronics industry! The conference material was strong and we would certainly hope to contribute here again next year Infineon Technologies

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august/september 2011 | automotive electronics

4 NEWS

NEWS 5

Fujitsu completes full recovery from Japanese earthquake


Fujitsu says that its two 200mm wafer fabs in Iwate and Aizu Wakamatsu are back up to full production following damage during the Japanese earthquakes. The Iwate fab lost its water supply and power during the March quake and the power at Aizu was reduced to a level too low to run the plant. Emergency vehicles were also given priority on a struggling road infrastructure, so goods that were in stock could not initially be moved. Both plants suffered minor damage to walls and ventilation ducts but the biggest problems were the wrecked quartz ovens. This was the biggest issue for recovery, said Brendan Mc Kearney, corporate vice president. These were in a clean room environment and there are several hundred in a wafer fab. The situation was helped because the company had already started installing antiseismic stands. Where they were installed, there was no damage, said Mc Kearney, but where they werent, 83% were damaged. But all factories are now back to the output level they were at before the earthquake. He said that even though the supply chain was tight for a while, none of its automotive customers had line stoppages as a result of unavailable parts. We had to react quickly, he said, with a combination of damage limitation, fast recovery and buffer stocks. We could cover some parts with stock. With the automotive parts, we had to talk with the car manufacturers to find what they needed so we knew what to prioritise. We did that very quickly to make sure we started with the most important products. This, he said, involved running some key products in small batches. Business continuity management is nothing new to Fujitsu, he said. We have been doing it for years. But he admitted that if there had been a third aftershock they might not have kept stocks flowing. The company is now concentrating on a number of products it plans to announce in September, which will include parts based on the Arm Cortex R4 for dashboard cluster applications. The new R4 parts are targeting automotive clusters, he said, but they will also be used for motor control in electric and

Conference to explore the connected car


registration is open for this years Advanced Automotive Electronics (AAE) conference and exhibition, the UKs only event focussed on the design and development of vehicle electronic systems. Under the theme of the connected car, the event will be held at the Heritage Motor Centre & Museum in Gaydon, Warwickshire, on Tuesday 27 September 2011. The show provides an opportunity to discover innovations in electronics and embedded systems for automotive applications, to develop skills further, network with other engineering professionals, as well as meet some of the industrys leading software and hardware suppliers. AAE is a technical forum, by engineers, for engineers. It focuses on new products, developments and standards emerging into the everdeveloping world of vehicle electronics. Each conference track is made up of a series of technical papers given by industry experts who have been selected by an independent vice president of the Genivi Alliance and technical lead for next generation infotainment at Jaguar Land Rover. Hamamatsu will introduce at the show two Most devices; a high speed visible response photo IC capable of 150Mbit/s data transmission in an SMD package, and a similar device in a side looking package. The SMD packaged receiver allows direct connection of plastic optical fibres, making integration into systems quicker and easier. Frank Kirschke-Biller from Ford Motor will discuss the developments and roll-out perspectives for Autosar and Maurice Geraets from NXP will give the results of an experiment in the Netherlands where a live demonstration of car-to-x communications was carried out on a public road. For an agenda and to register, go to www.aae-show.com.

Brendan Mc Kearney: We had to react quickly.

hybrid electric vehicles. There are also plans for parts using the companys own FR core for automotive body control applications.

AAE will be held at the Heritage Motor Centre & Museum in Gaydon

Renesas thanks automotive customers for patience


have to look at renesas has other suppliers praised automotive to decide what to OEMs for their do, said Green. patience and But there has understanding as been a determined it tries to recover patience among from the effects of our customers to the earthquake in help us get through Japan in March. this. The earthquake Rob Green: There has He said some hit a number of been a determined customers had facilities, the most patience among our customers. reverted to older serious being the 200 and 300mm wafer fabs designs or had reworked in Naka. About 15% of its existing designs to operate with different components output came from Naka. Most of the automotive that were in stock. There are many areas OEMs have come to Japan to talk at the highest level to where the supply chain has get an understanding of the been tight, he said, but events, said Rob Green, CEO there seem to be solutions with flexibility on design. We for Renesas in Europe. By transferring production are managing and not staring to other facilities, inside the at empty car factories. Green said it was on track company and out, and with operations production ramping up from streamlining Naka itself, the company following the merger with estimates it will be back to NEC last year. This includes shedding around 5000 staff full production by October. By then, Naka will be at and reducing the number of 50% of the capacity it was at distributors. But Green said that it would continue in before the earthquake. We are still in a position Europe to deal directly with of constraint and customers larger customers.

AMS develops front passenger sensor IC


austria MicrosysteMs has developed a sensor IC that can detect whether the front passenger seat in a car is occupied by a rear-facing infant or an adult passenger. This is to stop an airbag deploying if a child is in the passenger seat, which is becoming a legal requirement in some countries. It is ready and it will go into production with an American and Japanese tier one manufacturer, said Thomas Mller, product manager for automotive. We are ramping up volumes now and it will first appear in some cars in 2012 but not in high volume until 2013. The firm has also developed a pre-crash system with Continental that uses a laser to detect objects ahead and apply the brakes if an object, such as the car in front, gets too close. This is already in use in some Volvos and the Ford Focus. The asic chip has formed part of the Lidar laser-based obstacle recognition system. The safety feature is branded by OEMs as city-safety or active city stop. Since light travels a distance of 30cm in only 1ns, very high speed measurement technology is needed. The AMS chip set comprises a three-channel high-speed amplifier and a high-speed mixed-signal IC. The amplifier IC detects reflected light signals from a photodiode receiver array in the rear view mirror.

judging panel to offer the most topical and useful programme for enhancing technical knowledge and skills, as well as helping investigate the latest products for current and future design projects. The conference will be opened by Nick Ford from Frost & Sullivan, who will set the scene with the latest market analysis. He will be followed by Chief Inspector Mick Trosh from the intelligent transport systems working group at the Association

of Chief Police Officers who will talk about the latest development in infotainment and driver assist technologies. Infotainment standards will be covered by talks from Harald Kohler, director of marketing in Europe for Most, and Matt Jones,

Study gives EV thumbs up


Despite initial scepticism surrounding the capability of electric vehicles and concerns over range, they are more than capable of meeting the needs of drivers that require efficient urban transportation, according to a year-long study of EV usage in Coventry and Birmingham. Run by Cabled (Coventry & Birmingham Low Emission Demonstrators), the study of 25 Mitsubishi I-MiEVs and 20 Smart Fortwo electric drives found that most journeys (77%) lasted less than 20 minutes and only 2% used more than 50% of the battery, enabling a return journey without recharging. The data also showed a trend towards drivers travelling longer journeys over time, indicating increased confidence and reduced range anxiety. These findings form part of the largest study of low carbon vehicle use ever compiled and, whilst our study is on-going, its already clear that EVs offer a viable, practical urban transport solution, said project leader Neil Butcher from co-ordinating Cabled partner Arup. We must now consider how our homes, offices and public spaces will need to evolve in order to cater to both users needs and the rapidly developing technologies powering these vehicles. Manchester Electric a network of 300 charge points and six pod centres will be rolled out across Greater Manchester this autumn.

automotive electronics | august/september 2011

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www.automotive-electronics.co.uk

august/september 2011 | automotive electronics

6 NEWS

NEWS 7

Arm hopes Cortex-R addition will boost share


arM is hoping to build on the success of its Cortex-R4 processor, launched in 2004, in the automotive space with the first two major additions to the family the Cortex-R5 and R7 MPCore processors. The R4 was a hit for automotive braking systems though it has since moved on into consumer products and notably hard disk drives. The new products though have been driven by the needs of the mobile world, especially LTE and LTE-Advanced. This though, believes Richard York, director of product marketing for Arms processor division, will also take the products back into the automotive world as more mobile connectivity is introduced into cars. Before long we will have LTE and LTE-Advanced modems embedded in the cars, he said. These will be for back-seat entertainment. This will also work its way into a lot of consumer products. An important addition in the latest cores is coherency, and this could also be significant in the automotive market as it will Arms allow designers to reduce Cortex-R5 the maximum frequency of processor the part but still be able to respond quickly. The emerging and large same capability as the R4 but at markets such as China are more a lower cost and with improved cost sensitive, he said. These technology. The programmer will need to go into more cars than be able to produce more robust just the high-end ones that you software. It is programmers who get in Europe. The R5 has the really see the benefit of moving to Arm over time, more so than hardware developers. York also said that the R5 extended the ECC capabilities of the R4, which were important to ensure safety and reliability in braking systems. As the safety requirements are evolving in automotive, we are seeing ECC being pushed more, he said, so we have extended ECC from the memory to the buses themselves. But the main difference between the R7 and R5 is that the R7 has an 11-stage pipeline rather than the eight stages in the R5. This will make it key for mobile applications such as LTEAdvanced when this is introduced around 2014.

Saving cost and space for car radar Crazy and has less than 3.5nV/rtHz A 10 by 10mm analogue front- upwards of $3 per channel. growth The six-channel device is input-referred voltage noise end device could help car
manufacturers bring advanced AEC-Q100 qualified and operates radar systems into medium and from -40 to +105C. It lets a radar system receive a higher smaller cars. The AD8283 automotive number of transmitted signals radar AFE IC includes the and decode them for target receive path signal conditioning identification and classification. and data capture circuitry to This translates to more time enable end systems for adaptive cruise control, blind spot detection and other radar-based detection and avoidance applications. Once these were the property of the highend luxury car, but now they are moving down to the mid-size and even some of the smaller cars, said Jeff Postupack, automotive radar marketing manager at Analog Devices. They are there to reduce traffic fatalities and keep Analog Devices AD8283 automotive radar AFE IC the driver informed on target, which improves the of what is going on. The company claims this is the radars ability to resolve the first integrated high-speed ramp approximate size of the target. The device integrates a 12bit, device and should save tier-one suppliers money and space when 80MS/s A-D converter with 67dB SNR and 68dB SFDR. designing radar systems. For a six-channel system, we On-chip signal conditioning estimate up to a 50% cost saving includes a programmable-gain over using a discrete approach, amplifier, low-noise amplifier said Samuel Weinstein, product and a programmable, thirdmarketing manager at Analog order, low-pass elliptic filter. The device is gainDevices. The estimated cost per channel is US$1.50 whereas an programmable via an SPI port earlier implementation would be in 6dB steps from 16 to 34dB at maximum gain. The AFE has 200 or 200k selectable input impedance and consumes 170mW per channel. The flexibility of this device is because it is programmable, said Weinstein. You can programme the filter frequency cut-off. This means you can design not just one radar system faster. You can do it all in software rather than hardware. Because of qualifications needed in auto motive, it is a lot better if you can re-use the same components for different app lications. The device is available now and some tierone suppliers are already using the part, which means it could be in multiple road cars as early as next year. This will be in cars in the future, shortly, said Weinstein. The component itself is available now. We have automotive suppliers that are designing the product in but we cant release details of that yet. Some of the tier-one customers are dealing with multiple OEMs so it will get proliferated to a number of models.

Steve Wainwright: The automotive market grew like crazy last year.

Juergen Weyer: We have never seen a decline like that.

Research could cut delays


roaD anD rail users will be able to update each other about delays thanks to a 1.6m research project at Lancaster University. Our Travel is a travel information system based on social networking and direct information from transport workers. The aim is to reduce congestion and improve the transport system as users find more efficient ways to travel. It will be available as an app for mobile devices such as the IPhone, providing information so people can decide how and when they will travel. The key is that this is information from other travellers or workers repairing the roads, said Nigel Davies from the universitys School of Computing & Communications. There is no third party involvement so its very direct and from a trusted source. Our Travel can also be used to inform people of roadworks, winter gritting and crews carrying out road markings.

