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War on Terror

What is the War on Terror?

After terrorists bombed the World Trade Center; the United States Government along with its allies launched the so-called War on Terror against the terrorist group of Al-Qaida and other militant organizations with the purpose of eliminating them.

Who were the participating countries?

NATO participants United States of America United Kingdom Belgium Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Estonia France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Italy Latvia Lithuania Netherlands Luxembourg Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Turkey Non-NATO Participants Afghanistan Australia El Salvador Ethiopia Iraq Israel Kenya Republic of Korea Russian Federation Lebanon New Zealand Pakistan Philippines South Africa

U.S. Objectives
The George W. Bush administration defined the following objectives in the War on Terror: 1. Defeat terrorists such as Osama bin Laden, Abu Musab al-Zarqawi* and destroy their organizations 2. Identify, locate and destroy terrorists along with their organizations 3. Deny sponsorship, support and sanctuary to terrorists End the state sponsorship of terrorism Establish and maintain an international standard of accountability with regard to combating terrorism Strengthen and sustain the international effort to fight terrorism Work with willing and able states Enable weak states Persuade reluctant states Compel unwilling states Interdict and disrupt material support for terrorists Eliminate terrorist sanctuaries and havens 4. Diminish the underlying conditions that terrorists seek to exploit Partner with the international community to strengthen weak states and prevent (re)emergence of terrorism Win the war of ideals 5. Defend US citizens and interests at home and abroad Implement the National Strategy for Homeland Security Attain domain awareness Enhance measures to ensure the integrity, reliability, and availability of critical physical and information-based infrastructures at home and abroad Integrate measures to protect US citizens abroad Ensure an integrated incident management capability
*Abu Musab al-Zarqawi (October 30, 1966 June 7, 2006), born Ahmad Fadeel al-Nazal al-Khalayleh (Arabic: , Amad Fal an-Nazl al-alyla) was a Jordanian militant Islamist who ran a paramilitary training camp in Afghanistan. He became known after going to Iraq and being responsible for a series of bombings, beheadings, and attacks during the Iraq War.

The Operations
Operation Active Endeavor
Operation Active Endeavour is a maritime operation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. It operates in the Mediterranean Sea and is designed to prevent the movement of terrorists or weapons of mass destruction. It has also collateral benefits in enhanced security of shipping in general. It is one of the first military actions taken by NATO in response to an invocation of Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty which provides for collective defense and the first ever operation conducted by the Alliance in direct application of the defense clause of the Treaty. The operation began on 4 October 2001 as one of the eight NATO responses to the 11 September attacks, although it did not formally begin until October 16. The naval assets of Standing Naval Force Mediterranean (STANAVFORMED), which were participating in Exercise Destined Glory 2001 off the southern coast of Spain, were re-assigned in order to provide an immediate NATO military presence in the Eastern Mediterranean. The current operation is conducted by a number of NATO military assets, to include the Standing NATO Maritime Group 1 (SNMG1) and Standing NATO Maritime Group 2 (SNMG2). On 4 February 2003, the North Atlantic Council (NAC) decided to extend Operation Active Endeavour to include escorting non-military ships traveling through the Strait of Gibraltar to maintain security in the area and to secure the safe transit of designated Allied ships. On 29 April 2003, Task Force Endeavour began boarding operations following a NAC decision to enhance the effectiveness of the current naval operation against suspected terrorist activities in the Mediterranean. The boarding operations are conducted in accordance with the rules of international law and are of a compliant nature. Over one hundred and sixty vessels have been boarded (as of 1 June 2010). Several submarines of the Royal Norwegian Navy Ula class have been deployed in the Mediterranean Sea in support of the NATO Operation Active Endeavour, where their intelligence gathering ability has surpassed expectations. Their operational availability proved to be the highest of all the ships taking part in the operation. On 15 September 2006, NATO authorized the Russian Federation ship Pytliviy to participate in Operation Active Endeavour Since its inception, the ships of Active Endeavour have monitored over 100,000 vessels (as of June 2010) and conducted voluntary boardings of over 100. They have also escorted over 480 vessels through the Strait of Gibraltar until escorting was suspended in 2004. On 4 Dec 2001, STANAVFORMED ships Aliseo, Formion and Elrod were called to assist in the rescue of 84 civilians from a stricken oil rig. In high winds and heavy seas, the Italian helicopter of the Aliseo removed all 84 workers from the oil rig in 14 flights. On 2 Jan 2002, SNFL's Spanish frigate SPS Extremadura and Netherlands oiler HNMLS Amsterdam, the UK naval vessel HMS Beagle and the Greek Coast Guard provided lifesaving support to the passengers of a sinking ship in the Eastern Mediterranean off Crete. The Beagle's crew repaired the leaking hull and damaged propulsion to the AYDIN KAPTAN before the weather deteriorated and Greek helicopters began winching the children and women amongst the 254 refugees onboard and carried them to Crete and the Amsterdam.

