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# DEFLECTIONS: ENERGY METHODS

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External Work and Strain Energy Principle of Work and Energy Principle of Virtual Work Method of Virtual Work:
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## Trusses Beams and Frames Trusses Beams and Frames

Castigliano's Theorem
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External Work and Strain Energy Most energy methods are based on the conservation of energy principle, which states that the work done by all the external forces acting on a structure, Ue, is transformed into internal work or strain energy, Ui. Ue = Ui External Work-Force. F
F= P x

dU e = Fdx
U e = Fdx
0 x

P L

Eigen work

Ue
F

As the magnitude of F is gradually increased from zero to some limiting value F = P, the final elongation of the bar becomes .
Ue = ( P x) dx Eigen work 0 1 P 2 Ue = ( x ) = P 2 2 0

F F' + P P L L
n ige E

k or w

## (Ue)Total = (Eigen Work)P + (Eigen Work)F + (Displacement work) P

(U e )Total = 1 1 ()( P ) + (' )( F ' ) + P (' ) 2 2

F 20 kN L L x (m)

10 mm 20 kN
Ue =

0.01 m

## 1 (0.01)(20 103 ) = 100 N m 2

F 20 kN 15 kN L L L
n ige E

k or w

W=

## External Work - Moment. M' + M M d M

M
n ge Ei

k or w

Displacement work
dU e = Md
U e = Md 0 Eigen work
Ue = 1 M 2

'

-----(8-12)

-----(8-13)

(8 14)

## Strain Energy-Axial Force.

U i = U 0 dV
V

E=

N A

1 = ( )(dV ) 2 V 1 2 = ( ) dV 2 E V =
V

=
N

1 N 2 ( ) dV 2E A

1 N 2 ( ) Adx 2E A L

N2 = ( )dx 2 EA L

1 U o = 2

Strain Energy-Bending P w
U i = U 0 dV
V

1 = ( )(dV ) 2 V

dx L d M d dx
My = I
1 U o = 2

1 2 = ( ) dV 2 E V
=
V

1 My 2 ( ) dV 2E I
2

1 M 2y = ( 2 )dV 2E I V I

1 M2 = ( 2 )( y 2 dA)dx A 2E I L M2 = ( )dx 2 EI L

Strain Energy-Torsion dx T c d
U i = U 0 dV
V

T J

1 = ( )dV 2 V 1 2 = ( ) dV 2 G V

=
V

1 T 2 ( ) dV 2G J

G=
1 U o = 2

1 T2 = ( 2 )( 2 dA) dx 2G J A L

T2 Ui = dx 2GJ L

Strain Energy-Shear
U i = U 0 dV
V

dx

1 = ( )(dV ) 2 V 1 2 = ( ) dV 2 G V = 1 VQ 2 ( ) dV 2G It K
2 2

dy

G=

A V Q = ( dA) dx 2G A It L

1 U o = 2

V2 Ui = K dx 2GA L

10

## Principle of Work and Energy P x

Ue = Ui

L M diagram
M 2 dx 1 P = 2 2 EI 0
1 ( Px) 2 dx P = 2 2 EI 0
L L

-PL M V x

1 P 2 x3 P = 2 6 EI
PL3 = 3EI

+ Mx = 0: M Px = 0
M = Px

11

## u L u A P' = 1 Apply virtual load P' first.

U e = U i
1 ( P 1 ) + 1 = U 0 dV + u dL 1 2 Real Work

u L dL u A P1

12

## Method of Virtual Work : Truss External Loading.

P1 N1
n6

n1 n7 B n3 n8 n5 n9 N3 N7 B
N
4

P2
N6

N N8 5

N9

1kN
1 = nNL AE

Where:

1 = external virtual unit load acting on the truss joint in the stated direction of n = internal virtual normal force in a truss member caused by the external virtual unit load = external joint displacement caused by the real load on the truss N = internal normal force in a truss member caused by the real loads L = length of a member A = cross-sectional area of a member E = modulus of elasticity of a member 13

Temperature 1 = u dL
1 = n ( T ) L

dL

Where:

= external joint displacement caused by the temperature change = coefficient of thermal expansion of member T = change in temperature of member

## Fabrication Errors and Camber 1 = u dL

1 = nL

dL

Where:

= external joint displacement caused by the fabrication errors L = difference in length of the member from its intended size as caused by a fabrication error

14

Example 8-15 The cross-sectional area of each member of the truss shown in the figure is A = 400 mm2 and E = 200 GPa. (a) Determine the vertical displacement of joint C if a 4-kN force is applied to the truss at C. (b) If no loads act on the truss, what would be the vertical displacement of joint C if member AB were 5 mm too short? (c) If 4 kN force and fabrication error are both accounted, what would be the vertical displacement of joint C.

C 3m A 4m 4m

4 kN

15

SOLUTION

Part (a) Virtual Force n. Since the vertical displacement of joint C is to be determined, only a vertical 1 kN load is placed at joint C. The n force in each member is calculated using the method of joint. Real Force N. The N force in each member is calculated using the method of joint. 1 kN
.83 -0 3

C
2.5 +

C 0.667 n (kN)

-0 .83 3

-2 .5

4 kN

B 0.5 kN

4 kN A

2 N(kN)

B 1.5 kN

0.5 kN

1.5 kN

16

1 kN C
0.8 33

C 0.667 n (kN)

-0 .83 3

B A

2.5 +

-2 .5

4 kN
5

C
5

2 N (kN)

B A

8 L (m)

=
C
-1 .41 0
10 .41

(1 kN )( CV ) =

CV

CV

17

## Part (b): The member AB were 5 mm too short 1 kN

3 .83 -0

C 0.667 n (kN)

-0 .83 3

B 5 mm

(1)( CV ) = n(L)
CV = (0.667)(0.005)

CV = -3.33 mm, Part (c): The 4 kN force and fabrication error are both accounted. CV = 0.133 - 3.33 = -3.20 mm CV = -3.20 mm,

18

Example 8-16 Determine the vertical displacement of joint C of the steel truss shown. The cross-section area of each member is A = 400 mm2 and E = 200 GPa.