Pick and choose on the web


Mitsubishi customers can visualise a bespoke vehicle from home, thanks to a new area on the companys web site. The first car available is the electric I-MiEV. Potential buyers can click on the array of different designs, which will then be shown on the I-MiEV after selecting one of the four different body colours. The application also lets the consumer switch view to see the car from a different perspective. The car is available from one of 13 Mitsubishi EV sales centres in the UK. Bespoke accessories include roof and wing mirror graphics to enhanced audio and MP3 options, leather interiors, and environmentally friendly accessories.

PRQA basks in Continental praise


prQa has been praised officer. They are saying by Continental for the some nice things about help its source code our tool. analysis product has had Compliance to the in achieving its software Misra-C standard is quality objectives. a primary goal for The smooth and Continental along with effective use of the Fergus Bolger: additional objectives for They are saying tools is based on some nice things metrics analysis. a long-established about our tool. Our organisation is collaboration between complex and broadFrankfurt-based Continental ranging, and each development and PRQAs German reseller QA area has specific software Systems. tools needs to achieve quality We have been working with goals, said Ignacio Garro, from Continental for a long time and Continental. Nevertheless, have finally got them to say an increasing trend among something about us, said Fergus the business units has been to Bolger, PRQAs chief technical choose PRQAs QAC product over other alternative providers solutions due to its satisfactory balance between features and costs. The main motivation behind the selection of QAC was its accurate delivered compliance to the Misra-C standard. Detailed language-focussed static analysis is very important, mainly to detect small errors that could lead to big product failures. The technique is more efficient that other practices such as peer review. Additionally, QAC is seen as a feature-rich product that integrates without complications into the software process.

the autoMotive market really took off in 2010 after the disaster of 2009, according to Steve Wainwright, VP of sales and marketing at Freescale. The automotive market grew like crazy last year, he said at Embeded World. We came back from a very difficult 2009. Juergen Weyer, VP of automotive sales and marketing, added: 2010 was the year of ramping up the supplies. 2009 was a major crisis. We have never seen a decline like that. Wainwright said the company had a big boost by partnering McLaren Electronic Systems in providing an energy management system for Nascar. We have been involved with McLaren for ten years and this is the continuation of a huge relationship, he said. It also announced additions to its MPC56xx family of Qorivva 32bit microcontrollers built on Power Architecture technology and with security features for preventing automotive electronics tampering.

www.rmcan.com

CAN System Solutions Data Visualisation (MMI) Worldwide Monitoring & Diagnostics M2M Communication Object Tracking & Theft Protection Fleet Management

RM MICHAELIDES SOFTWARE & ELEKTRONIK GMBH Headquarters Donaustr. 14, 36043 Fulda, Germany Phone: +49 661 9490-0, Fax: -333 info@rmcan.com, www.rmcan.com

automotive electronics | august/september 2011

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august/september 2011 | automotive electronics

8 NEWS

NEWS 9

NEWS in brief

FEA support for simulation


The DSpace ASM Electric Components simulation package is now supported by JMag, a finite element analysis tool for electromechanical design developed by JSol. The components are models for the real-time simulation of vehicle electrical systems or hybrid drivetrains. With JMag, users can define key characteristics of electric motors and export them to parameterise the generic electric motor models. They can then be executed on a hardware-in-the-loop simulator in real time.

Volkswagen order keeps buyers waiting for Toughbook tablet


autoMotive technicians and R&D engineers are going to have to wait until the end of the year at the earliest to get their hands on Panasonics Toughbook diagnostic tablet as Volkswagen has snapped up all the early production run. It plans to roll out the product to its dealers in September. And the supply situation could be worsened as Fiat Auto has asked for the testing versions for its dealers that Panasonic was hoping would keep customers happy while they waited for the VW order to be completed. Volkswagen are such a huge customer, they have taken the first bulk of our products for their September launch, said Russel Younghusband, general manager of Panasonics diagnostic team. After that, general availability will be in December. The tablet is unusual in design in that it uses a 33.8cm 16:9 widescreen display. Inside, it is relying on the computing power of Intels Second Generation Core i5 processor r u n n i n g Windows 7 Russel Younghusband: General availability Professional. will be in December. Designed to meet the needs of diagnostic technicians, the device has configurable ports including serial interface, second lan port or optional rugged USB connector. It also has wireless and wired communications capabilities with wireless lan, Bluetooth + EDR, 3G wwan (optional) and GPS (optional). The device can be used in a docking cradle with adjustable viewing angle, be held with the addition of a hand strap or attached to extendable legs. So confident is the company of this product that Younghusband predicted within three to five years it would overtake Motion

Signal analyser can pinpoint EMI problems in cars


tektronix believes that it has the answer for engineers struggling to get cars with multiple RF signals through conformance tests. The company has launched a mid-range analyser that can detect spurious signals that last for as little as 5.8s. In the automotive industry, said Tektronix technical marketing manager Dean Miles, there are two challenges embedding RF into automotive and the potential for any of the RF signals to fail the EMI regulations for the country that it is in. He said the problem with running the tests in an anechoic chamber was that if it failed the EMI test, it would not give information to pin-point why it failed. It could be because of any number of wireless devices on the car, he said. There can be nine or ten wireless technologies in any one vehicle, and any one could be the cause of the interference. Using classical technology, it is impossible to pinpoint which is causing the interference problem. But the swept DPX engine on the recently launched RSA5000 signal analyser can collect up to 292,000 spectrum updates per second over its full bandwidth, up to 85MHz, and can sweep the DPX across the full input range of

Automechanika

24th-27th August 2011 Moscow www.mims.ru

Advanced Automotive Electronics


27th September 2011 Gaydon, Warwickshire, UK www.aae-show.com

Embedded Masterclass
5th October 2011 Cambridge, UK www.embedded-masterclass.com

Lothar Zeckey: We Marco Cocchia: have worked closely We will be testing with Panasonic. the new tablet.

Small claim for motorbike ABS


Bosch claims that, at 0.4 litre in size and 700g in weight, its Generation 9 is the worlds smallest motorcycle ABS and is just over half the size and weight of its predecessor. The company offers this modular system in various builds, ranging from a basic version to a premium version with an integrated electronic combined brake system.

Protection for EV cables


Federal-Mogul has developed a guard for high voltage cables to protect occupants of electric and hybrid electric vehicles in the event of a crash. The material, called Crushshield, surrounds the cables, keeping the electrical system isolated from the rest of the vehicle. It is one of the first cable products to meet the new US federal vehicle safety regulations and is already in production for a marketleading hybrid electric vehicle.

as the top supplier of rugged tablets in Europe. Panasonic is way ahead of the other manufacturers in terms of quality and customer satisfaction, said Lothar Zeckey, VWs general manager for workshop equipment. We have worked closely with Panasonic on designing this as regards screen, weight and everything. Marco Cocchia, service engineering manager at Fiat Auto, which is already rolling out standard Toughbooks to its dealers, said it was taking up the offer of having test versions. We will be testing the new tablet in our workshops, he said.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Infrastructure


The Tektronix RSA5000 signal analyser 11th-12th October 2011 Frankfurt, Germany www.evupdate.com/ electricvehicleeurope

ISO 26262 workshop


engineers attenDing Emb edded Masterclass in October will have a chance to take part in a hands-on workshop to learn more about ISO 26262, the new standard for functional safety in the automotive industry. The conference will include a seminar giving an overview of the standard and some of its implications for developing embedded electronic hardware and software in automotive applications. Delegates will hear about the standard directly from David Ward, head of functional safety at Mira and the UKs principal technical expert to the international committee responsible for the standard. Embedded Masterclass will be on 5 October in Cambridge.

Collaborations on wireless charging


IHI and Witricity have agreed to collaborate on developing wireless charging systems for electric vehicles. And Toyota Motor has entered into a technological collaboration agreement with Witricity on the practical application of automotive wireless charging systems and the promotion of their widespread use.

the analyser, up to 6.2GHz. This means it can measure spectral transients as brief as 5.8s. DPX is Tektronixs patented technology that lets engineers display more information than can be observed at a glance. This lets them discover more errors in the signal, trigger on every occurrence of that error, capture the error into memory and then analyse its characteristics. The RSA5000 analyser takes this further by letting DPX be applied to the multiple domains of amplitude, frequency and phase versus time. Though this reduces the capture rate to 50,000 waveforms a second, it still gives a 100% guarantee of capturing transients down to around 20s. Prices span from 25,000

for a 25MHz bandwidthmodel up to 50,000 for the top-of-the- Dean Miles: Failure can be range 85MHz caused by any unit. number of wireless This helps devices on a car. engineers facing the challenge of trying to embed RF into a number of products at lower cost, said Miles. They cant afford to spend large amounts of money on test equipment. And he said that the company had taken care to make the analyser still easy to use. You can control it with knobs or with a touchscreen using Windows 7, he said. We are very concerned about not adding too much complexity that no-one ever uses it.

Electronic Systems for Vehicles


12th-13th October 2011 Baden-Baden, Germany www.electronic-car.de

Telematics Munich

9th-10th November 2011 Munich www.telematicsupdate.com/munich

Dubai International Motor Show


10th-14th November 2011 Dubai www.dubaimotorshow.com

Automechanika

7th-10th December 2011 Shanghai www.automechanika-shanghai.com

Electronic control at heart of Mia


Ford Galaxys fit bill for police
Three extensively modified versions of the latest model Ford Galaxy have gone into service with Sussex Polices Forensic Collision Investigation & Reconstruction Unit. The conversions were carried out by Fords special vehicle preparations team. The cars have been equipped with 3m telescopic roofmounted masts carrying 28,000-lumen lighting for nighttime operation. In addition, the vehicles are required to carry cameras, videos, trolley jacks, toolkits, measuring and surveying gear, tripods, crew clothing and other equipment. There is also a bespoke racking and storage system, police livery and public-warning equipment. Visually the new vehicles have a greater presence on the road, which is a plus in terms of public awareness but also for the safety of the officers using them, said senior collision investigator Sergeant Colin ONeill.

Car-Ele Japan

an electric town car with the latest in electronic motor control technology went into production in June on an initial 10,000 vehicles. The three seat Mia, which
The Mia uses the latest electronic motor control technology

Acal aims for low cost fuel cell


Acal Energy is partnering with automotive design expert Gordon Murray Design in a 12-month project to design a low cost, durable fuel cell vehicle using its fuel cell technology. The project is funded by the Technology Strategy Board under its Low Carbon Vehicle programme.

has been designed by former Volkswagen chief Murat Gnak, has been under development since 2007. The car is powered by a Leroy Somer asynchronous motor controlled by Sevcons Gen4 sizefour 80V 350A motor control. The Mia can cover up to 130km and is fully chargeable within three hours. The size four one of four controllers in the Gen4 series ranging from sizes two to eight has been chosen to deliver smooth power transmission, improved efficiency and an extended range

capability due to its ability to be closely characterised with the specific requirements of the Mia. Other electric vehicles using Gen4 controllers include Peugeots E-Vivacity scooter, VMotos E-Max bike and Brammos Enertia street bike. The Mia is being manufactured in Cerizay, France, and has a scheduled annual production run of 12,000 vehicles a year. Sales will initially focus on public and private fleet operators with sales to private customers starting in 2012.

