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EARTHING OF POWER SYSTEM

A report on earthing of power system including 1.Purpose of Earthing 2.Types of Earthing 3.Methods of Earthing & Types of faults 4.Transmission & Distribution line and substation Earthing. 5. Domestic House Earthing. 6. Concept of Touch and Step Potential

TAPABRATA CHAKRABORTY ROLL NO: 12 DEPT:EE STCET 2010-2011 PROJECT HEAD: DR.PRASANTA KUMAR PRADHAN

INDEX

A report on earthing of power system including-

1. Purpose of Earthing

2. Types of Earthing

3. Methods of Earthing & Types of faults

4. Transmission & Distribution line and substation Earthing.

5. Domestic House Earthing.

6. Concept of Touch and Step Potential

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EARTHING OF POWER SYSTEM Introduction: What is earthing?


Earthing (Grounding)is a process of connecting the non-current carrying parts of the electrical equipment (or the neutral point of the supply system) to the general mass of earth in such a way that for all normal and adverse conditions immediate discharge of electrical energy takes place without danger. Purpose of Earthing: As per I.E rule- No potential points of any electrical system must be at earth potential or zero potential. Starting from generation, transmission and distribution the rule shall be followed for the safety of the equipment and personnels handling the equipment by making earth resistance zero. Objectives and conditions of Earthing (Grounding): 1. Providing a low impedance to ground for equipment protection ensuring safety of the personnel from electric shock from non-current carrying parts even during failure of insulation. 2. Withstand and provide path for voltage surges and surge currents due to lightning. 3. Providing corrosion allowance or corrosion to various soil chemicals to ensure continuous performance and protection. 4. For providing ground connection for the system neutral. 5. For providing a means of positively discharging and de-energizing feeders before proceeding with maintenance. Advantages of Neutral Grounding or Earthing: 1. Arcing grounds are reduced or eliminated. The arcing ground current flowing through the neutral to ground connections is made almost equal and opposite to the capacitive current from healthy phases to ground. So,

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IR+IY+IB=0. The system is not subjected to over voltage surge due to arcing grounds. 2. The system neutral is not shifted i.e. stable neutral point. 3. The voltages of healthy phases with respect to ground remain at normal value. They do not increase times the normal value unlike isolated neutral system. The induced static charges do not cause any disturbance as they are conducted to ground immediately. Earth fault relays can be operated by utilization of the earth fault relay. Life of equipments, machines, installation is improved due to limitation of voltages. Providing greater safety to personnel and equipment.

4. 5. 6. 7.

TYPES OF EARTHING: A) Effectively Earthed System. B) Non-Effectively Earthed System. C) Isolated System or Non-Earthed System. For the purpose of personnel, equipment and system protection earthing system three types of earthing are: 1. Effectively Earthed System: A system is said to be effective earthed if under any fault condition the line to earth voltage on the healthy phase will phase will not exceed 80% of the system line to line voltage. The over-voltages are likely to appear on any system under fault conditions can be calculated by the method of symmetrical components. It has been determined that if the ratio RO/X1 is less than 1 and XO/X1 is less than 3,the voltage from line to earth on healthy phases will not, in practice, exceed 80% of the line to line voltage. RO is the zero sequence resistance and XO is the zero sequence reactance and X1 is the positive sequence reactance of the system up to the point of installation of lightning arresters.

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In a general system, in which all the transformers have star connected winding with all the neutrals solidly earthed (i.e. multiple earthed system), is regarded as effectively earthed. If only a limited number of transformers are so earthed, the system will not necessarily be effectively earthed. The system where the values of the short circuit current for a system are available and the earth fault currents are found to be about 60% (or more) of the 3-phase fault currents the system may be considered as effectively earthed. In a 132KV effectively earthed system for which the system highest voltage is taken as 145KV, the voltage rating of the lightning arrester should be 145*(0.8)=116KV. This type of earthed system is connecting the neutral point to earth without any intentional resistance or reactance and the coefficient of earthing <80%. A system in which the value of the phase to earth voltage of the healthy phases during an earth fault, never exceed 1.39 times the pre-fault phase to ground voltage is effectively earthed. The relation between maximum voltage and pre-fault voltage is called the earth-fault factor. In practice most of the transformers neutral points are solidly earthed or earthed via very small impedances in an effectively earthed system.