E 4m

A 4m

B 4m 4 kN

C 4m 4 kN

19

SOLUTION

Virtual Force n. Since the vertical displacement of joint C is to be determined, only a vertical 1 kN load is placed at joint C. The n force in each member is calculated using the method of joint. Real Force N. The N force in each member is calculated using the method of joint.

F 0
71 .4 -0 0.333

-0.333
71 .4 -0 0.667

E
43 .9 -0

F 4m D 0A
6 .6 -5

-4
0

E
6 .6 -5

0.333

1 0.667

4 4

4 4

4m D

B 4m 4m

C 4m

B 4m 4m 4 kN

C 4m 4 kN

0.333 kN

n (kN) 1 kN 0.667 kN

4 kN

4 kN

N(kN)

20

F -0.333
71 .4 -0 0.333 71 .4 -0 0.667

E
43 .9 -0

F
66 5. -

-4
0

E
6 .6 -5

F
66 5.

4
66 5.

E
66 5.

0.333

1 0.667

4 4

4 4

4 4

4 4

C n (kN) 1 kN

DA

4 kN N(kN) 4 kN

DA

B L(m)

=
F
07 5. 1 5.33

5.33
0

E
8 .1 30

5.33

16 10.67 10.67

B nNL(

C
kN2m

## nNL (1 kN )( CV ) = AE 1 72.4 kN m CV = [(15.07 + 3(5.33) + 2(10.67) + 16 + 30.18)] = kN AE (400 10 6 m 2 )(200 106 2 ) m

CV = 1.23 mm,

21

Example 8-17 Determine the vertical displacement of joint C of the steel truss shown. Due to radiant heating from the wall, members are subjected to a temperature change: member AD is increase +60oC, member DC is increase +40oC and member AC is decrease -20oC.Also member DC is fabricated 2 mm too short and member AC 3 mm too long. Take = 12(10-6) , the cross-section area of each member is A = 400 mm2 and E = 200 GPa. wall

C 10 kN

3m A 2m B 20 kN

22

-1 .2

1 kN C
0 0

## 20 kN 23.33 kN 3m 13.33 kN A D 23.33 C 10 kN

20
-2 4. 04

D 3 A

2
3. 61

C
3

20

A 2m n (kN) D 31.13
10 4. 12

2m N (kN)

B 20 kN

L (m)

C 0

60

(1 kN )( CV ) =

nNL AE

0 A nNL(kN2m)

CV =

23

D
1

0.667

1 kN C
0

+40

D 3

2
3. 61

C
3

-2

-1 .2

+60
-2 0

A n (kN)

A T (oC)

A L (m)

## Due to temperature change.

(1 kN )( CV ) = n (T ) L
CV = (12 10 6 )[(1)(60)(3) + (0.667)(40)( 2) + (1.2)(20)(3.61)] = 3.84 mm,

## Due to fabrication error.

(1 kN )( CV ) = n(L)
CV = (0.667 )(0.002) + (1.2)(0.003) = 4.93 mm,

Total displacement .
( CV )Total = 2.44 + 3.84 4.93 = 1.35 mm,

24

## Method of Virtual Work : Bending

w A C C RA Virtual loadings B M

d M d dx

RB
ds = d

1 C = (m )(d ) = (m )
L

M dx EI

d =

ds

M dx EI

Real displacements

25

## Method of Virtual Work : Beams and Frames

w A C

w B A C B

C
RA Virtual loadings

C
RB RA RB Virtual loadings
M dx EI

M 1 C = (m )(d ) = (m ) dx EI L

1 C = (m)(d ) = (m )
L

Real displacements

Real displacements

26

Method of Virtual Work : Beams and Frames Vertical Displacement Real load w A x1 RA M2 V2 C Virtual unit load x1 B x2 RB w B V1 x2 RB RA
M dx EI

A RA

x2 B RB

M1 x1 RA

x1

m1 v1

m2 v2

x2 B RB

1 C = (m )
L

27

## Slope Real load w A x1 RA M2 V2 C B A RA RB w B V1 x2 RB RA v1 v2 RB m2 x2 B Virtual unit couple x1 C 1 x2 B RB

x2

M1 x1 RA

m1

1 C = (m )
L

M dx EI

28

Example 8-18 The beam shown is subjected to a load P at its end. Determine the slope and displacement at C. EI is constant.