18th-20th January 2012 Tokyo www.car-ele.jp

Embedded World

28th February-1st March 2012 Nuremberg, Germany www.embedded-world.de

Commercial Vehicle Show


24th-26th April 2012 Birmingham, UK www.cvshow.com

Automotive Manufacturing

21st-24th June 2012 Bangkok, Thailand www.automanexpo.com

automotive electronics | august/september 2011

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august/september 2011 | automotive electronics

DIARY DATeS

Microcontrollers

10 Microcontrollers

McUs simplify HeV and eV motor control designs


Vitor Ribeiro and Maik Strietzel explain how efficient software algorithms and the latest microcontrollers can improve motor control on electric vehicles
ar manufacturers and their suppliers are working hard to develop economical new vehicle models with the aim of reducing both fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. Hybrid vehicles of every kind currently serve as a bridge technology until high-capacity electrical energy storage systems are available at reasonable prices, enabling the production of long-range allelectric vehicles. The electrification of motor vehicles is advancing rapidly and the efficient control of electric motors is becoming ever more important. Hybrid electric vehicles and electric vehicles (HEV and EV) have the great potential for achieving the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions demanded by legislators. The CO2saving capacity of a hybrid electric vehicle, for example, is approximately 30%. Further measures, such as

Accelerating Distributed Intelligence in Tomorrows Vehicle

Digital Signal Controllers


Analog

Fig. 1: Motor control according to the Clarke/Park principle

electric power steering, provide an additional 5%. A central element of both approaches is an electric motor which, in the case of the powertrain, is used either in combination with a conventional internal combustion engine (in hybrid cars) or as an independent source of power (in allelectric vehicles). Deciding factors in the selection of the motor include dimensions, weight, reliability, robustness, necessary torque and efficiency. Both synchronous and asynchronous motors can be used, the former as a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) featuring high torque coupled with compact dimensions and high efficiency (roughly 94%). However, the benefits that this offers are offset by a higher price tag, as expensive materials from rare earth elements are usually required for the permanent magnets. Efforts are being made to use

asynchronous motors. These are robust and reasonably priced (they do not require magnets made from rare elements) and the dynamic properties can be easily controlled using suitable software algorithms. Disadvantages include the slightly lower efficiency (around 90%), greater weight and lower torque in the start-up phase. Not only do they not require maintenance, but brushless versions of both motor types mean that brush loss is not an issue. PMSMs have a better dimensionsto-torque ratio and higher efficiency and are currently the first choice for use in the powertrains of electric and hybrid electric vehicles.

Memory Microchip Direct... RF & Wireless 2nd line

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Control

Brushless motors require more effort for commutation, while safe and efficient control is a fundamental prerequisite for use in powertrains. The challenge is to find the perfect balance of motor, power electronics, control unit (microcontroller) and control software. The algorithms used must be adapted to the respective motor and application so that the electronic controller commutates the motor optimally at all times. Failure to adapt these correctly may lead to undesired effects such as irregular running and excessive noise, which together have a negative impact on the degree of efficiency that can be achieved. Motor control combines various control algorithms depending on the application. Fig. 1 shows field-

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12 Microcontrollers
the detection of the rotor position is essential for precise motor control. As a key component, the rotor position sensor has significant influence on the performance and efficiency of the motor system. is transmitted to the two sensor coils, set at 90 to each other, via the magnetic coupling (induction). Evaluation of the analogue sinusoidal and cosinusoidal signals returned by the resolver requires a resolver-todigital converter (RDC), which is used to determine the angular position and rate from the analogue data. Optical systems, such as the incremental encoder mentioned above, offer advantages in terms of performance and precision, but their decreased robustness and vulnerability to dirt and temperature conditions makes their use in motor vehicles rather difficult. In direct comparison with the other sensors, a resolver may be more expensive, but it is also more robust and reliable in return. It is also able to detect the absolute position of the rotor at any time even when it is at a standstill. This is not possible with either Hall sensors or incremental encoders. and ample communications interfaces such as Can, Lin and Flexray (Fig. 4). A particular highlight is the integrated RDC with the functionality described above. Integration of the RDC results in a significantly simplified system architecture (Fig. 3b). Rotor position, sinusoidal and cosinusoidal values as well as the angular rate are available to the MCU at all times and can be read out from dedicated registers every 100ns. The block diagram in Fig. 4 gives an overview of on-chip resources that can be available. Motor controllers are very often developed by a model-based method, and there are now very powerful software tools that generally have one thing in common they work with floating-point numbers. To transfer the algorithms developed in this way to a conventional microcontroller, the floating-point numbers must be converted to integers. Since this is not always a completely smooth process, an integrated floating-point unit (FPU) is standard in some MCUs and is of great benefit. In terms of results, this means an increase in computing power and less work for porting from models to the real world.
Fig. 4: Microcontroller block diagram

Microcontrollers 13
easily. For example, the phase currents may not correspond to the expected values, or the expected speed may not have been reached. In these cases, the MCU can set the system to a defined state without compromising vehicle safety. But how is the resolver monitored and how are malfunctions diagnosed? All signals from and to the resolver can be monitored via integrated diagnostics and fault profiles such as short-circuits to ground, cable breakages and interruptions or even short-circuits within the resolver windings can be identified quickly and reliably. If such faults occur, the MCU immediately receives an internal interrupt signal so it can react quickly and in a targeted manner to the situation. All this takes place internally and with minimal latency, in stark contrast to systems with external RDCs, in the case of which the failure must be signalled by means of a slow interface to the MCU.

Hall sensor

Fig. 2: Schematic and mechanical structure of a resolver Source: Tyco Electronics

orientated control (FOC) combined with PID regulation systems for controlling rotor speed, torque and flux. In FOC, the Clarke/Park transformation is used to transform the phase currents measured (at least two must be continuously recorded) from a stator-based three-dimensional system to a rotor-based two-dimensional system. These transformed variables, the current rotor position and a target position specified by the application, or a target rotational speed, are taken as starting points for the control algorithms. Due to their fast, precise and overshoot-free control characteristics, PID regulators are ideal for bringing complex systems into a stable state. By means of inverse Park/Clarke transformation, the system is again

transformed into a rotor-based vector system and the voltages to be set are transmitted to the motor via the power electronics by means of pulse-width modulation. The current rotor position can be either directly determined with a sensor or estimated using a complex calculation system. The latter method also known as sensorless angle detection is based on the logging and evaluation of two actively controlled phases. This method can be subject to deviation of several angular degrees and is not currently used for motor vehicle applications. Sensor-based rotor position detection can be conducted with various sensor systems. The following section gives a brief overview of the most common sensor types. However, it can generally be said that

Hall sensors are based on the Hall Effect, whereby a voltage is induced by changing the magnetic field around a current-carrying conductor. With the help of a magnetic ring attached to the rotor and a sensor unit affixed to the stator, the Hall Effect sensor is a cheap and easy means of detecting angles. The higher the number of magnetic poles and Hall elements, the higher the resolution and accuracy. However, this sensor is susceptible to magnetic interference.

Incremental encoder

Figs 3a (top) and 3b: Motor control with external and integrated RDC

One frequently used sensor is the incremental encoder. This is available in a wide range of designs, featuring both mechanical and optical scanning to determine the current angular position. To measure an angle, an incremental encoder must be based on a zero or reference position. For the microcontroller (MCU), actual angle determination only involves detecting the direction of rotation and counting the pulses emitted. The angular rate can be calculated by simply measuring the intervals between two pulses. The insensitivity to magnetic interference is beneficial here. By contrast, any mechanical friction losses and susceptibility to dirt in the case of optical systems are disadvantageous.

Inverters in vehicles

Resolver

One very robust sensor, often used in the automotive industry, is the resolver, which is neither at risk from magnetic interference and dirt, nor subject to friction losses during angle detection. The resolver consists of the rotor, which is permanently attached to the motor shaft (motor rotor), and the ring-shaped stator, which is permanently attached to the motor housing. The stator consists of at least one excitation coil and two sensor coils. Higher resolutions can be achieved by increasing the number of pole pairs. Fig. 2 shows a resolver. The excitation coil is fed with an analogue sinusoidal signal. The analogue signal

In the simplest case, the motor controller consists of a microcontroller, a power output stage, the motor in conjunction with a rotor position sensor (resolver) and the RDC (Fig. 3a), which is usually implemented as a discrete circuit. Resolver diagnosis This generates the resolver signal An MCU can identify a failure or and determines the rotor position malfunction of the motor relatively and rate as quickly and precisely as possible based on the sinusoidal and cosinusoidal information returned. This information must be forwarded to the microcontroller so that it can be taken into account in the motor control algorithms as described. External RDCs are usually linked to the MCU via a serial peripheral interface (SPI). Depending on the systems design and the manufacturer of the RDC, this can also take place via other serial or parallel ports. These suffer from a serious disadvantage in that the MCU does not have constant access to the rotor data, and must instead always request it from the external RDC. Not only is this relatively slow, but it is also a potential source of errors that can have a negative impact on the functional safety of the entire system.

Motor control MCUs

Applications for motor control MCUs with integrated RDC include the aforementioned inverter for the electric drive motor. The block diagram for an inverter is shown in Fig. 5a. For reasons of functional safety, the motor control MCU (master) is supported by a second, smaller microcontroller (slave). Both microcontrollers maintain

Motor control MCUs

Some of the latest MCUs take an entirely different approach. They can generate all the motor control signals

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14 Microcontrollers
a constant dialogue and, as soon as abnormal behaviour is detected, the slave MCU can initiate a system reset or cut off the power supply to the motor. The master MCU generates the commutation signals for the motor, measures and monitors the phase currents, generates the resolver signals and determines the rotor position and angular rate via the sine-cosine feedback. All this information is used by the motor control algorithm for targeted control of the rotor speed and torque. The inverter communicates with the battery management system (BMS) via the internal network (Can or Flexray) Figs 5a (top) and 5b: Diagram of an HEV to ensure that the energy required can and EV inverter and also be provided. EPS control Economical use of energy is essential in an HEV or EV, and systems that require a constant supply of energy, such as hydraulic power steering, would over the long term put excessive strain on the energy storage systems. Hydraulic systems run continuously to build up the required pressure by means of a servo pump. By contrast, a purely electric power steering (EPS) system only needs energy when it is being used. In principle, the design is similar to that of the inverter for the powertrain. Once again, master and slave MCUs are used, while the power element is different mainly in terms of the power to be regulated. A PMSM is used for this application as well, while the resolver functions as described (Fig. 5b). However, the master MCU must still evaluate a steering input device and a torque sensor. In order that the correct steering assistance can be given at all times, other information, such as speed of travel, is required. These data are provided via the internal network, for example the Can bus. This information is used to calculate the extra steering torque required and transmit it to the electric motor on the steering column. The aim is to minimise the effort expended by the driver and provide dynamic support for steering movement. For example, steering movement requires more support when the vehicle is almost at a standstill, such as during parking manoeuvres, than at high speed on the motorway. EPS is intended to increase both driver comfort and safety. It is entirely possible for the electronic stability control (ESC) to regulate vehicle stability actively by means of steering intervention. It is also conceivable for EPS to be part of a driver assistance system that could park a vehicle automatically without driver input. development is marching ever onward, albeit not quite as quickly as many would prefer. Until then, maximum use must be made of the energy available in the form of fuel and/or electrical power in hybrid vehicles. Efficient software algorithms, powerful microcontrollers and highly efficient electric motors will make this possible. A higher level of integration leads to leaner and cheaper motor control systems that can be used in applications above and beyond those presented here. l Vitor Ribeiro is senior product marketing engineer and Maik Strietzel is application engineer for Fujitsu Semiconductor Europes automotive business unit