2. Non-Effectively Earthed System: A system is said to be non-effectively earthed if the line to earth voltage on healthy phase(s) in case of an earth fault, is more than 80% but does not exceed 100% of the line to line voltage. Systems with a limited number of solidly earthed neutral or those earthed throw resistors or reactors of low ohmic value or an arc suppression coil are designated as non-effectively earthed system.

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Earthing system where an intentional resistance or reactance is connected between neutral point and earth. The coefficient of earthing is >80%. 3. Isolate System or Non-Earthed System: In such systems the neutral is not grounded and line to earth voltage of a healthy phase may exceed 100% line to line voltage. In the event of a ground fault on one phase. However, unless there are unusual conditions (i.e. heavy charging currents the ratio XO/X1 being negative and numerically less than 40) the voltage will not exceed 110% of the system voltage. For both systems (2) & (3) it is usual practice to apply lightning arresters rated at 100% of system highest voltage and accept the possibility of failure of lightning arrester. In 132KV non-effective earthed or isolated neutral system with the system highest voltage 110% of the nominal voltage, the voltage rating of the lightning arrester will be 145KV. Here the neutral points are not earthed. The system is called Isolated Neutral System.

Different Methods of Earthing: The neutral grounding method of power systems can be classified as follows: a) Effective neutral grounded system: Solidly grounded system b) Non-effective neutral grounded system: Ungrounded System or Isolated System. Resistance Grounding. Reactance Grounding. Resonant Grounding (Arc suppression coil or Peterson Coil).

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i.

Solidly earthed systems

In a solidly earthed system a number of the transformer neutrals are directly earthed. Figure 1 shows an earth fault in a system with a solidly earthed neutral.

Figure 1, Earth fault in a network with a solidly earthed neutral The single-phase earth fault current in a solidly earthed system may exceed the three phase fault current. The magnitude of the current depends on the fault location and the fault resistance. So to limit the fault current system is used on networks where normal impedance is quite large. One way to reduce the earth fault current is to leave some of the transformer neutrals unearthed. The main advantage of solidly earthed systems is low over voltages, which makes the earthing design common at high voltage levels (HV). Advantages of Solidly Earthed System: i. Since fault current eliminates the effect of capacitive currents, chances of occurrence of arcing grounds and over-voltages are eliminated up to great extent. ii. Ground fault relaying is simple and satisfactory. iii. Since voltage of healthy phases does not exceed 80% of the line to line voltage and is much less to other types of earthing. So an 84% lightning arrester can be used instead of 105%. On system 115KV and above additional savings are possible with transformers having less costly grade of insulation towards the neutral.
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Disadvantages: i. The ground fault current is large. Its maximum value sometimes exceeds even the 3-phase short-circuit current. ii. Even transient ground faults may lead to short-circuit. iii. Because of large ground fault current, the interference due to electromagnetic induction with neighboring communication circuits may be high.

ii.

Isolated neutral systems

A system where all transformer neutrals are unearthed is called an isolated neutral system. The only intentional connection between an unearthed neutral and earth is via high impedance equipment for protection or measurement purposes such as surge arresters or voltage transformers. In a power system there are however always capacitive connections between the phases and earth. The strength of the capacitive connection depends on type and length of the power system circuit. When an earth fault occurs in the system, the capacitance to earth of the faulty phase is bypassed. Figure 2 shows an earth fault in a system with one unearthed neutral.

Figure 2, Earth fault in a network with an unearthed neutral

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Figure 3, Figure 3 shows the Thvenin equivalent of the network with an unearthed neutral. In the case of a solid earth fault, the resistive connections between phase and earth are small enough to be neglected. The earth fault current, as well as the neutral point displacement voltage, depends only on the phase to earth voltage and capacitances. Equation 1 gives the, therefore solely capacitive, earth fault current. Equation 1 The maximum earth fault current of an isolated system is small providing the systems capacitive connection to earth is weak. The presence of a fault resistance means a resistive part is added to the systems equivalent impedance. The reduced fault current will therefore consist of a resistive and a capacitive part. Equation 2 gives the earth fault current in case of a non-solid earth fault.