P B 2a a C C

29

SOLUTION

## Displacement at C Real Moment M

1 kN P B

Virtual Moment m x1
A 2a
1 2 m 3 2

x2
a C A

x1
2a
P 2 M Px1 2

x2
a C

3P 2

m1 =

x1 2

-a

m2 = -x2

M1 =
a

-Pa

M2 = -Px2

1 m M 1 C = dx = EI EI L
2a

2a

a

30

## Slope at C Virtual Moment m x1

A 2a
1 2a m m 1 = x1 2a
L

x2
B a
1 2a

Real Moment M
P 1 kNm C A 2a
P 2 M Px1 2 3P 2

x1

x2
a C

-1

m 2 = 1
2a

M1 =
a

-Pa

M2 = -Px2

mM 1 (1 kN m)( C ) = dx = EI EI 0
3 1 2a

## 1 x Px ( 1 )( 1 )dx1 + 2a 2 (1)( Px2 )dx2 EI 0 0

2

1 P x 1 Px2 1 P 8a 3 1 Pa 2 7 Pa 2 C = ( )( )( ) + ( )( ) = ( )( )( ) + ( )( )= ( ), EI 4a 3 0 EI EI 4a 3 EI 2 0 2 6 EI

31

Conclusion
P B 2a a C

C =

Pa 3 3EI

7 Pa 2 C = ( ), 6 EI

32

Example 8-19 Determine the slope and displacement of point B of the steel beam shown in the figure below. Take E = 200 GPa, I = 250(106) mm4.

3 kN/m A B

5m

33

SOLUTION

## Vertical Displacement at B Real Moment M

x 1 kN A 3 kN/m x

Virtual Moment m

5m -1x = m v
L 5

B 1 kN

5m
3x 2 = M 2
x 2

B 3x

V
5 5

34

SOLUTION

## Slope at B Real Moment M

x 3 kN/m 1 kNm B A 5m
3x 2 = M 2
x 2

Virtual Moment m

B 3x

5m -1 = m v x

1 kNm

V
5

## 62.5 kN m 2 B = = 0.00125 rad , 6 kN 6 4 (200 10 )(250 10 m ) m

35

Example 8-20 Determine the slope and displacement of point B of the steel beam shown in the figure below. Take E = 200 GPa, I = 60(106) mm4.

14 kNm A

5 kN C B 2m 2m 3m D

36

## Virtual Moment m Displacement at B Real Moment M

x1 A 0.5 kN 2m 1 kN x2 C 0.5 kN 3m x3 D 14 kNm x 1 A 1 kN 2m M1 = 14 - x1 M2 = 6x2 5 kN x2 C 6 kN x3 D 3m

B 2m

B 2m

m1 = 0.5 x1 1

m 2 = 0 .5 x 2

14 M

(1 kN )( B ) =
0

m M dx EI
2 2 3

## 1 1 1 = (0.5 x1 )(14 x1 )dx1 + (0.5 x2 )(6 x2 )dx2 + (0)(0)dx3 EI 0 EI 0 EI 0

1 1 1 7x 0.5 x1 2 2 = (7 x1 0.5 x1 )dx1 + (3 x2 ) dx2 = ( )( 1 EI EI EI 2 3 0 0 B = 20.667 20.667 = = 0.00172 m = 1.72 mm, EI (200)(60)

3 2

1 3x + ( )( 2 ) 3 0 EI 0

37

Virtual Moment m
x1 A 0.25 kN 2m m B x2 1 kNm 2m C 0.25 kN 3m

Slope at B
x3 D

Real Moment M
5 kN x2 C 6 kN x3 D 3m

14 kNm x 1 A 1 kN 2m

B 2m

## m1 = 0.25x1 0.5 -0.5

L

14 M m2 = -0.25x2
2

M1 = 14 - x1 M2 = 6x2

mM 1 1 1 (1 kN m)( B ) = dx = (0.25 x1 )(14 x1 )dx1 + (0.25 x2 )(6 x2 )dx2 + (0)(0) dx3 EI EI EI EI 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 2 = (3.5 x1 0.25 x1 )dx1 + (1.5 x2 )dx2 EI EI 0 0
2 2

3 1

B =

## 2.333 2.333 = = 0.000194 rad , EI (200)(60)

38

Example 8-21 From the structure shown. Determine the slope and displacement at C. Take E = 200 GPa, I = 200(106) mm4.

20 kN 2EI A 4m B EI Hinge 3m

30 kNm C

39

20 kN 2EI A 4m B EI Hinge 3m

30 kNm C

## 30 kNm B 10 kN 20 kN 30 kN A B 30 kN 30 x (m) 10 kN C 30/3 = 10 kN

120 kNm

30 kN M (kNm)

-120

40

Real Moment M
120 kNm A 2EI 4m 30 kN M (kNm) x1 20 kN B

## Displacement at B Virtual Moment m

30 kNm EI 3m 10 kN x2 30 1 kN M (kNm) x1 x2 C 4 kNm A 2EI 4m B 1 kN EI 3m 0 kN C

-120 M1 = -30x1

M2 = 10x2
4

-4

m1 = -x1

m2 = 0

## dx mM B = i i dx = ( x1 )(30 x1 ) 1 + 0 2 EI Ei I i 0 L 1 30 x 3 4 = ) ( 2 EI 3 0 32 32 = = = 0.008 m EI 40 103

41

Real Moment M
120 kNm A 2EI 4m 30 kN M (kNm) x1 20 kN B

## Slope at the left of B Virtual Moment m

30 kNm EI 3m 10 kN x2 30 0 M (kNm) x1 x2 C 1 kNm A 2EI 4m 1 kNm B EI 3m 0 kN

4

m1 = -1

-1

m2 = 0

BL

## dx mM = dx = (1)(30 x1 ) 1 + 0 Ei I i i 2 EI L 0 1 30 x 2 4 = ) ( 2 EI 2 0 120 120 = = = 0.003 rad EI 40 103

42

Real Moment M
120 kNm A 2EI 4m 30 kN M (kNm) x1 20 kN B

## Slope at the right of B Virtual Moment m

30 kNm EI 3m 10 kN x2 30 1/3 kN M (kNm) x1 x2 C 4/3 kNm A 2EI 4m 1 kNm B EI 3m 1/3 kN