Summary and outlook

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More and more hybrid vehicles are coming onto the market, and while they are initially mostly simple startstop systems, the number of full hybrids (HEVs) and plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) is expected to increase in the years to come. All-electric vehicles that function entirely without an internal combustion engine need safe, cost-effective and high-capacity energy storage systems. Here, too, technological

and fewer layers. But the photomaskSL7 1FD, United Kingdom. other applications andBattery is certainly Since for the next two 250 2008 LTC6802-1 Multicell one Stack Monitor cars. is more complex. Plus we would like to automotive. ForMulticell Battery Stack Monitor Since generations of200 a solar roof panel, 2008 LTC6802-2 Phone: 01628 477066 150 make money out of it. we will have to make the technology Now LTC6803-1 2nd Generation Stack Monitor 100 Fax: 01628 478153 He said it would initially come into thinner. We cant simply use ourMonitor 50 LTC6803-2 2nd Generation Stack existing Now Email: uksales@linear.com high-end cars but in the long run could technology in cars today. Stack Monitor 0 Now LTC6803-3 2nd Generation 0.12% 0.08% 0.04% 0% 0.04% 0.08% 0.12% Visit: www.linear.com replace resistive technology in all cars. Another area being worked on Now LTC6803-4 2nd Generation Stack Monitor Total Measurement Error (mV) But he said overall, the automotive at Sharps laboratories in Oxford is display market in the next few years will the shape of the display. One of the not be marked by just one trend but problems with the standard rectangular by several parallel trends as some car display shape is that car interiors are makers go for the best possible displays not usually based on rectangles and are and others go for the cheapest. Some often not on what would be naturally a Hartmut Heske: You will go down the touchscreen route and flat surface. need a display that , others will not. But whatever happened,LT, LTC, LTM, Linear Technology and the Linear logo are We are looking at ways to make doesnt consume registered trademarks of Linear Technology Corporation. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. much power and we he said, the number of displays in cars the display fit the car, said Gregory have an answer to would increase and eventually every car Gay, a senior researcher at the Oxford that. would have more than one display. He laboratories. This can provide enhanced
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Part Count

said that would mean in Europe alone an aesthetics. There are some aspects in The industry is thinking about this but annual market of 40 to 50 million new manufacturing to overcome, but we you need a display that doesnt consume displays within the next five to ten years. believe the displays will evolve in this much power and we have an answer to direction. that. On touchscreen technology for cars, The memory LCD uses continuous Scharf said that optical sensors beat grain silicon (CGS) technology and the alternative technologies of resistive, integrates the display controller and LCD surface capacitive and projected interface. capacitive in almost all areas. While all There is no data transmission if the Gregory Gay: We are looking at ways can handle being touched by a finger, image does not change, said Heske, so to make the display only resistive and optical will respond there is low power consumption and it fit the car. to a gloved hand, nail or pen. Surface has good visibility. capacitive can also not handle dual He said that Sharp was also looking at finger displays. putting a solar cell in the keyin Linear Technologys road proven LTC680x family has arrived. This follows over two years in to provide The next generation Resistive though is the worse of the the little power that it would need. In first precision battery monitor for hybrid/electric vehicles and other high voltage battery production with the industrys three when it comes higher quality fact, Sharp is even looking LTC6803 is a pin-compatible upgrade, engineered forto displayperformance, ISO 26262 compliance and at moving systems. Our new and thickness. into the automotive solar panel market presence of high noise and transients. Well take you there. error-free operation, even in the The downside to optical is that it is in a big way with panels that can be more expensive but Scharf believes that put in the roof of a car to provide extra Info and Purchase Direct at Linear Technology Distribution of Cell within the next five years it will take its energy for the electronic systems, thus Battery Monitoring Measurement Accuracy place in the automotive market. reducing the drain on the battery and Linear Technology (UK) Ltd., 450 It is not there yet, he said. There will hence fuel consumption. VCELL = 3.6V, 40C to 85C Part 3 The Listons, Liston Road, 400 Gerhard Scharf: Description be a price penalty but there are some Solar is a main business for us, said Production Number 350 TFT will be the Marlow, Buckinghamshire, cost savings due to it using less materials Heske. We want to extend that into

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16 AutosAr

AutosAr 17
methodology will be applied. While some of the core partners are already using several templates in series, most plan to use all other templates at a later stage. As a third step, the development partnership is to work on the Autosar application interfaces. Autosar is making great progress in standardising the most commonly used application interfaces, the aim being to ensure the reusability of applications based on them and to allow data exchange between them. These standardised application interfaces will enter series production.

Going global

Conformance tests

BMW was the first to introduce Autosar ECUs in series for the 7 Series

Alain Gilberg provides an update on the latest Autosar developments

Autosar implementation from series development. With its broad thematic range, the conference illustrated Autosars successful route to becoming ver since its early beginnings in a global standard. Additionally, the development partnership expects a 2003, the Autosar Development rapid market penetration of Autosar Partnership has aimed at as 80% of all cars sold worldwide establishing an open industry are manufactured by members of the standard for automotive software partnership. architecture for suppliers and Since the beginning of Phase III manufacturers. With release 2.1 at (2010-2012), the global relevance of the end of 2006, the development Autosar has also been underlined partnership published the results of by the increasing number of new the first phase of the standardisation members. process. Those positive perspectives could be Since that time, Autosar has confirmed by the exploitation plans of published releases 3.0 and 3.1, and the core partners. At the well-attended in doing so it has introduced several additional features designed to optimise conference, the core partners disclosed which release they are currently using the existing specifications. With the and which releases are to be brought to logical further development of release series by 2016. 3.0 and the publication of release As the development time from start 4.0 in late 2009, the development partnership successfully finished Phase to SOP is usually about four years, all II and with it the basic development of current developments will be brought to series by 2015. Many OEMs and the standard. In late 2008, BMW was suppliers rely on the standard and are the first to introduce Autosar ECUs in introducing Autosar in a wide range series for the 7 Series. of applications. Some 25 million At the third Open Autosar ECUs produced by the core partners Conference in Frankfurt/Main in 2011 will be based on the Autosar in May 2011, numerous Autosar architecture, with 300 million planned members presented the current for 2016. At the moment, release 3.x status of the standard and concrete

is the main one being used. Starting in 2014/15, release 4.0 will be brought to series in parallel with release 3.x and will become more and more relevant. By offering and maintaining two releases at the same time for series development and production, Autosar ensures continuity and a smooth change between releases.

One fundamental change affects the conducting of conformance tests for future releases and revisions, something that the Autosar Development Partnership has reformed. To meet the demands of the market and the Autosar members, the partnership intends to introduce acceptance tests on application and bus level, which will be optionally applicable. The conformance tests that Autosar has published for 43 basic software modules are to remain part of Autosar release 4.0 revision two as they are an important factor for the compatibility of basic software modules and the continuity of release 4.0. Nevertheless, the conformance tests will only be optionally applicable.

the selective enhancement of releases 3.x and 4.0 to ensure a reliable and future-oriented architecture and methodology. During this process, the development partnership focuses on backwards compatibility at all times. On the other hand, the maintenance of current releases used for series development and production plays an important role in supporting the implementation of the standard for all members.

Three steps

The Autosar implementation of the core partners is always time-graded. While almost all core partners are already using Autosar basic software and partial methodology in series production, the usage of the complete methodology and application interfaces will follow at a later point in time. The use of the basic software is thus always the first step of Autosar implementation. Before the Autosar standard was introduced, each company used its own proprietary basic software. Switching from proprietary software to a standardised software architecture brings cost and capacity benefits for all involved in automotive electronics development. Today, Autosar is the established standard for basic software in the automotive industries. In a second step, the whole Autosar

In May 2011, Autosar provided additional functionalities such as the partial networking allowed by release 3.2. The option of switching Further development off unneeded ECUs within the vehicle At the end of 2009, Autosar finished makes it possible to reduce the Phase II, and with it the basic vehicles consumption of electrical development of the standard. For the Alain Gilberg is spokesperson for the energy in certain driving situations. further development of the standard Autosar Development Partnership and within Phase III, the Autosar members Partial networking is currently being expert leader for ECU development and proposed numerous concepts. The large integrated into release 4.0 too. In software architecture in the electronics addition, Autosar has provided a number of concepts proposed is proof detailed compatibility analysis between department of PSA Peugeot Citron of the high degree of significance and acceptance that the Autosar standard has gained. A crucial point for Autosar is finding a sensible balance between innovation, stability and backwards compatibility for all further developments. For this reason, the development partnership decided to enhance release 4.0 in a continuous and compatible way instead of publishing release 4.1, which was originally scheduled for the end of 2012. The revised Autosar roadmap now plans two revisions of release 4.0 for 2012. Exploitation plan for Autosar basic software layered architecture by Autosar core partners Phase III sees Autosar working on

Outlook

releases 3.1 and 4.0. Autosar follows the principle Cooperate on standards, compete on implementation, so each company has to follow its own strategy on the basis of the roadmap for its product lines. The Autosar standard is already being used in series production, and this has been a major success for Autosar. Also, many Autosar members are currently working on volume platforms in which most ECUs are based on Autosar. As the advantages of Autosar are very convincing, the coming years will see a lot more launches of car models with Autosar ECUs on board. As soon as all Autosar members have put Autosar on the road, the globalisation of the standard will increase significantly. l

The third Open Autosar Conference in Frankfurt attracted a large audience in May 2011

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18 InfotaInment
controller takes care of the complete platform start-up, state-transitioning and power-down procedures. It operates autonomously and reduces the overall system power consumption when entering stand-by or power down modes. This processor uses a 45nm high-k process to keep power consumption down to 2.7 to 3.9W. This scalability makes the E600 suitable for both high-end and lowend vehicles.

InfotaInment 19

Extended temperature
With an integrated wireless network modem, an in-vehicle computer can be activated by a remote wake up feature using SMS

Atomic
he global trend of rural-tourban migration has become more and more obvious. Life in metropolitan areas relies on vehicles, such as cars, buses and trucks, with people spending more time in these vehicles. With the development of the latest technology, vehicles can now provide users realtime information, entertainment and network computing services and create new business opportunities through advanced computer and communications systems. However, embedding a computer into a vehicle to be used for invehicle signage and infotainment is not easy.

booster
better at delivering visual effects and clear messages to passengers. With ever growing demand for multimedia content, the Intel Atom E600 processor was designed with enhanced graphics performance and a video hardware decoder that assures full high-definition (HD) video playback and megapixel images, which live up to user expectations. This processor incorporates the Intel GMA 600 GPU graphics media accelerator, a power-optimised 2D and 3D graphics engine that provides up to 50% better performance than the previous-generation enabling the system to handle rich multimedia content. Moreover, the graphics engine provides full hardwareaccelerated HD H.264, MPeg-4, VC1 and WMV decode, and for the first time hardware encode of MPeg-4 and H.264. The video hardware decoder supports 1080p30 H.264 base with main and high profile content at up to 20Mbit/s. Such multimedia handling capability enriches user experience and assures in-vehicle information and entertainment.

To withstand extreme environmental conditions, vehicles have been designed to operate in a wide range of temperatures; a criteria which is required for in-vehicle computing deployments. The E600 was specifically designed to support a wide range of temperatures. The latest invehicle PCs use this technology with careful component selection and a mechanical design which dissipates heat to give the platforms an extended operating temperature range of -20 to +70C. Advert template 20110717 AE_Nohau UK

It is hard to predict all product functionalities at the development stage. Expansion capability for arbitrary application requirements has become essential because it makes future configuration possible. For example, Nexcoms compact rugged vehicle computer, the VTC 1000, is differentiated by a multitude of IO interfaces that enable connectivity to various in-vehicle features. These connections include 17/07/2011 21:40 Page 1

Arbitrary requirements

An Asian airport is using the VTC 6110 for better navigation management in its cargo trucks

VGA, TV-out and LVDS for in-vehicle infotainment and digital signage applications. Other features which are specifically incorporated for vehicle expansion include a PCI-104 slot for Can bus or com port and mini PCI Express wlan and 3.5G modules.