Equation 2

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The fault current gives rise to a zero sequence voltage across the capacitances. This voltage is called the neutral point displacement voltage. In case of a solid earth fault this voltage equals the pre-fault phase to earth voltage of the faulty phase. If the earth fault is non-solid, part of the phase to earth voltage will be a across the fault resistance. Equation 3 gives the neutral point displacement voltage.

Equation 3 Figure 4 shows the pre-fault phase voltages, the neutral point displacement voltage and the voltage of the healthy phases during a phase-to-earth fault in an isolated system. The voltage between the neutral point and the healthy phases will remain unchanged during the fault. A neutral point displacement voltage therefore remands a change in the healthy phase to earth voltage level. The maximum voltage of the healthy phases is 105 % of the pre-fault phase-to-phase voltage.

Figure 4, Pre-fault voltages UA, UB, UC, neutral point displacement voltage U0 and voltage of healthy phases UB, UC during a phase-to-earth fault in an isolated system.

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In isolated neutral systems some phase-to-earth faults are cleared without involving any relay operation. This is normally a good thing but can, in case of intermittent faults and neutral point displacement voltage, lead to over voltages and additional faults in the power system. The neutral point displacement voltage and the earth fault current controls the sensitivity of the relay protection. If in an isolated system the capacitive connection to earth is too weak, the over current relays will not be able to detect earth faults of high enough fault resistances. The reason for the difficulties is that the difference between the current measured during faults with high resistances and currents due to unsymmetrical conditions at normal operation is small. Unsymmetrical conditions at normal operation result in an unsymmetrical current (zero sequence current) much like high fault impedance, single-phase earth fault current. The over current relays must be programmed not to operate at this level. Advantages of isolated systems: Small earth fault currents, providing limited capacitive connection to earth. Large share of the faults are self-clearing.

Disadvantages: Strong capacitive connection to earth generates extensive earth fault currents. Too weak capacitive connection to earth will result in difficulties detecting the earth faults. Risk of over voltages. Because of the risk of over voltages the use of isolated neutral is restricted to low and medium voltage.

iii.

Resistance earthed systems

To improve the earth fault detection in a power system a resistance can be connected between a transformer neutral point and the station earthing system. A system where at least one of the neutral points is connected to earth via a resistor is called a resistance earthed system. The purpose of the neutral point resistor is to increase the resistive part of the earth fault current and hence improve the earth fault detection. Figure 6 shows an earth fault in a system with a resistance earthed neutral.

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Figure 7 shows the corresponding Thvenin equivalent.

Figure 6, Earth fault in a network with a resistance earthed neutral

Figure 7, Thvenin equivalent of a network with a resistance earthed neutral In a system with very weak capacitive connection to earth the reactance of the earth capacitance will be large compared to the neutral point resistance. The neutral point resistance, instead as for the isolated systems the capacitive connection to earth, will therefore determine the maximum earth fault current. Equation 4 gives the earth fault current in case of a solid earth fault.

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The presence of a fault resistance reduces the earth fault current. Equation 5 gives the earth fault current in case of a non-solid earth fault, the phase to earth capacitance neglected.

Equation 5 As in the case of a fault in an isolated system, the fault current gives rise to a neutral displacement voltage across the systems impedance to earth. In the case of a resistance earthed system the impedance to earth is the neutral point resistance in parallel to the phase to earth capacitances. Equation 6 gives the neutral displacement voltage which in case of a solid earth fault equals the pre-fault phase to earth voltage of the faulted phase.

Equation 6

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Advantages of high resistance earthed systems: Enables high impedance fault detection in systems with weak capacitive connection to earth. Some phase-to-earth faults is self-cleared. The neutral point resistance can be chosen to limit the possible over-voltage transients to 2.5 times the fundamental frequency maximum voltage. Disadvantages: Generates extensive earth fault currents when combined with strong or moderate capacitive connection to earth. Cost involved.

iv.

Reactance Earthing system

Reactance grounding means grounding through impedance which is highly inductive. For circuits between 3.3KV and 33KV the earth fault currents are likely to be excessive, if solid grounding is employed. Either resistance or reactance is connected in neutral to ground connection. There is no rule as regards which grounding should be used- resistance or reactance.