-120 M1 = -30x1

M2 = 10x2
4

-4/3

m1 = -x1/3
3

-1

m2 = -1 + x2/3

BR

mM x dx x dx = dx = ( 1 )(30 x1 ) 1 + (1 + 2 )(10 x2 ) 2 Ei I i i 3 2 EI 0 3 EI L 0

## 1 10 x1 4 1 10 x2 10 x2 3 ( )0+ ( )0 = + 2 EI 3 2 9 EI 106.67 1 91.67 = + (45 + 30) = = 0.0023 rad EI EI 40 103

43

20 kN 2EI A 4m B EI Hinge 3m

30 kNm C

Deflected Curve

B = 8 mm BR = 0.0023 rad

BL = 0.003 rad

44

Example 8-22 (a) Determine the slope and the horizontal displacement of point C on the frame. (b) Draw the bending moment diagram and deflected curve. E = 200 GPa I = 200(106) mm4

5m B EI 2 kN/m 1.5 EI A 6m C 4 kN

45

Real Moment M
5m B EI 2 kN/m x1 A 12 kN

x2 C 4 kN

Virtual Moment m
x2 m2= 1.2 x2 1.2 kN C 1

EI

1.5 EI M1= 16

16 kN

1 CH

## 1 m M 1 = dx = ( x1 )(16 x1 x12 )dx1 + (1.2 x 2 )(12 x2 )dx2 EI 1.5 EI EI L 0 0

1 1 2 3 2 = (16 x1 x1 )dx1 + (14.4 x2 ) dx2 1.5 EI EI 0 0
6 5

CH

## 1 16 x1 x1 1 14.4 x2 552 600 1152 = ( ) + ( ) = + = = +28.8 mm, 1.5 EI 3 4 0 EI 3 EI EI (200)(200) 0

46

Real Moment M
5m B EI 2 kN/m x1 A 12 kN

x2 C 4 kN

Virtual Moment m
x2 m2= 1-x2/5 1/5 kN C 1 kNm

EI

1.5 EI M1= 16

## 1.5 EI m1= 0 0 1/5 kN

16 kN

1 mM 1 x 1 C = dx = (0)(16 x1 x12 )dx1 + (1 2 )(12 x2 )dx2 EI 1.5 EI EI 5 L 0 0 1 12 x2 = 0+ (12 x2 )dx2 EI 0 5 50 50 1 12 x2 12 x2 C = ( ) = = = +0.00125 rad , EI 2 5 3 0 EI (200)(200)
2 3 5 5 2

47

## CH = 28.87 mm 5m B C 4 kN 12 kN 6m A 16 kN 12 kN 4 -12 60 + + M , kNm C = 0.00125 rad ,

2 kN/m

60

+ 16

V , kN

48

Example 8-23 Determine the slope and the vertical displacement of point C on the frame. Take E = 200 GPa, I = 15(106) mm4.

5 kN C

3m

B 2m A

60o

49

Virtual Moment m
1 kN 3m C x1 30o B 1 kN 1.5 kNm 2m x2 A
1 CV m M = dx EI L

Displacement at C
1 kN x1 C 30o m1 = -0.5x1

Real Moment M
5 kN 5 kN x1 V1 N1 C 30o M1 = -2.5x1

3m

B 5 kN

3

2m

x2 A
2

## 1 1 = (0.5 x1 )(2.5 x1 )dx1 + (1.5)(7.5)dx2 EI 0 EI 0

3
2 0

CV

1 1.25 x1 3 1 2 = ( ) + (11.25 x2 ) 0 EI EI 3

## 33.75 33.75 = = 11.25 mm , EI (200)(15)

50

Virtual Moment m
1 kNm 3m C x1 30o B 1.5 m 1 kNm 1 kNm 2m x2 A
mM 1 C = dx EI L
2

Slope at C

Real Moment M
5 kN 5 kN x1 V1 N1 C 30o M1 = -2.5x1 7.5 kNm x2 V2 N2 M2 =--7.5 = 7.5

3 2

3m

B 5 kN

5 kN 7.5 kNm

2m

x2 A

## 1 1 = (1)(2.5 x1 )dx1 + (1)(7.5)dx2 EI 0 EI 0

2 0

1 2.5 x1 3 1 C = ( ) + (7.5 x2 ) 0 EI EI 2

## 26.25 26.25 = EI (200)(15)

= 0.00875 rad,

51

Virtual Strain Energy Caused by Axial Load, Shear, Torsion, and Temperature Axial Load
U i = n d = n (
L

d
N )dx EA

Where n = internal virtual axial load caused by the external virtual unit load N = internal axial force in the member caused by the real loads L = length of a member A = cross-sectional area of a member E = modulus of elasticity for the material

52

Bending
U i = m d = m(
L

d
M )dx EI

Where n = internal virtual moment cased by the external virtual unit load M = internal moment in the member caused by the real loads L = length of a member E = modulus of elasticity for the material I = moment of inertia of cross-sectional area, computed about the the neutral axis

53

Torsion d
U i = t d = t (
L

T )dx GJ

Where t = internal virtual torque caused by the external virtual unit load T = internal torque in the member caused by the real loads G = shear modulus of elasticity for the material J = polar moment of inertia for the cross section, J = c4/2, where c is the radius of the cross-sectional area