In-vehicle computers rely on vehicle power to activate the system. However, power fluctuations and spikes occur when the vehicle is switched on and off. To ensure the

Power management

A look at how an Atom-powered PC can be deployed within in-vehicle digital multimedia applications to display rich multimedia content for the delivery of instant information and entertainment

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In response to environmental concerns, Intel has developed the E600 with low-power consumption. Since an in-vehicle computer is powered by a vehicles battery, low power consumption is always a consideration. Unlike full power Intel Architecture products, the E600 can be used with third-party chipsets and can be used as a stand-alone system on chip (SoC) without an accompanying chipset. This Atombased SoC is available at speeds of 600MHz to 1.6GHz, giving a good balance between performance and power and the scalability to address a wide variety of applications. The integrated system management

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20 InfotaInment
vehicle telematics use, said the user. To avoid running down a vehicles battery, the energy efficient computer drains very little power from the battery. In addition, it is capable of detecting the condition of a vehicle battery. If a vehicles battery is too low, it will automatically switch itself off. Located in the city of Curitiba, Brazil, a leader in intelligent transport technology has used Nexcoms VTC 2000 to streamline its bus electronic ticketing system. By incorporating the in-vehicle computer into its system, the company has had more than 4000 commercial validators (devices that are used to validate smart cards), which have served more than 15 municipalities, including four major cities. The in-vehicle computer has therefore become an integral part of a bus electronic ticketing system. One of the main reasons why the company decided to use this in-vehicle computer was the 3G connectivity for convenient data transmission and collection. Equipped with a GSM and GPRS interface, it enabled the company more flexibility in terms of data transmission and data analysis. The in-vehicle computer has enabled the company to replace its traditional paper-based ticketing process with a digital system. The system can be used to provide data on passenger numbers and travelling behaviour, and can therefore provide accurate revenue projections. The main benefit to the passenger is that the system reduces the time taken to purchase a ticket and thus reduces passenger waiting times. l

connectivity and then be updated easily. Once the update is completed, the system can be automatically turned off. Mobile network connectivity has provided users the most convenient way to update information immediately no matter how far away the vehicle is located.

Applications

in-vehicle computer can be turned on in a safe mode, a power delay function allows the system to be activated a few seconds or minutes after the transient voltage condition. In addition, the power control feature provides better road management for vehicle tracking with uninterrupted power support. Vehicle tracking has become the backbone to mobile business, enabling users to make changes to the way that vehicles on the road are managed and driven. With a backup smart battery, these computers can run continuously when vehicle power is temporarily off. For instance, when a vehicle is filled up with oil, the vehicle must be turned off for a few minutes and they can assure continuous recording of vehicle tracking during this period.

Content can be easily transmitted and updated through 3.5G wireless connectivity

Cargo trucks accurately deliver a large volume of passengers luggage between different airport terminals without any delay. To ensure the correct route for luggage management, a popular airport in Asia has integrated Nexcoms VTC 6110 in-vehicle computer into a cargo truck for better navigation management. Initially, the company used a conventional PC for this application; however, these devices were unable to resist the extreme shock and vibration conditions associated with in-vehicle operation. Therefore the company wanted a more reliable alternative to a conventional PC, one that was specifically designed for in-vehicle operation, which could be powered by the vehicles battery and had wireless connectivity. The VTC 6110 is designed for

Mobile networks

With an integrated wireless network modem, users can have mobile network connectivity to achieve realtime information updates. No need to wait for content updates, vehicles can be used right away on schedule. Even when a vehicle is off, the invehicle computer can be activated by a remote wake up feature using SMS. When the system is woken up from a remote site, content can be transmitted through 3.5G wireless

In-vehicle computers can bring television to bus passengers

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22 Security

David Kleidermacher discusses the important emerging security threats and the core principles and approaches that must be used to counter them in next-generation automotive systems

Safety Critical and High Reliability Embedded Systems Tools

concerns for the next generation


Fig. 1: Examples of automotive ECUs

n 2010, US car makers introduced a feature to enable car owners to manipulate the locks and start the engine from anywhere on the planet using a smartphone. This connectivity piggybacks on the cars remote telematics system, which has become standard in many models. Just prior to this smartphone introduction, a team of university researchers published a study demonstrating how such a cars critical systems brakes, engine throttling and so on could be maliciously tampered with by exploiting vulnerabilities in the cars embedded systems.

The researchers learned how to bridge from the low security network to the critical systems using fuzzing techniques. Brakes and engine were disabled while the car was in motion, demonstrating that the attacks could indeed place passengers in peril. Connecting the automobile to wide-area networks is exactly the trigger that brings in the threat of sophisticated attackers. A single flaw may allow a remote attacker to perpetrate damage to an entire fleet of vehicles. In our car we identified no fewer than five kinds of digital radio interfaces accepting outside

input, some over only a short range and others over indefinite distance, said the researchers. Taken together, ubiquitous computer control, distributed internal connectivity and telematics interfaces increasingly combine to provide an application software platform with external network access. Ironically, the remote telematics a safety and security system may now provide the means for distributed, remote attacks. What the researchers do not talk about is what we can do about embedded automotive security today. Small changes could be made to isolate better the network subsystems. Strong cryptographic authentication must be used for all network connections. Trusted platforms and remote attestation must be used to prevent rogue firmware installs from exposing the car network to attackers. ECUs with mixed criticality functionality must employ high assurance partitioning and access control: the rear-view camera must not be affected by ITunes.

CodeAnalyzerToolSet

AT

Modern electronics

Fig. 1 shows a selection of electronic components within the modern automobile. High-end luxury cars contain as many as 200 microprocessors across 100

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24 Security
components or electronic control units (ECUs). Multiple networks of varying types, including Controller Area Network (Can), Flexray, Local Interconnect Network (Lin), and Media Oriented Systems Transport (Most), connect these ECUs. The car OEM integrates ECU components and software from dozens of tier one and two suppliers. While the OEM often defines requirements for these ECUs, it does not rigorously control their actual contents or development process. It should be no surprise that this situation has become untenable. OEMs are suffering from the longest pole in the tent syndrome: a single ECU, delivered late or with serious reliability problems, may be all that is needed to cause shipping delays or customer-visible failures that lead to recalls and poor reputation. Add to this the new challenge of security: a single vulnerability in a critical component, such as the gateway to safety-critical networks and functions, can allow in remote attackers. cars navigation system, in some markets, must be disabled while the car is in motion, implying communications between systems of widely differing safety criticality. Furthermore, a strong future trend towards consolidation where more powerful multicore microprocessors are used to host disparate systems, turning many ECUs into virtual ECUs increases the risk of softwareborne threats such as privilege escalation due to operating system vulnerabilities, side-channel attacks on cryptography and denials of service. Therefore, the cars internal electronics architecture must be designed from the ground up for security. Touch points between critical and non-critical systems and networks must be justified at the highest management levels, and these electronic touch points must be analysed and certified devoid of vulnerabilities at the very highest assurance levels, such as ISO 15408 (Common Criteria) evaluated

Security 25

must work closely Manufacturers security specialists with embedded early in the design and architecture of in-car electronics and networks and must raise the bar on security-driven engineering and software assurance
assurance level (EAL) 6+. Phase Principles of High Assurance Software/security Engineering that espouses minimisation of complexity, software component architecture, principle of least privilege, secure software and systems development process, and independent expert security validation must be learned and adopted by OEMs and promulgated to ECU suppliers.

Fig. 2: Examples of next-generation extra-vehicular communications

unlikely to get the attention of security teams. Furthermore, a cars massively complex, distributed electronic system is simply impractical to protect from physical attack. So we generally punt on this class of threats. There is, however, one exception, and it is an important one. Somewhere within one or more Threats and mitigations The realm of security threats to cars ECUs, private cryptographic keys are stored for use in creating can be coarsely classified in three domains: local-physical, remote and protected communications channels internal-electronic. Combinations of and to provide local data protection services. Communications may these threat domains will often be required in order to inflict damage. include car to service centre or other OEM infrastructure, car to multimedia provider, car-to-car, Local-physical car to power grid (electric vehicles), Examples of local-physical threats car to smartphone or even car to would be someone physically bank. Fig. 2 shows some examples tapping into the drivetrains of long-range radio connections in Can network and disrupting next generation vehicles. communications or damaging an Data at rest protection may ECU via power surge or excessive be required for automotive heat application. Such an invasive algorithms, multimedia content and attack can quite easily disable cryptographic material. critical car functions. However, a Private keys must be kept local attacker, such as a disgruntled in storage that can withstand mechanic or maligned spouse, can sophisticated physical attacks, harm only one car and is therefore both invasive and non-invasive, because the loss of even a single private key may enable an attacker The cars critical to establish connections into remote infrastructures where systems must be widespread damage and property strongly isolated from loss can ensue. OEMs must be able to achieve high assurance of key ECUs and networks protection across the entire life not critical for safe cycle, from creation to embedment operation into ECUs, delivery and integration

within the car, and in the field. Embedded systems cryptographic experts can help OEMs and their suppliers with guidance and oversight in this area.

Conclusion

designed the cars hitting roads today, but clearly that must change. Manufacturers must work closely with embedded security specialists early in the design and architecture of in-car electronics and networks and must raise the bar on securitydriven engineering and software assurance. Finally, the automotive industry is sorely in need of an independent standards body to define and enforce a high assurance security certification programme for in-vehicle electronics. l David Kleidermacher is CTO for Green Hills Software

Remote

These are the classics: hacker tries to probe the cars long range radio interfaces for vulnerabilities in network security protocols, web services and applications to find a way into the internal electronics complex. Unlike high-end data centres, the car is unlikely to be outfitted with a full complement of IDS, IPS, firewalls and UTMs. Regardless, recent intrusions at Sony, Citigroup, Amazon, Google and RSA starkly demonstrate that these defence mechanisms are Swiss cheese against sophisticated attackers. When the Stuxnet attack came to light in 2010, US DoD Cybercom chief General Keith Alexander suggested that the USAs critical infrastructure ought to be isolated on its own secure network, distinct from the internet. While this may seem heavy-handed, it is precisely the kind of thinking needed. The cars critical systems must be strongly isolated from ECUs and networks not critical for safe operation.

Car manufacturers and tier ones may not have been thinking a lot about security when they

While physical network isolation is desirable, touch points will inevitably exist. For example, the

Internal

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26 Software Tools
Breaking the land speed record

Software Tools 27

lightning fast

How software tools helped the Ohio State University set a new land speed record
n September 2009, engineering students from the Ohio State University (OSU) set an FIA (Federation Internationale de IAutomobile) hydrogen land speed record of 486km/hr. The same students set a new electric land speed record of 494km/hr, blowing past the previous record of 394km/ hr, and achieving a top speed of 515km/hr. The first record was set by the Venturi Buckeye Bullet 2, powered by two Ballard Power Systems fuel cells, and the second by the Venturi Buckeye Bullet 2.5, which was powered by 1500 automotive lithium ion batteries from A123 Systems. In less than a year, the Buckeye Bullet Team set two different FIA world land speed records for alternatively powered vehicles, proving electric vehicles are anything but underachieving.

Brief history

The land speed racing programme at OSUs Center for Automotive Research (CAR) grew out of the Formula Lightning racing series in the 1990s. At the time, the team raced the Smokin Buckeye, an electric open wheeled formula style race car, with packs of lead acid

batteries. Ohio State dominated the series by winning over half the races and all three national championships. When the series ended, the team wanted to continue racing and set its sights on the allout electric land speed record. From these ambitions the Buckeye Bullet (BB1) was born. Racing from 2002 to 2004, the BB1 set the US electric record at 506.9km/hr and a non-FIA world record at 436.1km/hr. The success of the programme led to a partnership between Ohio State, Ford Motor and Ballard Power Systems. The goal was to build a fuel cell powered land speed vehicle, the Buckeye Bullet 2 (BB2), and a sister car, the Ford Fusion 999. The BB2 raced from 2006 to 2009 and finally achieved its goal of surpassing 480km/hr after Venturi Automobiles became the title sponsor in 2009. With the fuel cell vehicle maxed out for the time being, the team decided to look into the recent advances in batteries.

programme. The BB2.5 retained the BB2s already proven body and chassis, while the vehicles powertrain and control and data acquisition systems were swapped out. The team selected A123s automotive Nanophosphate Li-Ion batteries to power the car and upgraded to a new 600kW inverter from American Traction Systems to power the existing induction motor. With the major components selected, the team moved on to choosing a controller.

requirements are always evolving because components are either pushed to their limits or run in ways for which they werent originally designed. This means that the system architecture has to be very flexible. In 2008, the team adopted Simulink as a tool for modelbased control algorithm design. However, the supervisory controller the team chose was designed for internal combustion engines, making it difficult to adapt it for an electric vehicle application. Further, the system offered proprietary Simulink blocks to integrate the models with the hardware, which proved to be frustrating, especially when the physical system (car) was already modelled in pure Simulink. Most importantly, the system had to be reliable under very demanding conditions. The safety of the driver and the image of the programme as a whole depend heavily on the system performing as it should. In a large public event, the last thing any team wants is a car that never leaves the starting line or, even worse, injures the driver.

