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Biological Etymology " Bio Ety "

Ayres, Donald M., Bioscientific Terminology: Words from Latin and Greek Stems, University of Arizona Press, 1972. Skinner, Henry Alan, The Origin of Medical Terms, Second Ed., Williams and Wilkins Co, 1961 The American Heritage Dictionary, 4th Ed., Houghton Mifflin Company, 2001 Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 28th Ed., W.B. Saunders Co, 1994

Prefix Root Suffix


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Meaning

Example Words

Numbers
bi-, bindi centidecahaplmonoctapentquadseptasextetratriuntwo, twice two hundred ten single one, single eight five four seven six four three one binocular, biceps, binary, bicycle, bivalve diploid, disaccharide century, centimeter, Centigrade decade, decathalon, decagram, decagon haploid, haplopia, haplosis monarch, monopoly, monogamy, monosaccharide octopus, octagon, octipara pentagon, pentaradial quadruplets, quadrangle, quadriplegic septuplets, septipara sextuplets, sextipara tetracycline, tetrachloride, tetrad triangle, trigeminal, triple, tri-hybrid cross unicellular, unique, uniform, unanimous

Size
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isomacromajormegamicrominor-

equal to, the same as

large large large small small

isometric, isotonic, isotope, macro, macronucleus, macroscopic, macromegaly major, majority, Pectoralis Major "megasize", megaphone, megaton microphone, microscope, microscopic minor, minority, Pectoralis Minor

Grouping / Order
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

ambiamphiantearchmetamultiomnipolypostpro-, prot-

both before beginning middle, between many all many after first

ambidextrous, ambivalent, ambilateral anterior archeology, archetype metacarpal, metaphase multiple, multiply, multitude, multicellular omnipotent, omnivore, omnivorous polygamy, polygon, polyp, polypod, polysaccharide posterior, post mortem, post partum, post prandial prophase, prototype, proton

both, on both sides amphibian, amphicrania, Amphibia

Commonly Used Prefixes in English and Science


11 12 13

antidisinter-

against apart, away between

anti-abortion, antibiotic, antibody,antidepressant dislocate, dismember, dispense, dissect, dissolve intercostal, international, Internet, interrupt, interbreed

14 15 16 17 18 19

preresemisubsupertrans-

before

again, back
half, partly under above, over across, over

prediction reaction, recognition, remission, recurrence semicolon, semicircular, semi-final, semi-permeable


subject, subconscious, subcutaneous,submarine, substance

super, Superman, superior, supercede, supernatural


transformation, transfusion, transcontinental, transportation

Directions and Prepositions


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

a-, anabadcentrcircumcondiaectoenendoepiexoextrahyperhypointralatermespar-, paraperperisyn-

without, not away, apart to, toward center around with


across, throughout

anaerobic, acellular, asexual, amoral, anemia, anesthesia abduct, abdicate, abductor, ablation, absolute adduct, adductor, adduction, adhere, adhesive, centrifugal, centripetal, centromere circumcision, circumference, circulatory
confluence, connective, conjunctiva, conceive, conjoined twins

outside in, within within upon outside outside above under, lower within, inside side middle beside through about, around along with

diagnosis, diagonal, diameter, diaphragm, diaphysis ectoderm, ectopic pregnancy, ectoplasm encapsulate, encode, encrypt, endangered, endemic endocardium, endoderm, endoskeleton, endometrium epidermis, epididymus, epigastric, epiglottis, epiphysis exoskeleton, exobiology, exocrine, exogenous, exotic
extract, extracurricular, extradite, extrasensory, extracellular

"hyper", hyperactive, hypertension, hyperventilate hypodermic, hypothermia, hypoallergenic, hypoglycemia intramural, intravenous, intrinsic, intraocular, intrauterine "lats", lateral, bilateral, unilateral, quadrilateral, collateral mesoderm, mesomorph, mesothelium, mesonephros paracentesis, paralysis, paranoia, parasite, parathyroid perambulate, perennial, percolator, perforate pericardium, perineum, periosteum, peripheral, peristalsis photosynthesis, syndrome, synovial, synovitis

Colors
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

melancyanchromochrysochlorerythroglaucalbleuc-, leuklute-

melanin, Melanoma, melancholy Cyan, cyanotic, cyanide, cyanophyll chromosome, chromatin, monochromatic chrysoderma, chrysophyta, Chrysophase, chrysotherapy chlorophyll, chloroma, chlorosis, chlorine erythema, erythroblast, erythrocyte silvery, grey-green Glaucoma, glaucous, glaucophane, aglaucopsia white linea alba, albino, albumen, album, albicant white leucocyte, leucocytosis, Leukemia, leucoplakia, leucopenia yellow leutein, corpus luteum, luteolysis, luteotropic

black blue color golden-yellow green red

To and Verbs "to."