On 3 Jan 2002, the AYDIN KAPTAN was towed by a Greek fishing vessel, under SNFL escort, to Greek territorial waters. While conducting counter-terrorist operations in the Mediterranean Sea, ships assigned to Operation Active Endeavor have also assisted the Greek government with the prevention of illegal immigration. On 23 March 2006, NATO forces alerted the Hellenic Coast Guard of a vessel named "M/V Crystal". The coast guard units intercepted the ship and arrested the captain and crew who were attempting to smuggle 126 illegal immigrants.[1] Vice Admiral Roberto Cesaretti went on to state "Although this event relates to criminals, there is also a message for the terrorists here we are looking for you, and when we find you there will be no place to hide." In an interview with Rear Admiral Richard Leaman OBE, Chief of Staff of the Maritime Component Command - Naples (part of Allied Joint Force Command Naples) in June 2006, Jane's Navy International was told that the number of frigates involved in the operation had been systematically pared back, with now only three permanent frigates patrolling the Mediterranean, two standby corvettes from Greece and Turkey, and a small submarine force.[2] However, during surge operations the number apparently can rise to 16 ships with forces from Standing NATO Maritime Groups 1 and 2. Israel signed an Exchange of Letters (EOL) on 4 October 2006, followed on 6 June 2007 by a Tactical Memorandum of Understanding (TMOU) between CC-Mar Naples and the Israeli Navy. An Israeli Liaison Officer was assigned to CC-Mar Naples on 29 January 2008. Other Mediterranean Dialogue countries expressed interest in collaborating in OAE. An EOL with Morocco was completed on 2 June 2008. It was followed, on 22 October 2009, by a Tactical Memorandum of Understanding defining the modalities of Moroccos participation in the operation. An EOL with Georgia was completed on 26 March 2008. The related TMOU was signed on 28 April 2010. Building on the experience achieved over the years, the operation is now network-based and no longer relies on permanently assigned units. However, it continues to conduct surge operations and remains prepared to carry out at-sea inspections. New technologies, exploitation of developments in surveillance and information sharing capabilities, closer cooperation and information sharing with Mediterranean Dialogue (MD)' and Partnership for Peace (PfP) countries have enabled a start to the transition from platform-based to network- based operation. A combination of surge operations and standby units will replace permanently deployed forces. Information exchange between NATO and non-NATO contributing nations, Law Enforcement Agencies, International Organisations and Non-Governmental Organisations will be enhanced.

Operation Enduring Freedom

"Operation Enduring Freedom" (OEF) is the official name used by the U.S. government for the War in Afghanistan, together with a number of smaller military actions, under the umbrella of the global "War on Terror" (GWOT).

Operation Enduring Freedom Afghanistan

o On 20 September 2001, in the wake of the 11 September attacks, George W. Bush delivered an ultimatum to the Taliban government of Afghanistan to turn over Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda leaders operating in the country or face attack. The Taliban demanded evidence of bin Laden's link to the 11 September attacks and, if such evidence warranted a trial, they offered to handle such a trial in an Islamic Court.[42] The US refused to provide any evidence. Subsequently, in October 2001, US forces (with UK and coalition allies) invaded Afghanistan to oust the Taliban regime. On 7 October 2001, the official invasion began with British and US forces conducting airstrike campaigns over enemy targets. Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan, fell by mid-November. The remaining al-Qaeda and Taliban remnants fell back to the rugged mountains of eastern Afghanistan, mainly Tora Bora. In December, Coalition forces (the US and its allies) fought within that region. It is believed that Osama bin Laden escaped into Pakistan during the battle. In March 2002, the US and other NATO and non-NATO forces launched Operation Anaconda with the goal of destroying any remaining al-Qaeda and Taliban forces in the Shah-i-Kot Valley and Arma Mountains of Afghanistan. The Taliban suffered heavy casualties and evacuated the region. The Taliban regrouped in western Pakistan and began to unleash an insurgent-style offensive against Coalition forces in late 2002. Throughout southern and eastern Afghanistan, firefights broke out between the surging Taliban and Coalition forces. Coalition forces responded with a series of military offensives and an increase in the amount of troops in Afghanistan. In February 2010, Coalition forces launched Operation Moshtarak in southern Afghanistan along with other military offensives in the hopes that they would destroy the Taliban insurgency once and for all. Peace talks are also underway between Taliban affiliated fighters and Coalition forces.