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If resistance is used fault current is limited and system reactance provides phase opposition between capacitive ground current and fault current. The reactance grounding provides additional reactance which provides a lagging current that nullifies capacitive ground current. As the value of reactance X is connected in neutral to ground connection is increased the ground fault current decreases. If X is very small the system behaves as an effective grounding system. If X is very large the system behaves like an isolated system. The transient voltage resulting from arcing ground increases as the reactance is increased. Similarly during switching operations higher values of reactance are expected to cause higher values of surge voltages. Advantages: 1. The voltages across healthy phases are between 80 to 100% of the line to line voltage. 2. Arcing grounds are provided. 3. Reactance grounding is very useful for grounding the neutrals of systems where high charging currents are involved. Disadvantages: 1. It is not applicable for low capacitive systems i.e. where ground capacitances are weak.

Resonant earthed system


To limit the reactive part of the earth fault current in a power system a neutral point reactor can be connected between the transformer neutral and the station earthing system. A system in which at least one of the neutrals is connected to earth via an inductive reactance, a Petersen coil, and the current generated by the reactance during an earth fault approximately compensates the capacitive component of the single phase earth fault current, is called a resonant earthed system. The system is hardly ever exactly tuned, i.e. the reactive current does not exactly equal the capacitive earth fault current of the system. A system in which the inductive current is slightly larger than the capacitive earth fault current is over compensated. A system in which the induced earth fault current is slightly smaller than the capacitive earth fault current is under compensated.
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Figure 9 shows the earth fault current phasors of a slightly over-compensated system.

Figure 9, Earth fault current phasors of a slightly over compensated power system The neutral point reactor is often combined with a neutral point resistor. In a resonant earthed system the resulting reactive part of the earth fault current is too small for the relay protection to measure. By using a neutral point resistance a measurable resistive earth fault current is created as explained in the section about resistance earthed systems. In addition to this, there will always be active losses in the neutral point generator, which contributes to the active part of the earth fault current. Typical examples of power systems with strong capacitive connection to earth, suitable for resonant earthing, are systems consisting of an extensive amount of cables. If the high capacitive earth fault current of such systems is not compensated, the risk of dangerously high potential rise of exposed parts of the power system is evident. Figure 10 shows an earth fault in a system with a resonance earthed neutral.

Figure 10, Earth fault in a network with a resonant earthed neutral


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Figure 11shows the corresponding Thvenin equivalent.

Figure 11, Thvenin equivalent of a network with a resonant earthed neutral The earth fault current is made up of the capacitive current due to the phase to earth capacitances of the system, the inductive current generated in the neutral point reactor, the resistive current due to losses in the reactor parallel to the neutral point resistor. Equation 7 gives the single-phase earth fault current in case of a solid earth fault.

Equation 7 In case of complete compensation the solid earth fault current, given by Equation 8, is solely resistive.

Equation 8 The presence of fault resistance reduces the earth fault current as given by Equation 9.

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Equation 9 In case of complete compensation the earth fault current is solely resistant as given by Equation 10.

Equation 10 Resonance earthing makes it possible to more or less eliminate the reactive earth fault current. Equation 11 gives the neutral displacement voltage, the voltage across the systems impedance to earth. The maximum, solid earth fault, neutral point displacement voltage of a resonant earthed system equals the pre-fault phase to earth voltage. In case of high fault resistance the neutral point displacement voltage is higher than for corresponding fault resistance in an isolated system.

Equation 11 Arc Suppression Coil also known as Peterson Coil or Ground fault neutralizer: It is an iron tapped reactor connected in neutral to ground connection. The reactor is provided with tappings so that it can be tuned to system capacitance.
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The function of the arc suppression coil is to make the arcing ground faults self extinguishing and in case of sustained faults, to restrict the ground fault current to a lower value so that system can be kept in operation with one line grounded.