11 12 13 14 15 16 17

phenglutincleavflu-, fluxpeptophagotroph-

to show phenotype, phenocopy, phenozygous, phenomenon to glue or paste gluten, glutinous, agglutination to split, to divide cleave, cleaver, cleavage, cleft palate, cleft chin to flow fluorescent, fleuncy, reflux, confluent to digest PeptoBismol, peptogenic, peptide to eat esophageal, esophagus, phagocyte, phagocytosis to feed, nourishing trophoblast, trophocyte, autotroph, heterotrophameb

18 19 20

sta-, statthesis vor-

to stand stable, status, stasis, homeostasis, stationary putting together thesis, antithesis, synthesis, photosynthesis, synthetic to eat voracious, carnivore, herbivore

Animal, Vegetable, Mineral, Elements, Compounds.


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

aeralimentanthaquacarbocarnichemocrustaentomherbherphydrichthylaclepidornithooxyphyllphytorhizozoo-

air, gas food flower water coal flesh chemistry shell insect plant snake water fish milk scale bird oxygen leaf plant root animal

aerobe, aerobic, aerate, aliment, alimentary, alimentary canal, hyperalimentation anther, anthology, chrysanthemum Aquafina, Aqueduct of Sylvius, aquarium, aquatic carbon-based life forms, carbonated, carbon monoxide carnage, carnal, carnivore chemistry, chemosynthesis, chemotherapy crust, crustacean entomology, entomological, entomologist (Grissom, CSI) herb, herbal, herbal medicine, herbaceous, herbivore herpetology, herpetologist, herpetophobia
fire hydrant, hydraulic, hydrogen, hydro-electric, hydrate

ichthyodont, ichthyologist, ichthyosis lactate, lactation, lactiferous ducts, lactoflavin, lactose leper, Lepidoptera, lepidopterist, Leprosy, ornithology, ornithological, ornithologist oxide, oxidize, Oxyclean, oxygen, oxygenate chlorophyll, phyllotaxy, autophyllogeny, phylloclade autophyte, dermatophyte, neophyte, phytoplankton rhizome, rhizosphere, rhizanthus, mycorrhizae Zoo, zooblast, zoodynamic, zoology, zoonomy, zoophile

Reproduction
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

biofetgamygengenesis gestgymngynheteromensmitomutaneooooviphylsperm utervaginzyg-

life biology, biography, amphibious, biopsy, symbiosis offspring fetus, fetal marriage monogamy, polygamy to be produced genital, generic, progenitor, congenial, degenerate origin genesis, morphogenesis, spermatogenesis to carry, to bear gestational, suggest, gesture, digest, ingest, Progestin naked gymnasium, gymnastics, gymnosperm gynecology, gynecological, gynecologist, gynecommastia female other, different heterotroph, heterosexual a lunar month premenstrual syndrome (PMS), menstrual, menstruation, menopause thread mitosis, mitochondria change mutagen, mutant, mutate, mutation, transmutation young neon, neonatal, neoclassic, neolithic, neophyte egg oocyte, oophoron, oophorectomy, oogenesis egg ovary, ovum, Ovarian Cancer, oviduct, synovial fluid race, tribe phylum, phyla, phylogeny seed, semen gymnosperm, spermatozoa, spermicide, spermatocyte womb uterus, uterine, intrauterine, uterocervical sheath vagina, vaginal, vaginal birth, vaginal canal, vaginitis to yolk together, to join zygote, heterozygous, zygosis, zygomatic arch

Miscellaneous
1 2 3

adhesioamebaauto-

cling change self

adhesion, adhesive, adhesiveness amebic, amebicide, amebocyte, ameboid, amebula autotroph, autodermic, autoimmune, automatic