54

Shear d
U i = v d = v (
L

KV ) dx GA

Where v = internal virtual shear in the member, expressed as a function of x and caused by the external virtual unit load V = internal shear in the member expressed as a function of x and caused by the real loads K = form factor for the cross-sectional area: K = 1.2 for rectangular cross sections K = 10/9 for circular cross sections K 1 for wide-flange and I-beams, where A is the area of the web G = shear modulus of elasticity for the material A = cross-sectional area of a member

55

## Temperature Displacement : Axial

U i = n( T ) dx
L

d Bending Where
U i = m
L

T )dx 2c

= Differential temperatures: - between the neutral axis and room temperature, for axial - between two extreme fibers, for bending = Coefficient of thermal expansion

56

Temperature

T1 O d dx T2

T2 > T1

Tm =

T1 + T2 2 M

T1

d y c M c

T1

T = T2 - T1
T = 2c

T2 y T1

T y 2c

T2 > T1

T2

( d ) y = (

T y ) dx 2c T (d ) = ( )dx 2c

U temp = md
U temp = m(
0
L

T )dx 2c

57

Example 8-24 From the beam below Determine : (a) If P = 60 kN is applied at the mid-span C, what would be the displacement at point C. Due to shear and bending moment. (b) If the temperature at the top surface of the beam is 55 oC , the temperature at the bottom surface is 30 oC and the room temperature is 25 oC. What would be the vertical displacement of the beam at its midpoint C and the the horizontal deflection of the beam at support B. (c) if (a) and (b) are both accounted, what would be the vertical displacement of the beam at its midpoint C. Take = 12(10-6)/oC. E = 200 GPa, G = 80 GPa, I = 200(106) mm4 and A = 35 (103) mm2. The cross-section area is rectangular. C 2m 2m

58

## Part (a) : x B 2m P/2 v diagram P/2 PL/4 A 0.5 kN 0.5 1 kN x B 0.5 kN

M diagram
bending
shear

P x 2

P x 2

0.5 m diagram
L/2 0

0.5x

0.5x

x Px dx mi M i 2 Px 3 = dx = 2 ( )( ) = ( ) 2 2 EI EI EI 4 3 0 L

L/2

## PL3 60(4) 3 = = = 2 mm, 48 EI 48(200)(200)

1 P dx Kv V = i i dx = 2 K ( )( ) 2 2 GA GA 0 L

L/2

KPx = 2GA

L/2 0

= 0.026 mm,

59

0.5x

## Part (b) : Vertical displacement at C C 55 oC, 30 2m 1 kN

oC

B 260 mm x B 0.5 kN

T1=55oC
Tm =

55 + 30 = 42.5 2

T2=30oC

Troom = 25 oC ,

Temperature profile

0.5x

- Bending
m (T ) dx (1 kN )( C ) = 2c 0
L

=2

(T ) 2
2c

2 0

C = -2.31 mm ,

60

## Part (b) : Horizontal displacement at B

260 m A 2m x 1 kN A 0 n 1 diagram 1 B 0 1 kN C 55 oC 30 2m
oC

B 260 mm

T1=55oC
Tm =

55 + 30 = 42.5 2

T2=30oC

Troom = 25 oC ,

Temperature profile

- Axial
(1 kN )( BH ) = n (T )dx
L

Cv = 2.31 mm , C

BH = 0.84 mm

= (T ) (1)dx
0

## = (12 10 )(42.5 25)( x)

4 0

Deflected curve

BH = 0.84 mm ,

61

Part (c) :
P 260 m A C 55 oC 30 oC BH = 0.84 mm

## B C = -2.03 + 2.31 = 0.28 mm,

P A C C = 2.03 mm

+
C = 2.31 mm 55 oC, A 30
oC

62

Example 8-25 Determine the horizontal displacement of point C on the frame.If the temperature at top surface of member BC is 30 oC , the temperature at the bottom surface is 55 oC and the room temperature is 25 oC.Take = 12(10-6)/oC, E = 200 GPa, G = 80 GPa, I = 200(106) mm4 and A = 35(103) mm2 for both members. The cross-section area is rectangular. Include the internal strain energy due to axial load and shear. 5m B 260 mm 2 kN/m C 4 kN EI,AE,GA 6m

## 1.5 EI,1.5AE, 1.5GA A

63

5m B

x2

Virtual load
C 1 1.2 kN 1.2 B 1 + 1 C

+ 6m

Axial, n (kN)

1.2

A 6 1.2x2

## 1x1 Shear, v (kN) 1 A Moment, m (kNm)

64

x2 5m B

Real load
C 4 kN 12 B 4 4 C

## 2 kN/m x1 16 kN A 12 kN 4 16 - 2x1 B -12

12 kN 6m Axial, N (kN)

12 A 60 C -12 60 B 12x2 C

Shear, V (kN) 16

16x1 - x12

Moment, M (kNm)

65

Due to Axial
1.2 B 1 AE

x2 1 C 12 B 4 4 C

(1 kN )( CH ) =
=

6m

12 A
ni N i Li Ai Ei

77.6 kN 2 m = AE

CH =

## = 1.109(10 5 ) m = 0.0111 mm,

66

Due to Shear
B 1 -1.2 1.5GA x1 1 A GA

L

## Virtual Shear, v (kN) 5m

(1 kN )( CH ) = K (
0 6

V
GA

) dx
5

(1)(16 2 x1 ) (1.2)(12) = 1.2 dx1 + 1.2 dx2 0 1.5GA GA 0 1.2 2 x1 1.2 134.4 kN 2 m )(16 x1 ) + ( )(14.4 x2 ) = =( 1.5GA 2 0 GA GA 0
2 6 5