Answer

Control and data acquisition

BB2.5

Growing out of the fuel cell land speed programme, the BB2.5 had two goals: break the electric FIA record and test new technologies for use in a future land speed

Building an all-electric streamlined race car that must perform in a harsh environment the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah with equipment spread along all 11m of the vehicle is a challenge outside the scope of most systems. Water is used to cool most equipment, causing salt water to get everywhere, so the entire electrical system must be environmentally sealed and any controllers or data acquisition equipment must be protected. Another challenge is the ambient temperature on the salt flats, which can range from 4C in the morning to 38C in the afternoon. The biggest problem, however, is that the vehicles system

In short, the new control and data acquisition hardware had to be reliable, expandable, rugged and provide abstraction between the Simulink control models and the physical system. As a first step in this direction, the team designed and built a network of small, rugged Can-based IO devices. These devices, referred to internally as extensible control modules (XCMs), allowed the system to expand and change as needed with ease. Next, the team turned to the Etas ES910 prototyping and interface module to handle the supervisory controls because it has a strong Can implementation. The accompanying Intecrio prototyping environment

allowed the Simulink control models to be completely abstracted from the physical system. This allowed the location of various sensors and devices to be changed on the physical vehicle, without changing the control models running on the ES910. The strong Can support, both in the Intecrio environment and on the ES910, allowed the team to manage, simply and efficiently, the network of XCMs. Further, Intecrio made it easy to separate the control of the XCMs from the main vehicle control, which allowed the XCMs to behave as isolated systems. As a result, troubleshooting the system as a whole became simpler. Using Intecrio, the Simulink XCM control model, referred to as the XCM Supervisor, could be operated independently while still passing signals to the vehicle controller model. On start-up, the XCM Supervisor configures the IO on each XCM device with a predefined Can message specific to each device. This message tells the XCM if certain digital inputs should be used for frequency input, and if the outputs should be configured as PWM. Once the start-up sequence is complete, the XCM Supervisor polls the XCM network with a synchronisation message, which determines when data are transmitted on the Can bus. The response also acts as a heartbeat for each XCM. If the XCM Supervisor loses communications with any module, it immediately notifies the vehicle controller. The vehicle control model contains the main state machine, system monitor and driver interface as well as other control models for normal operation. Aside from the XCM error input, this model is completely unaware of the underlying structure of the physical system. The main state machine completely automates the vehicles startup and shutdown sequences

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28 Software Tools
and maintains the vehicle in a safe state while in run mode. All battery management and traction drive interactions are handled through this portion of the model. Working hand in hand with the state machine is the system monitor, one of the most important functions of the controller. This system processes all the information from the various components of the vehicle, including the XCM Supervisor, and initiates a safe shutdown if any problems are detected. The last major component is the driver interface, which handles all driver input and driver displays, and monitors the hardwired parachute system. All this is achieved without any direct interaction with the XCM system. The two models (XCM Supervisor and vehicle controller) are combined within Intecrio and can be modified independently. Further, the two models were scheduled independently in ES910s real time operating system (rtos) by Intecrio. For example, the XCM Supervisor was executed at a faster rate than the vehicle controller to troubleshoot problems in the XCM network or the vehicle control code. For data logging, the Etas ES715 drive recorder was used. This device runs the industry-standard Inca measurement and calibration software from Etas on an embedded

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The ES910 prototyping and interface module

Windows platform. Once configured, the ES715 logs all internal variables of the Simulink control model running on the ES910 as well as data from other Can-based devices, which turned out to be another huge advantage for troubleshooting. This system met all the requirements, but was truly tested during performance racing on the salt flats.

Bonneville 2010

The student team on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah

Speed Week is the event for land speed racing. Every August, hundreds of teams from amateurs to professionals come to Bonneville Speedway to attempt speed records. The event is sanctioned by the Southern California Timing Association and the track is set up

for US record attempts by more than 500 teams. The Bullet team also arranged a private FIA meet or international record attempts after Speed Week. Over the course of Speed Week and the private FIA meet, the Venturi Buckeye Bullet 2.5 made ten high-speed runs. Of the ten runs, seven were over 450km/hr and, of those, four were over 482km/hr. The BB2.5 never failed to leave the start line, thanks to the reliable hardware provided by Etas. While the vehicle was not without problems, there was never any issue with the ES910 hardware or its software. By the end of August, the Buckeye Bullet team had achieved both its goals claim the international electric land speed record and test new technologies for a future programme.

Advanced Automotive Electronics (AAE) is the UKs only technical conference and exhibition focused on vehicle electronics where delegates converge to discuss the key issues and challenges facing their industry, as well as learn about the very latest technological developments, industry standards, and new products to assist their current projects and future design and development strategies. The event creates the ideal forum for the exchange of ideas and views, to develop technical knowledge and new skills, to network with other automotive industry professionals, and meet with key suppliers of leading-edge solutions covering both software and hardware products. It is, therefore, an essential diary date for every engineering professional involved in automotive electronic systems design and development working in vehicle manufacturing sites, OEMs, race teams, research and development, consultancy, academia, or one of the major industry associations.

We found the show excellent in terms of leads and the quality of the delegates attending. Also, the attention to detail and quality of organisation from start to finish was amongst the best we have experienced. Many thanks, and hope to see you next year ebm-papst

Just a quick note to say thanks to you and everyone at UMR for the event organised yesterday - We thought you did a terrific job and will be looking to support the event again next year ETAS

Future

With the FIA electric land speed record broken, the team is ready to take the programme to the next level. The Venturi Buckeye Bullet 3 is scheduled to debut on the salt flats in 2012, featuring powerful Venturi motors and leading battery technology. Controlling this electrical powerhouse will be a variation of the same Etas system used in the BB2.5. Complete satisfaction with a rapid prototyping controller resulted in the decision to carry the system over to the next vehicle, which is a first for the programme. The goal is to challenge its internal combustion engine counterparts and be the first electric car to break 640km/hr. l

I wanted to congratulate you on a great conference. As well as being enjoyable it was very informative. I was especially impressed by the Frost & Sullivan paper but all papers I saw were of a high calibre. Congratulations and I look forward to next years event already Automotive EMC

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Congratulations on a very successful event no mean feat in the UK electronics industry! The conference material was strong and we would certainly hope to contribute here again next year Infineon Technologies

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30 Driver AssistAnce

Driver AssistAnce 31
option in midrange cars and is expected to become a widely adopted safety feature in cars five years from now. The pace of adoption will increase with the availability of affordable radar with better target classification and range resolution. The design approach to the analogue front-end (AFE) can make all the difference. Discrete parts can be used to build a top-of-the-line custom system, and there will always be the purists that want to optimise every parameter. But it will take more time, occupy more space and cost more to build a radar system of discrete parts. An integrated IC provides most of the features a car manufacturer is likely to want, even for multiple applications such as ACC and BSD, at a fraction of the size and cost. Now its possible to get the signal conditioning and data capture circuitry all on one IC. Size is everything, since the radar sensor module must fit in small compartments, such as behind the bumper, not originally designed to house such electronics. With an integrated product, you can expect to reduce the footprint by at least half compared with equivalent discrete parts. Integrated devices can be cost-effective yet retain the high performance levels required of radar systems designers. You can hand build a discrete system to do exactly what you want, but the cost can quickly get prohibitive to roll out on any scale. An integrated product means radar systems can be placed more affordably into more cars, meaning safer cars for everyone. filters solve this problem. All the adjusting is done by reprogramming the chip via the serial port. This can even be accomplished on the fly, shortening design time by quickly allowing multiple iterations. Multiple channels on one chip also make it easier for the designer, because the channels are well matched, and for the driver because the sensor has a wider range of detection. The ideal radar system would sense objects around the car in a 180 field of view, much like human peripheral vision. A receiver system equipped with as many as six channels can do this with better angular resolution since it receives a higher number of transmitted signals. That means theres more time on target and better ability to resolve the approximate size of the target. Designers might accomplish the same objective with discrete electronics, but it can be a little more unwieldy. The latest integrated products tailor the nature of the radar sensor automatically for long or short range. In transmitting radar signals back to the vehicle, designers must prevent system overload. If a target is directly in front of the vehicle, the return signal will have high amplitude and must be attenuated. If the car ahead is 120m away and the return signal is weak, the microprocessor is continually trying to optimise the signal-to-noise ratio to help classify that target, determine where it is in the field of view and how close it is to the vehicle. Most of this is accomplished through the programmable gain amplifier. One might use a discrete PGA, but not nearly so easily or economically as a PGA controlled through the same serial port as the programmable filter. Flexibility is a compelling argument for an integrated product given the variability in requirements for radar systems. Motorway ACC requires a wide dynamic range, while ACC stop-and-go requires less range but greater field of view and faster response time to adjust to traffic immediately ahead. The user-programmable settings with integrated products can allow for one platform to offer increased performance under different operating conditions, accommodating both motorway and congested driving. A platform approach using integrated application-specific parts makes the design process easier, enables radar systems with smaller form factors and, most importantly, offers the chance to improve the safety of affordable cars. l Jeff Postupack is marketing manager for the automotive radar market segment and Sam Weinstein is product manager for radar analogue front end ICs at Analog Devices

new designs on radar: Discrete or integrated?


Jeff Postupack and Sam Weinstein explain how integrated radar systems can bring high-end technology to affordable cars
driver-assistance technology. Radar systems have the potential to decrease the number and severity of accidents greatly, particularly distracted-driver incidents. Driver fatalities are at an all-time low in many countries because of national vehicle safety legislation, which has helped fuel development of the intelligent vehicle. Until recently, radar has been limited to aircraft and luxury vehicles, but now it has come front-and-centre in cars. The looming challenge for designers is how to pack in multiple safety features while also meeting the car industrys exacting quality and cost requirements. Those goals dont have to be at odds. For the first time, highly integrated systems are rolling out that enable ACC and other radar-based detection and avoidance applications, all in a very small package, about the size of a smart phone. Advances in on-chip signal conditioning let designers Automotive safety has come a long programme the settings needed for way in the two decades since airbags different driving conditions, whether its city traffic or motorway cruising, became a standard safety feature. all in one economical package. Passive safety, defined by seat belts, As a result, radar-system designers airbags and crash detection systems, has evolved into active safety ABS, now have a choice: discrete components or integrated products. electronic stability control, adaptive Electronics integration has happened suspension and yaw-roll control. in many industries for example, The latest phase is driver assistance safety, which includes adaptive cruise medical imaging, communications infrastructure and consumer devices control (ACC), blind-spot detection and now it has come to automotive (BSD) and lane-change assist (LCA). radar. There are trade-offs to each These systems are beginning to path that designers must consider. merge with the communications systems in the vehicle, making the vehicle more autonomous and more Size and cost intelligent. Radar is moving from standard Radar is an especially promising equipment in luxury cars to an

Automotive radar applications

25-year-old male driver is checking his Blackberry when congested city traffic starts to move. Just as he steps on the accelerator, the car in front of him brakes suddenly due to bumper-to-bumper conditions. Within milliseconds, the in-car radar system steps in. Adaptive cruise control with stop-and-go detects the decelerating car in front, maintaining a pre-programmed distance from the leading traffic and stopping the vehicle to avert the impending collision. Welcome to the age of the intelligent vehicle, where technology is advancing every day.