The combination of neutral reactance L and line capacitance C acts as a parallel resonant circuit. If VP is the line to neutral voltage then, ICR=ICY=3.VPCO ; Capacitive current is given by, IC=ICR+ICY=3.3.VPCO; Now for balanced condition we have, IL=IC or, (VPL) =3VPCO or, L= (132CO)

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Advantages of resonant earthed systems: Small reactive earth fault current independent of the phase to earth capacitance of the system. Enables high impedance fault detection. Disadvantages: Risk of extensive active earth fault losses. Complicated relay protection. High costs associated. TYPES OF FAULT: Primarily two types of faults are prevalent in power system. They are as follows, A. Symmetrical Faults. B. Unsymmetrical Faults. A symmetric, symmetrical fault is a balanced fault which affects each of the three-phases equally. In transmission line faults, roughly 5% are symmetric. This is in contrast to an asymmetric fault, where the three phases are not affected equally. In practice, most faults in power systems are unbalanced. With this in mind, symmetric faults can be viewed as somewhat of an abstraction; however, as asymmetric faults are difficult to analyze, analysis of asymmetric faults is built up from a thorough understanding of symmetric faults. For symmetrical L-L-L faults it is customary to perform short circuit analysis with the following assumptions: i. Load currents are considered to be negligible as compared to fault currents. ii. Shunt capacitances of transmission lines are neglected. iii. Shunt elements in transformers which accounts the magnetizing current are neglected. iv. The emfs of all the generators are assumed to be equal to 1<00 per unit. v. System resistances are neglected and only inductive reactance is taken into account. In unsymmetrical fault, according to Fortesque theorem- Any unbalanced 3-phase system of currents, voltages or any other sinusoidal quantities can be resolved into 3 balanced systems of phasors which are called symmetrical components of unbalanced system.
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There are three symmetrical components in an unbalanced system: A. Positive Sequence Network. B. Negative Sequence Network. C. Zero Sequence Network. Generally unsymmetrical faults occurring in power system which are common and prevalent are: 1. Single Line to Ground Fault with earthed Neutral. (L-G) 2. Line to Line fault. (L-L) 3. Double Line to Ground Fault with Neutral earthed. (L-L-G) Single Line to Ground Fault: (L-G) Let a 1LG fault has occurred at node k of a network. The faulted segment is then as shown in Fig. 8.2 where it is assumed that phase-a has touched the ground through an impedance Zf . Since the system is unloaded before the occurrence of the fault we have,

Also the phase-a voltage at the fault point is given by,

] [

. -------Equation 1 This implies that the three sequence currents are in series for the 1LG fault. Let us denote the zero, positive and negative sequence Thevenin impedance at the faulted point as Z0, Z1, Z2 respectively. Also since the Thevenin voltage at the faulted phase is Vf we get three sequence circuits and accordingly equations are;

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--------Equation 2, 3, 4. From the above equations we can write; --------Equation 5 Again since,

From above equation and equation 5 we get, . Where Z0, Z1, Z2 are represented as Zkk1, Zkk2, Zkk3. The Thevenin equivalent of the sequence network is shown below;

The occurrence of single line to ground fault is 70% and most prevalent phenomenon in overhead transmission line. Line to Line Fault: (L-L) The faulted segment for an L-L fault is shown in Fig. below, where it is assumed that the fault has occurred at node k of the network. In this the phases b and c got shorted through the impedance Zf . Since the system is unloaded before the occurrence of the fault we have,

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Also since phases b and c are shorted we have,

Therefore from above two relations we have,

Hence we can summarize from above, Therefore no zero sequence current is injected into the network at bus k and hence the zero sequence remains a dead network for an L-L fault. The positive and negative sequence currents are negative of each other. Now from Fig. above we get the following expression for the voltage at the faulted point, --Equation 1 Again we have,

Equation 2

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Also since we have, [

and ] , so we can write, , and so we get ; --Equation 3

and

From the above three equations we have, Equation 4 Equations 1 and 4 represents that the positive and negative sequence networks are in parallel. The sequence network is then as shown in Fig. below. From the network we have,

Double Line to Ground Fault: (L-L-G) The faulted segment for a 2-LG fault is shown in Fig. below where it is assumed that the fault has occurred at node k of the network. In this, the phases b and c got shorted through the impedance Zf to the ground. Since the system is unloaded before the occurrence of the fault we have the same condition as for the phase-a current in the network diagram. Therefore, ( ) ( )

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Also voltages of phases b and c are given by, . Equation 1. Hence we have accordingly, [ ] [ ] [ ]

From the equations derived from the above matrix we have, --Equation 2

Substituting Equations 1 & 2 in the above equation and rearranging we get, . Also since we have And The Thevenin equivalent circuit is given below and we may derive the following relations from it. ( ) ;

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Now the zero and negative sequence currents are obtained by using current divider principle,

And,

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