CH =

## 134.4 kN m = 4.8(10 5 ) m = 0.048 mm, kN (80 106 2 )(35000 10 6 m 2 ) m

67

Due to Bending
6 B 6 1.2x2 EI 1.5EI

x2 C 16x1 - x12 60

60 B

12x2 C

1x1 x1 A

(1 kN )( CH ) =
0 L

mM dx EI
6 5

## 1 1 2 = ( x1 )(16 x1 x1 ) dx1 + (1.2 x2 )(12 x2 ) dx2 EI 1.5 EI 0 0

1 16 x 1 14.4 x2 1152 kN 2 m 3 x1 = ( ) + ( ) = 1.5 EI 3 4 0 EI 3 EI 0 CH 1152 kN m 3 = = 0.0288 m = +28.8 mm, kN (200 106 2 )(200 10 6 m 4 ) m

3 1

68

Due to Temperature
B 30oC 55oC 260 mm x2 Troom = 25oC x1 A 5m A T1=30oC 260 mm Tm= 42.5oC C 6 B 6 1.2x2 C 1.2 B 1 + 1 C 1x1 m (kNm) 1.2 + n (kN)

- Bending
m ( T ) (1.2 x2 )(12 10 6 )(55 30) 2 (1 kN )( CH ) = dx = dx 2c (260 10 3 ) 0 0
L 5

## CH = 0.0173 m = 17.3 mm , T2=55oC

- Axial
(1 kN )( CH ) = n ( T ) dx = (1)(12 10 6 )(42.5 25)dx2
0 0 L 5

Temperature profile

CH = 0.00105 m = 1.05 mm ,

69

Total Displacement
( CH )Total = ( CH ) Axial + ( CH ) Shear + ( CH ) Bending + ( CH )Temp

2 kN/m

70

## Castiglianos Theorem P1 P2 Pi P1 P2 Pi + dPi

Pi P P (dPi)Pi = dU*
U dU = dPi Pi

Pi + dPi

dPi U* U

dU =

U dPi Pi

## Ui = f (P1, P2,, Pn)

U = U* dU = dU*
U dPi = ( dPi ) Pi Pi U Pi = Pi

71

## Load Displacement : Axial Load

N2 N N Pi = ( dx) = ( ) dx Pi L 2 AE Pi AE L

n Bending
M2 ( dx) Pi = Pi L 2 EI
= ( M M ) dx Pi EI

m Shear Where
KV 2 V V ( dx) = K ( ) Pi = dx Pi L 2GA Pi GA

v = external displacement of the truss, beam or frame P = external force applied to the truss, beam or frame in the direction of N = internal axial force in the member caused by both the force P and the loads on the truss, beam or frame M = internal moment in the beam or frame, expressed as a function of x and caused by both the force P and the real loads on the beam V = internal moment in the beam or frame caused by both the force P and the real loads on the beam

72

## Temperature Displacement : Axial

Pi =

N ( N ( T )dx) = ( )( T ) dx Pi L Pi

n Bending
Pi = T M T )( )dx ( M ( )dx) = ( 2c Pi 2c Pi L

Where

m = Differential temperatures: - between the neutral axis and room temperature, for axial - between two extreme fibers, for bending = Coefficient of thermal expansion

73

Slope :

Mi =

U M i

Bending

Mi

M2 M M = ( dx) = ( ) dx M i L 2 EI M i EI L

m Where

= external slope of the beam or frame Mi = external moment applied to the beam or frame in the direction of M = internal moment in the beam or frame, expressed as a function of x and caused by both the force P and the real loads on the beam

74

## Castiglianos Theorem : Truss

P1 N1 N3 N7 B
N N
2 4

P2 N9
= ( N i N i Li ) P AE

N6

N N8 5

Where:

= external joint displacement of the truss P = external force applied to the truss joint in the direction of N = internal force in a member cause by both the force P and the loads on the truss L = length of a member A = cross-sectional area of a member E = modulus of elasticity of a member

75

Example 8-26 Determine the vertical displacement of joint C of the truss shown in the figure below. The cross-sectional area of each member of the truss shown in the figure is A = 400 mm2 and E = 200 GPa.

C 3m A 4m 4m

4 kN

76

SOLUTION

5m

C 4 kN
-2 .5

4 kN A

2.5 +

3m

+
0 A 0.5P
10 .41

-0

P 33 .8

C 0.667P

-0 .83 3P

-1 .41 0

1.5 kN

## N: Virtual Load P 0.5P

A
CV = N ( N L ) P AE

10.656
N( N )L P

CV =

CV = 0.133 mm,

## 1 10.67 kN m (10.41 + 10.41 + 10.67) = kN AE (400 10 6 m 2 )(200 106 2 ) m

77

Example 8-27 Determine the vertical displacement of joint C of the steel truss shown. The cross-section area of each member is A = 400 mm2 and E = 200 GPa.