Ease of use

Integrated devices may add built-in innovations, such as programmable gain and flexible filters. Such features shave off time to market not only for the first system designed, but for all subsequent systems by enabling a platform design approach. Filters, for example, need to be fine tuned for different driver-safety applications. A discrete design makes it difficult to reprogramme the filters; designers have to swap out resistors and capacitors physically to change the filtering characteristics. Integrated components with tunable

Intelligent vehicle applications

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32

33

Steve Rogerson reports from the Autosport Engineering Show in Birmingham

Rotary Hall Effect sensors killing off potentiometers


Motor sport, offroad and agricultural vehicles are moving away from rotary potentiometers to rotary Hall Effect sensors but linear potentiometers are still holding their own against the Hall Effect versions. That is the view of Colin McCauley, sales and applications engineer at Penny & Giles, after seeing the results of business with rotary Hall Effect sensors over the past year. We have migrated from potentiometers to doing a lot of business with these non-contact products because there is no wear and less vibration, said McCauley. Potentiometers do wear out. The Hall Effect models have a longer life and are not prone to vibration. He said that fewer people were using rotary potentiometers. They are dying out, he said. There are big advantages with Hall Effect models and the price difference is not that big. The company introduced two more rotary Hall Effect models at the show. The NRH280DP has a comoulded, fully encapsulated sensor that can withstand high shock and vibration and operate up to 170C. Its IP69K sealing can endure high-pressure wash downs. The sensor is activated by a separate magnet and there is a choice of three magnet carrier designs. The NRH285DR is similar but operates from 5V DC and has two independent power supplies and outputs, enabling full redundancy. The company also introduced a range of linear Hall Effect sensors but the company is still continuing with its linear

Electric vehicle tester moves from VW to open market


AVL Ditest has produced an open-market version of the high voltage tester that it developed for the VW Group. This is for testing hybrid and electrical vehicles. We developed a similar model for VW but we were allowed to use the technology to make this version, said Ingo Glatter, director of sales and marketing. It is for independent workshops or anyone who has hybrids or full electric vehicles. Called the HV Safety 1000, it acts as three instruments in one. It can be used as a digital voltmeter up to 750V, for high-voltage insulation resistance measurements up to 1kV test voltage, or for highvoltage insulation resistance measurements under voltage according to SAE J1766. It comes with PC software and is powered by the USB socket on the PC, said Glatter. And it carries out a 100% self check on itself. Before each measurement is allowed to take place, the user has to check the test cables using a small test current of 1mA. The device always gives safety advice and the user has to confirm that, said Glatter. And it does a self test for tips

Colin McCauley: There are big advantages with Hall Effect models.

Ingo Glatter: The device always gives safety advice.

HV Safety 1000 tester for hybrid and electric vehicles

and leads and you have to get a green light on that before going on to the vehicle. The device automatically produces reports showing the measurements as made.

Lap timer maps circuits


director. It tells you if you are faster or slower at any point on the circuit as you go round. And you can analyse it on a computer after the event. Green and red LEDs on the device show whether the current lap was faster or slower than previous laps. The device can store and download data for up to 1000 laps. You can look at the map of the track it has created and compare the different lines you have taken on your best and worse laps, said Jukes. You can then concentrate on getting the bits right where you were slower. There are no external wires and the device is fully waterproof, allowing it to be used on motorcycles as well as cars. The device weighs 200g including its two AA batteries, which will last for more than six hours of continuous use. Ir measures 108 by 56 by 30mm and will keep more than four hours of data in its memory.

Power steering loses weight


DC eLeCtroniCs introduced the Epas light-weight electronic power assisted steering system, weighing about 4.2kg. It uses a titanium chassis and is about 1.2kg lighter than our existing system, said motor sport electrical engineer Tom White. Its also thinner, so you dont have to cut so much out of the steering system. The spec though is the same as on the previous model. The length between input and output splines has been reduced from 232.5mm to 142.5mm while still retaining maximum assistance at 70Nm. The torque sensor can now be remotely mounted on the steering column, meaning the motor unit can be fitted in any orientation. The torque sensor for the previous model was on the motor assembly, said White. Now there are two options you can either have a strain gauge sensor in the steering wheel or it can be clamped around the steering

potentiometer line. We still make linear potentiometers, said McCauley. Some people still want them. The linear pots still do a great job so the Hall Effect units are not taking off as much. The linear Hall Effect units do have the advantage that they are waterproof and smaller than their potentiometer counterparts.

Launched at the show were the MLH060 and MLH160. The MLH060 is a 6mm diameter Hall Effect sensor and magnet assembly for integration into custom housings or OEM equipment. The MLH160 has up to 30mm electrical stroke for use with clutch master cylinders where the magnet can be integrated in the cylinder rod.

Adrian Jukes: You can concentrate on getting the bits right where you were slower.

A stAnD-ALone GPS-based lap timer and logger was introduced by St Cross Electronics. As well as recording lap times, it uses GPS information to plot a map of the course and the line followed by the driver. This is for anyone who hasnt got a full data logger dashboard and wants to know lap times and what the lap looked like, said Adrian Jukes, production

Tom White: This all saves weight.

column. This all saves weight. You dont have all the steel that was used to mount it on the motor assembly. He said that the unit could be used on all types of cars, not just those in motor sports.

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PRODUCTS 35
management system was still in beta testing with some customers but the company expected it to be available soon. Diesel is becoming more common in motor sports, said Skinner. There are one or two diesel management systems on the market, but not a lot. The programmable device is for diesels with up to eight cylinders and common rail injectors. finally, the firm has doubled the capacity of its Can and serial data logger to 64Mbyte. The DA1, which is the size of a small Henry Skinner: There is a lot of USB stick, has a quick release electronics packed into a very small space. connector letting it be moved between vehicle and PC. There is a lot of electronics analogue and speed inputs, and packed into a very small space, Can communications. The EMDI72 diesel engine said Skinner.

Gems shines with triple launch


GeMs MADe a triple launch at the show a driver display logger, a diesel engine management system and higher capacity version of its existing data logger. The TK10 driver display logger is based on the firms LDS4 product used in formula 2 racing and has the same AM-OLED technology. We have been able to bring this down now to our club level because the technology is coming down in price, said Gems manager Henry Skinner. It gives a lot of flexibility to customise the display. features include data logging,

Wireless videoscope gets into small spaces

FM and AM Arm-based in-vehicle box Signal modules computing box, it provides a conditioner
THE TDGA6 sensitive fM/AM tuner modules from Alps are for automotive applications. The surface mountable modules have dimensions of 25.0 by 20.0 by 3.5mm (W x D x H). They cover input frequencies on the AM band from 522 to 1710kHz and on the fM band from 76 to 108MHz. for reception of US weather forecasts, the tuner modules support fM frequencies from 162.4 to 162.55MHz (WX weather-band range). The tuners are rated for supply voltages of 5.0V; typical power consumption is 225mA. Alps Electric www.alps.com. foundation for a wide range of fleet in-vehicle needs. Users can develop their applications to run on its Windows CE platform. The computer supports diagnostics using Can bus technology and adhering to the J1939 standard. This lets it be interfaced to vehicle components with a twisted pair connection, and to communicate real-time diagnostics information to the driver or central dispatch office. Operating range is -30 to +70C, and the chassis is sealed and certified against shock and vibration, passing the MIL810G, Method 516.5 military grade standard. The main processor is an Arm-based STM Cartesio. When the system is running normally, consumption is around 3W with no peripherals or display.

Quick turnaround offered for vehicle design


DesiGninG A vehicle from a blank sheet of paper to a working prototype in just under a year in no easy task, but UK firm Creation is seeing increasing demand for the fast turnaround service. We are a vehicle design engineering company with a difference, said managing director Bill Davis. We can design vehicles in a very short time scale. This includes all the mechanical and electrical engineering. We do a lot of analytical engineering to make sure we are ready to go before we cut the first metal, said Davis. All the Can bus programming we do ourselves. We the likes of Lockheed and BAE listed among its customers. Even large car makers such as ford use Creations services. People like ford havent got enough in-house engineering, said Davis, so they have to put parts out. In the past 20 years, outsourcing has become the norm. He said where Creation differed from other design companies was that it could offer an all-in-one service rather than just parts of a design. Our niche is the inventiveness of the design, he said. We will be given a spec and we will take it from there.

Tony Pizil: No matter how small the orifice, you can get into it.

Bill Davis: People like Ford havent got enough in-house engineering.

dont do the wiring loom in house but we do the programming. The design work covers everything from small sports cars to military vehicles, with

Smelling blood

Advanced Fuel Systems (AFS) was bragging that its fuel cells would be used for Richard Noble and Andy Greens attempt to break their own land speed record, and the car they will use the Bloodhound SSC was at the show and attracting a lot of attention. The car will use two sources of motive power an EJ200 jet engine as used in the Eurofighter Typhoon for the entire run and a hybrid rocket that will ignite at 560km/hr and power the car beyond its 1600km/hr target. The AFS fuel cell will store 500 litre of Jet-A aviation turbine fuel for use by the jet engine. A more standard 40 litre cell will be used by the auxiliary power unit on each run. And AFS is helping design a 900 litre cell to carry the high test peroxide for the hybrid rocket.

Ks tooLs introduced a wirelessly connectable videoscope for helping engineers explore the hard to access areas of an engine. This means you can have one guy working on the display while the other guy is under the bonnet, said Tony Pizil, commercial director of KS Tools partner SP Diagnostics. The guy at the display can see what the other guy is looking at. Part of the companys Ultimate Vision range, the model can record still pictures and video, both of which can be transmitted to a PC for analysis. There are two probes available a 5.5mm model and a 3.9mm unit. That is as small as anyone can go with a camera, said Pizil. So no matter how small the orifice, you can get into it, whether in spark plugs or on the turbo. The probes also come with mirror attachments that let the engineer see behind the probe. This product can be handy for warranty work, said Pizil. The video can be sent to the manufacturer before they do the job, so there is no time wasted. It is very simple to use but costs 1800.

A DVA N T E C H DLOG has announced the Trek-510, an Arm-based, industrial-grade, in-vehicle box computer for users who need a simple system with tracking, positioning and IO with complete wwan support, including GPRS, CDMA or HSDPA. The mobile data terminal monitors on-board vehicle systems and driver behaviour, and helps fleet managers effectively operate and manage their fleets. It is for local fleets such as short haul trucking, couriers, local common carriers, private delivery fleets, utility cars and waste disposal trucks. Coupled with the Trek-303 smart vehicle display, with auto light sensor and easily installed Advantech-DLog single cable connection to the advantech-dlog.com

Low on-resistance for mosfet family


INTERNATIONAL RECTIfIER has launched automotive qualified mosfets for where low on-state resistance (RDS[on]) is needed including heavy loads used in traditional internal combustion engines, micro and hybrid vehicle platforms. The rugged planar devices are available across voltages from 40 to 75V in various SMD and through-hole packages. The AUIRL1404S is a logic level gate drive mosfet at 40V and other devices included in the family are standard gate drive mosfets at 40, 55 and 75V. They are said to work well in linear mode operation. The wide voltage range also makes them suitable for applications on vehicles, such as trucks, using a higher board-net voltage. They are subject to dynamic and static part average testing combined with 100% automated wafer level visual inspection as part of an automotive quality initiative targeting zero defects. AEC-Q101 qualification requires that there is no more than a 20% change in RDS(on) after 1000 temperature cycles of testing. However, in extended testing they demonstrated a maximum RDS(on) shift of less than 10% at 5000 temperature cycles,. The devices have a leadfree and RoHS compliant bill of materials. Datasheets and qualification standards are available, as are Spice models. International Rectifier www.irf.com

A SENSOR signal conditioning IC the ZSSC3008 is for resistive bridge sensor systems that require second-order linearity correction for a wide range of sensors. Introduced by ZMD, it has a non-linear compensation feature for improved accuracy. This, for example, makes it possible to use less expensive transducers in automotive industrial and medical markets. The device is optimised for applications with sensors that do not require temperature compensation because they have an intrinsically low temperature coefficient (TC). This includes ceramic pressure sensors, thinfilm pressure sensors with good TC performance and oil-filled stainless steel or passively compensated sensors. The calibrated device and a specific sensor are mated digitally, without the cost overhead associated with trimming by external devices or laser. On-board diagnostics and protection features include eeprom signature, bridge connection checks, bridge input-short and open-bridge detection, power loss detection, and output current limits for short-circuit protection. for sensor correction, the device uses offset correction and gain programming to calibrate the bridge output signal precisely. ZMD www.zmdi.com

automotive electronics | august/september 2011

www.automotive-electronics.co.uk

www.automotive-electronics.co.uk

august/september 2011 | automotive electronics

36 PRODUCTS

PRODUCTS 37

LED key switches for harsh environments


they can achieve a million life cycles on specific versions, making them suitable for harsh environmental conditions often found in automotive, off-road transportation, industrial and medical applications. The RoHS-compliant and halogen-free design provides the flexibility to tailor force values, actuation travel options and provide single pole double throw (SPDT) custom products that meet application requirements. Actuation force is 1.5 to 9N with an overload of 100N and a total travel of 1.5mm.