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

blastbud carcincrab, cancer chymejuice cide kill clasbroken down from, remove dedorsback dysbad euTRUE, good filthread hemihalf hiberwinter homosame itis inflammation kinesimovement logo word, reason lysis decompose malbad meatpassage morphform, shape nemthread nomy law notoback ology study of optic of / for sight osis process pathodisease appearance, stage phase photolight plankton wanderer platy flat poro channel pseudoFALSE pterowing rect straight sapienwise septum partition som-, somat-,body spir breath tele-, teloend thermoheat topplace toxpoison tympandrum zyme leaven, ferment

blastoderm, osteoblast, blastula carcinogen, carcinogenic, carcinoid, carcinoma chyme, chymification, chymosin, chymotrypsin feticide, homicide, infanticide, suicide, spermacide clastic, osteoclast, iconoclast, arthroclasia, cardioclasia deactivate, debride, decalcify, decapitate, decay dorsal, dorsiflexion, dorsolumbar, dorsolateral dysarthria, dysentery, dysgraphia, dyspepsia eubacteria, eukaryote, eugenics, euphoric filament, filar, filaria, filum hemisphere, hemiplegic, hemithorax, hemizygous hibernate, hibernation, hibernoma homozygous, homocentric, homocyclic, homogenize dermatitis, conjunctivitis, gastritis, neuritis kinesiology, kinetic, kinesthesia, kinesthetic analogy, biology, chronology, etymology hemolysis, hepatolysis, hemodialysis, autolysis malodorous, malady, malnourished, malaria meatus, meatal, meatoscope metamorphosis, morph, morphogenesis, morphology nematode, nemaline, nematoblast, nematoid, nemic astronomy, physionomy, taxonomy, zoonomy notochord, notogenesis, notomelus biology, zoology, cytology, ecology optic, optic nerve, optical, optical illusion, opticonasion calcinosis, cholecystosis, halitosis, neurosis pathogen, pathology, pathological, pathosis phase, interphase, metaphase, telephase photography, photosynthesis, photon phytoplankton, zooplankton platyhelminthes pore, Porifera, porous pseudonym, pseudopod, pseudoscience, pseudotumor pterion, pterygoid, pterodactyl direct, erect, erectile, correct, rectum, rectal, rectified Homo sapiens, sapient, sapience
septation, septum, nasal septum, interventricular septum

somatic, pycho-somatic, somatopathic, somatotropin respiration, respiratory, expire, expiration, inspiration teleneuron, telephase, telophase, telocentric, telomere thermometer, thermal, thermostat, hypothermia topical, isotope, topography, toponym "tox screen", toxic, toxin, toxemia, toxicology, toxicity
tympanic, tympanic membrane (ear drum), tympanoplasty

enzyme, zymogenic, zymosterol, zymurgy

Anatomy
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

alveolarthrbronchcapillcardicarpcephal-

a small cavity or space

joint air tube hair heart wrist head, brain

alveola, alveoli, alveolar, alveolus Arthritis, osteoarthritis, arthroplasty bronchus, bronchiole, bronchitis capillary (a blood vessel as thin as a hair) cardiac, cardiologist, cardio-pulmonary carpal, Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, metacarpal cephalic, cephalus, Encephalitis

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

cerebrbrain chondrcartilage circulcircle, around cochleaspiral snail shell cytcell, a hollow dermskin digitfinger, toe gastrstomach gloss-, glot(t)- tongue hem-, hemat-,blood hepaliver hist-, histiweb, woven, tissue mammbreast my-, myos- muscle nephrkidney oss-, ost(e)- bone ped-, podfoot pulmonlung renkidney sin(u)cavity, curve stommouth, opening thoracchest, thorax vasvessel

cerebrum, cerebellum, cerebrospinal fluid chondritis, costochondral, chondroblast, chondrichthyes Circle of Willis, circular, circulate, circulation cochlea (a bone in the Inner Ear) cytoplasm, cytology, erythrocyte, leukocyte taxidermist, epidermis, dermatologist digitalis, digit, digital (counting or feeling with fingers) gastric juice, gastrologist, Gastritis, gastroscopy glossary, epiglottis, polyglot, glottis, glossopharyngeal hemoglobin, hemorrhage, Hemophilia, hematology heparin, hepatic, Hepatitis, histamine, histology, antihistamine, histogram mammal, mammary gland, mammography myocardial infarct, myocardium, myositis, myofibril Pyelonephritis, nephrectomy, nephrologist, nephron ossify, ossicle, osteoblast, osteoclast, Osteoporosis pedal, pedestrian, tripod, podium, podiatrist, pseudopod pulmonary, CardioPulmonary Resuscitation adrenal glands, renal artery, renal vein, Renal Dialysis sinus, insinuate, paranasal sinuses, sinus rhythm stoma, stomach, stomata, anastomosis hemothorax, pneumothorax, thoracotomy, thoracic spine vase, vas deferens, vascular, vasovagal, cardiovascular