E 4m

A 4m

B 4m 4 kN

C 4m 4 kN

78

SOLUTION
5. 65 7

F
4 4

-4
0

E
4 4

F 4m D 0.333P E
8 .1 30

-0.333P

E
94 94 0. -0 3P

0A

0.333P

57 .6 -5

4m 4 kN

4m

P 71 .4 -0 0.333P

P 71 1P .4 -0 0.667P 0.667P

4m

65 ..6 -5 7 7

C P

4 kN

4 kN

4 kN F
7 .0 15 5.33

0.667P

=
5.33
0

N: Real Load
5.33

N: Virtual Load P

16 10.67 10.67

CV = N (

N L ) P AE

C
N N ( )L P

CV =

CV = 1.23 mm,

## 1 72.4 kN m [15.07 + 3(5.33) + 2(10.67) + 16 + 30.18)] = kN AE ( 400 10 6 m 2 )(200 106 2 ) m

79

Example 8-28 Determine the vertical displacement of joint C of the steel truss shown. The cross-section area of each member is A = 400 mm2 and E = 200 GPa.

wall

C 10 kN

3m A 2m B 20 kN

80

20
-2 3.6 4.03 6 1

## 1P 0.667P 3m 0.667 P D 0.667P

-1 .2 P

P C
0 0

D 31.126 C
10 4. 12 4

20

1P

60

0 B

2m

B 20 kN

A 2m

0 A
N( N )L P

N: Real Load
CV = N ( N L ) P AE

N: Virtual Load P

81

## Castiglianos Theorem : Beams and Frames Displacement w A x1 RA C C P x2 RB RA

M M ) dx P EI

B x1

M1 V1

M2 V2

w B x2 RB

= (
L

Where:

= external displacement of the point caused by the real loads acting on the beam or frame P = external force applied to the beam or frame in the direction of M = internal moment in beam or frame , expressed as a function of x and cause by both the force P and the loads on the beam or frame

82

Slope w A x1 RA M B x2 RB RA x1 w B V1 V2 x2 RB

M1

M2

= (
L

M M ) dx M ' EI

Where:

= external displacement of the point caused by the real loads acting on the beam or frame M = external moment applied to the beam or frame in the direction of M = internal moment in beam or frame , expressed as a function of x and cause by both the force P and the loads on the beam or frame

83

Example 8-29 The beam shown is subjected to a load P at its end. Determine the slope and displacement at C. EI is constant.

P B 2a a C

84

SOLUTION

Displacement at C x1
A 2a
P 2

x2
a C

M diagram

3P 2

M1 =

Px1 2

-Pa
a

M2 = -Px2

M M C = ( ) dx P EI L

1 = EI 1 = EI

2a

1 M 2 M ( 1 )( M 1 ) dx1 + ( )( M 2 )dx2 P EI P 0 0
a

2a

## x Px 1 ( 1 )( 1 ) dx1 + ( x2 )( Px2 )dx2 2 2 EI 0 0

3
2a 0

1 P x1 C = ( )( ) EI 4 3

1 x + ( P)( 2 ) EI 3

a 0

Pa 3 = , EI

85

Slope at C
A
0.5 P + M 2a

P B M a C

2a

x1

1.5 P +

M 2a

x2
Mx1 ) 2a

M1 = (0.5 Px1 + A
0.5 P + M 2a
2a

P M C

V1

M2= Px2 M V2
a

x1

x2

1 C = EI

## 1 M 2 M ( 1 )( M 1 )dx1 + ( M M )(M 2 )dx2 EI 0 0 0 0 2a a 1 x Mx 1 = ( 1 )(0.5 Px1 1 )dx1 + ( 1)( Px2 M ) dx2 EI 2a 2a EI 0 0

3
2a 0

1 P x1 C = ( )( ) EI 4 3

1 x + ( P)( 2 ) EI 2

a 0

2 Pa 3 Pa 2 7 Pa 3 = + = , 3EI 2 EI 6 EI

86

Example 8-30 Determine the slope and displacement of point B of the steel beam shown in the figure below. Take E = 200 GPa, I = 250(106) mm4.

3 kN/m A B

5m

87

SOLUTION x 3 kN/m A

Displacement at B
( B ) = (
L

P B
x 2

M M ) dx P EI
5

5m 3x
3x =M 2
2

0 1 3x 2 = ( x)( Px 2 )dx EI 0
1 3x 3 = EI 2 0
5

Px

1 3x 4 = ( EI 8

5 0

## 234.375 kN 2 m 3 = EI 234.375 kN m 3 = kN (200 106 )(250 10 6 m 4 ) m

B = 0.00469 m = 4.69mm,

88

slope at B
x 3 kN/m A M B
x 2

B = (
L

M M ) dx M ' EI
5

5m 3x
3x = M 2
2

## 0 1 3x 2 = (1)(M ' 2 )dx EI 0

1 3x 2 = EI 2 0
5

M '

M x

V Deflected curve

1 3x 3 = ( EI 6

5 0

62.5 kN 2 m 3 = EI

B = 4.69mm,

B = 0.00125 rad

## 62.5 kN m 3 = kN (200 106 )(250 10 6 m 4 ) m

B = 0.00125 rad,

89

Example 8-31 Determine the slope and displacement of point B of the steel beam shown in the figure below. Take E = 200 GPa, I = 60(106) mm4.