High-voltage battery simulation model


THE LATEST addition to DSpaces ASM automotive simulation package is a battery model for simulating highvoltage rechargeable batteries. The model can virtualise the rechargeable Li-ion, nickelmetal hydride and lead batteries used for the electrification of vehicle drive trains. The model facilitates function development for battery management systems and testing closeto-production ECUs. Model-inthe-loop (MiL) simulations in Simulink and hardware-in-theloop (HiL) simulations on the simulator are used for this. The multi-cell battery model supports the elementary functions of current battery management systems, such as cell balancing. It simulates every battery cell to represent the cellspecific charges, voltages and currents. The computations are performed in real time, no matter how many cells there are. Physical parameters such as internal resistance, diffusion and double-layer capacities can be defined for each cell. The model also includes leakage currents such as those due to outgassing when NiMH cells are charged. And with the intuitive user interface of the companys

Rugged rectifiers increase reliability Controller


DIODES HAS announced the first devices in a family of SBR super barrier rectifiers for automotive applications. With a claimed lower forward voltage drop, improved avalanche rating and higher safe operating area (SOA) than Schottky or ultra-fast diodes, these rugged rectifiers enable automotive designers to increase the reliability of motor control, display panel and LED lighting circuits. The AECQ101 qualified SBR 20A60CTBQ, 30A45CTBQ and 3045CTBQ rectifiers handle outputs of 20 and 30A and come in the standard TO-263 package, while the 1045D1Q is rated for 10A and comes in the slightly smaller TO-252 package.

supports Lin

ROBUST, IP67-SEALED SMT key switches for harsh environments are available from C&K Components. Designated the K12S series, they come with LED illumination or in double action and detect versions. C&K Components featuring tactile feedback, ck-components.com

Software and debug updates for processor


GREEN HILLS Software has made enhancements to its automotive platform. These include a processor trace probe update, Multi compiler performance and footprint optimisations, and native support for the Integrity real-time operating system targeting freescales Qorivva family of automotive microcontrollers. Version three of the Supertrace probe has been upgraded to expand its support for the Qorivva microcontrollers by delivering 4Gbyte of trace memory collection with an option to upgrade to up to 8Gbyte. A trace adapter supporting 5V interfaces has also been developed and is available for the Qorivva. Green Hills Software www.ghs.com

Modeldesk, even the comprehensive parameterisation of multi-cell simulations can be handled. The ASM model can be combined with the firms controllable EV1077 buffer amplifier modules to build a battery cell emulation. The galvanically isolated voltage is output with a precision of 1.5mV across the working temperature range. The modules can be switched in series to achieve a voltage of up to 1kV. The real-time-capable cell model and the emulation unit for outputting the cell clamp voltage fulfil the major requirements for testing battery management system ECUs by HiL simulation reproducibly and under automated control. DSpace www.dspace.de

The low Vf means circuit power efficiency can be improved and cooler operation achieved. The resulting improvement in reliability is further increased

by the devices higher reverse avalanche rating. Diodes www.diodes.com

Connecting Can to Can


RM MICHAELIDES has introduced Canview Gateway, an intelligent Can-to-Can product with a mapping functionality. The gateway lets users combine Can networks working with different protocols and baud rates. It has two Can interfaces. Beyond protocol and baud rate conversion, the device can be deployed in applications such as for bus load reduction, payload data manipulation or rest bus simulation. further, it can perform smaller control tasks. With the help of the RM software, users can configure the gateways functionality, even without programming knowledge. RM Michaelides www.rmcan.com

Capacitors handle up to 3kV


in-cabin, the parts can handle mission and safety critical automotive circuits. Stricter testing protocols and inspection criteria are applied to these products to ensure reliability in potentially harsh environmental conditions. They meet all AEC-Q200 qualification requirements and are manufactured in ISO/TS 16949:2002 certified facilities. The X7R dielectric is also available with the option of the firms fT-Cap flexible termination system.

Mosfets cut PCB space in rugged applications


COMBINING A trench mos process with the DPak+ package technology, a range of rugged automotive power mosfets have been announced by Toshiba Electronics. They aim to improve application performance while reducing PCB space and noise in applications such as switching regulators, DC-DC converters and motor drives. The line comprises 11 n-channel devices with a choice of maximum voltage ratings of 40, 60 and 100V, and ten p-channel parts with maximum voltage ratings of -40 and -60V. Current ratings are from 8 to However, a proprietary internal design reduces on resistance and thermal losses and ensures improved efficiency, current handling and reliability. Based on the firms Warp technology, DPak+ replaces conventional internal aluminium bond wires between the mosfet die and the package leads with wider copper clamps. The clamping mechanism maintains a reliable mechanical connection capable of withstanding repeated power cycling as well as exposure to shock and vibration. In addition, the larger crosssectional area, combined with higher electrical connectivity, reduces I2R heating due to package losses and reduces package inductance. This, in turn, contributes to heat reduction, lower noise and faster device operation. The mosfets have low leakage currents and on resistances down to 2.4m (typical VGS = 10V). Typical thermal resistance between channel and case is 1.5/W, while power dissipation at 25C is 100W. Toshiba Electronics www.toshiba-components.com

KEMET HAS introduced automotive grade high-voltage multilayer ceramic capacitors. Qualified to AEC-Q200, these surface mount capacitors are available in X7R and C0G dielectrics from 500 to 3000V DC and with capacitances from Kemet 10pf to 0.27f. Whether under bonnet or www.kemet.com

THE PXI 3078 communications controller from Gpel Electronic provides two Lin or K-Line interfaces. It supports ECU communications via Lin for executing basic tasks such as functional tests of ECUs. The transceivers can be plugged and exchanged according to the respective application. The switchable transceiver supply via software can be executed internally or externally via the Lin bus. The bus termination for master and slave operations can also be switched on or off via the software. User programme generations are supported by library functions in the onboard software. The modules basic software package supports Lin according to specs 1.3, 2.0 and 2.1 including diagnosis via Lin. Extended commands, such as network management, stimuli and response runs, ramps or table functions, are available as software add-on modules. Gpel Electronic www.goepel.com

MCUs cover body, safety and powertrain


INfINEON TECHNOLOGIES has extended its XC2000 automotive microcontroller portfolio with the XC2200 for body applications, XC2300 for safety applications and XC2700 for powertrain designs. Applications for the 16bit devices include body control modules, airbags and low-end engine management designs. The devices are based on a C166SV2 CPU with five-stage pipeline. They have a mac unit with DSP functionality for dedicated filter algorithms. In addition, they provide a peripheral set for low-cost applications with up to two Can nodes, up to four flexible serial interfaces and up to 19 A-D converter channels. The 12bit ADC provides a conversion time of less than 1s. An integrated window watchdog with independent clock reduces the demand for external components. On-chip power supply, power control and debug support simplify design. Available flash capacities are 32, 64, 96 and 160kbyte. The pin-out provides up to 49 IOs in a 64-pin package. Derivates are available in packages such as the VQfN-48 with dimensions of 7 by 7mm. The MCUs are supported by development tools. Infineon Technologies www.infineon.com

80A depending on the device chosen. All operate in automotive environments with channel temperatures up to 175C. The DPak+ package has the same form factor as and is pin-to-pin compatible with a conventional DPak package.

automotive electronics | august/september 2011

www.automotive-electronics.co.uk

www.automotive-electronics.co.uk

august/september 2011 | automotive electronics

38 PRODUCTS

Regulator upped with AEC-Q100


INTERSIL has developed an AECQ100 version of the ISL8088, a dual synchronous step-down DC-DC regulator that provides regulated power in remote safety cameras, infotainment systems, control modules and other space-constrained automotive applications. The device delivers up to 800mA continuous current from each of its two independent outputs. Its 2.75 to 5.5V input voltage range permits powering from common 3.3 and 5.0V automotive supplies. The internal current-mode compensation provides fast transient response and allows for 100% duty cycle operation for low dropout. This also simplifies circuit design by eliminating the need for external compensation components. The regulator operates at 2.25MHz switching frequency (and can be synchronised up capacitors. Each channel is to 4MHz) allowing the use of optimised for generating an Intersil small, low cost inductors and output voltage down to 0.6V. www.intersil.com

Dual Can transceiver


NXP has announced the TJA1048 dual high-speed Can transceiver. for in-vehicle networking, it works with ECUs in safety, comfort and environmentfriendly automotive tasks with more than one Can interface. It is suitable for engine, body control and gateway applications that use multiple high-speed Can networks and require a low-power mode with wake-up capability via bus. The device is pin-to-pin compatible with the single TJA1042/3 Can transceiver and provides flexibility in building modular systems with either single or dual Can node. By combining two independent third-generation Can transceivers in one package, and sharing power supply and thermal protection, the device supports low power consumption for better energy efficiency and a more space efficiency compared with two single transceivers. NXP Semiconductors www.nxp.com.

Timing verification and code coverage


Rapitime Auto for on-target timing verification and Rapicover Auto on-target code coverage measurement. Supporting automotive processors, compilers and rtoses that meet Autosar and Osek standards, it is for engineers working in C and C++ and on 8bit upwards microcontrollers. The tool provides advanced timing measurement and optimisation capabilities, coverage against specific test of testing processes, aids cases, including call pair, identification of performance statement, decision and MC/DC, bottlenecks, and is designed for and Eclipse-based reporting. the typical resource constrained embedded environment. Rapita Systems The product consists of www.rapitasystems.com

RAPITA has launched RVS Auto for software developers working on high-integrity automotive applications. Part of the Rapita Verification Suite (RVS) family, it increases the efficiency

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Tool suite brings processor certification


TARGETING AUTOMOTIVE, avionics and medical applications, LDRA has integrated its tool suite with Code Warrior for freescales HC08 and HCS08, bringing full certification capabilities to this 8bit footprint. By exploiting the resources of the Code Warrior IDE, it enables developers to run host-style analysis and test generation on resource-constrained processors. Automotive, industrial and avionics applications using these processors can automate testing and verification processes, reducing the cost of certification. Developers can achieve programming compliance with industry standards, such as Misra, IEC 61508, ISO 26262 and DO-178B. The firms tool qualification support pack then documents the software development process, providing the qualified output needed for certification. With compiler and debugger control, developers gain access to data on the target that can be output to the host. In addition to providing static and dynamic analysis of the target via the firms testbed, test cases can be generated via its TBExtreme test case facility. These test cases can be generated and validated on the host and then rerun for qualification on the target. Thanks to this integration, developers can control their application testing from the Code Warrior environment. Developers can automate processes such as build, execution and coverage collection from the IDE, allowing the tool suite to be used in the same way it would be on host targets.
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February/March 09

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LDRA www.ldra.com

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