14 kNm A

5 kN C B 2m 2m 3m D

90

SOLUTION 14 kNm x 1 A
7 P 2 2 2m

Displacement at B
x2 x3 D
7 P + 2 2 3m

( B ) = (
L

M M ) dx P EI
2

2m

## 1 x 7x x P ( 1 )(14 1 + 1 )dx1 EI 2 2 2 0 5 2 1 x 7 x Px + ( 2 )( 2 + 2 ) dx2 EI 2 2 2 0 + (0)(0)dx3

3

V diagram

7 P ( ) 2 2

7 P ( + ) 2 2
7 x1 Px1 + 2 2 Px 7x M2 = 2 + 2 2 2

2 3 3
2 0

14 M diagram

M 1 = 14

## B = 0.00172 m = 1.72 mm,

91

SOLUTION 14 kNm x 1 A
1
M' 4 2m

Slope at B
x2 M C
M' 6 4

5 kN

x3 D

B = (
0

2m

3m

2

M M ) dx M ' EI

V diagram

## + (0)(0)dx3 (1 M' ) M' (6 ) 4 4 M' ) x1 M 1 = 14 (1 4 M' ) x2 M 2 = (6 4

0

1 2 = (3.5 x1 0.25 x1 )dx1 EI 0 1 2 + (1.5 x2 )dx2 EI 0 1 3.5 x1 0.25 x1 2 1 1.5 x2 = ( )0+ ( ) EI EI 2 3 3 2.333 2.333 = = (200)(60) EI
2 3 3
2 0

14 M diagram A

## B B = 1.72 mm C B = 0.000194 rad

B = 0.000194 rad,

92

Example 8-32 Determine the displacement of point B of the steel beam shown in the figure below. Take E = 200 GPa, I = 200(106) mm4.

10 kNm A I 4m B

Hinge

20 kN 2I C 3m

3m

93

x2

20 kN

x3 C 3m

B 3m 2.5 kN 0 P

2I

## 20 kN 75 + 6P 22.5 + P M3 = (22.5 + P)x3 - (75 + 6P) 75 + 6P V3 x3 22.5 + P

M2 = -(2.5 + P)x1

94

x1 10 kNm A I 4m

x2

20 kN

x3 C 3m

B 3m

2I

10 kNm x1 2.5 kN

M1 = 10 - 2.5x1 V1 P x2 2.5 kN V2

## M3 = (22.5 + P)x3 - (75 + 6P) 75 + 6P V3 x3 22.5 + P

M2 = -(2.5 + P)x2 0 0 4 3 M M 1 1 B = ( ) dx = (0)(10 2.5x1 )dx1 + 2EI ( x2 )(2.5x2 x2 P)dx2 P EI EI 0 L 0 0 0 3 1 + ( x3 6)(22.5 x3 + x3 P 75 6 P)dx3 2 EI 0
1 1 2 2 = 0+ (22.5 x3 210 x3 + 450)dx3 (2.5 x2 )dx2 + 2 EI 2 EI 0 0
B =
3 3

## 11.25 303.75 315 315 + = = EI EI EI (200)(200)

= 7.875 mm,

95

Example 8-33 Determine the displacement of hinge B and the slope to the right of hinge B of the steel beam shown in the figure below. Take E = 200 GPa, I = 200(106) mm4.

30 kNm A

5 kN/m EI 3m

20 kN Hinge C B 4m 2EI

96

## SOLUTION 30 kNm A EI 3m 15 kN 30 kNm A 2.5 kN 5 kN/m

20 kN P C B M 4m 2EI

97

## 20 kN x1 30 kNm A EI 2.5 kN 3m 30 kNm A 2.5 kN 5x1 M1 x1 V1

5x = 30 1 2.5 x1 2
2

5 kN/m

x2 4(P + 17.5) + M C

B M 4m

2EI

P + 17.5

## The displacement of hinge B

B = 1 M M( )dx EI P L 20 20 0 4 1 = 0+ ( Px2 + 17.5 x2 4 P 70 M ' )( x2 4)dx2 2 EI 0
=

98

## 20 kN x1 30 kNm A EI 2.5 kN 3m 30 kNm A 2.5 kN 5x1 M1 x1 V1

5x = 30 1 2.5 x1 2
2

5 kN/m

x2 4(P + 17.5) + M C

B M 4m

2EI

P + 17.5

## The slope to the right of hinge B

B = 1 M M( )dx EI M ' L 20 20 0 4 1 = 0+ ( Px2 + 17.5 x2 4 P 70 M ' )(1)dx2 2 EI 0
=

## 300 300 = = 3.75 10 3 rad 2 EI 2(200)(200)

99

Example 8-34 Determine the slope and the horizontal displacement of point C on the frame. Take E = 200 GPa, I = 200(106) mm4

5m B EI 2 kN/m 1.5 EI A 6m C 4 kN

100

2 kN/m

SOLUTION 5m B EI 1.5 EI A 12 + P
36 6 P + 5 5

x2

Horizontal Displacement at C
C P
36 6 P + 5 5

M2 = (

36 6 P ) x2 + 5 5 C P

36 6 P + 5 5

V2

x2

36 6 P + 5 5

12 kN x1

x1

V1 12 + P

CH

3 4 3

CH

## 1 16 x1 x1 6 1 14.4 x2 5 552 600 1152 = ) + + = ( ( ) = = + 28.8 mm , 0 EI EI (200)(200) 1.5EI 3 4 0 EI 3

101

x2 5m 2 kN/m B C EI 1.5 EI A 16
M' 5 M' 12 5

Slope C
M 4 kN M2= M '+ (12 V2 x2

M' ) x2 5 M

4N
12 M' 5

M1 = 16 x1 x1 6m 2x1 A x1 V1 16
M' 5

12 kN x1

12

12
6

## 0 0 0 5 L x M ' x2 1 1 2 M i M i = )dx2 (0)(16 x1 x1 ) dx1 + (1 2 )( M '+12 x2 C = ( ) dx 5 EI 0 5 1.5 EI 0 M ' EI 0

1 12 x2 = 0+ )dx2 (12 x2 EI 5 0
5 2

1 12 x2 12 x2 5 50 50 C = = ( ) = EI 2 5 3 0 EI (200)(200)

= + 0.00125 rad ,

102