Operation Enduring Freedom Philippines

o In January 2002, the United States Special Operations Command, Pacific deployed to the Philippines to advise and assist the Armed Forces of the Philippines in combating Filipino Islamist groups. The operations were mainly focused on removing the Abu Sayyaf group and Jemaah Islamiyah (JI) from their stronghold on the island of Basilan.[49] The second portion of the operation was conducted as a humanitarian program called "Operation Smiles." The goal of the program was to provide medical care and services to the region of Basilan as part of a "Hearts and Minds" program.

Operation Enduring Freedom Horn of Africa

o This extension of Operation Enduring Freedom was titled OEF-HOA. Unlike other operations contained in Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF-HOA does not have a specific organization as a target. OEF-HOA instead focuses its efforts to disrupt and detect

militant activities in the region and to work with willing governments to prevent the reemergence of militant cells and activities. In October 2002, the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa (CJTF-HOA) was established in Djibouti at Camp Lemonnier. It contains approximately 2,000 personnel including US military and special operations forces (SOF) and coalition force members, Combined Task Force 150 (CTF-150). Task Force 150 consists of ships from a shifting group of nations, including Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Pakistan, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The primary goal of the coalition forces is to monitor, inspect, board and stop suspected shipments from entering the Horn of Africa region and affecting the US' Operation Iraqi Freedom. Included in the operation is the training of selected armed forces units of the countries of Djibouti, Kenya and Ethiopia in counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency tactics. Humanitarian efforts conducted by CJTF-HOA include rebuilding of schools and medical clinics and providing medical services to those countries whose forces are being trained. The program expands as part of the Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative as CJTF personnel also assist in training the armed forces of Chad, Niger, Mauritania andMali. However, the War on Terror does not include Sudan, where over 400,000 have died in an ongoing civil war. On 1 July 2006, a Web-posted message purportedly written by Osama bin Laden urged Somalis to build an Islamic state in the country and warned western governments that the al-Qaeda network would fight against them if they intervened there. Somalia has been considered a "failed state" because its official central government was weak, dominated by warlords and unable to exert effective control over the country. Beginning in mid-2006, the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), an Islamist faction campaigning on a restoration of "law and order" through Sharia law, had rapidly taken control of much of southern Somalia. On 14 December 2006, the US Assistant Secretary of State Jendayi Frazer claimed alQaeda cell operatives were controlling the Islamic Courts Union, a claim denied by the ICU. By late 2006, the UN-backed Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia had seen its power effectively limited to Baidoa, while the Islamic Courts Union controlled the majority of southern Somalia, including the capital of Mogadishu. On 20 December 2006, the Islamic Courts Union launched an offensive on the government stronghold of Baidoa, and saw early gains before Ethiopia intervened in favor of the government. By 26 December, the Islamic Courts Union retreated towards Mogadishu, before again retreating as TFG/Ethiopian troops neared, leaving them to take Mogadishu with no resistance. The ICU then fled to Kismayo, where they fought Ethiopian/TFG forces in the Battle of Jilib. The Prime Minister of Somalia claimed that three "terror suspects" from the 1998 United States embassy bombings are being sheltered in Kismayo. On 30 December 2006, al-Qaeda deputy leader Ayman al-Zawahiricalled upon Muslims worldwide to fight against Ethiopia and the TFG in Somalia. On 8 January 2007, the US launched the Battle of Ras Kamboni by bombing Ras Kamboni using AC-130gunships.

On 14 September 2009, US Special Forces killed two men and wounded and captured two others near the Somali village of Baarawe. Witnesses claim that helicopters used for the operation launched from French-flagged warships, but that could not be confirmed. A Somali based al-Qaida affiliated group, the Al-Shabaab, has confirmed the death of "sheik commander" Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan along with an unspecified number of militants. Nabhan, a Kenyan, was wanted in connection with the 2002 Mombasa attacks. Operation Enduring Freedom Trans Sahara (OEF-TS) is the name of the military operation conducted by the United States and partner nations in the Sahara/Sahel region of Africa, consisting of counterterrorism efforts and policing of arms and drug trafficking across central Africa. It is part of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). The other OEF mission in Africa is Operation Enduring Freedom Horn of Africa (OEF - HOA). Joint Task Force Aztec Silence (JTF Aztec Silence) is the combined arms organization assigned to implement the missions and meet the goals of OEF-TS. The JTF has been part of United States European Command (EUCOM). As of September 2007, with the announcement of the new United States Africa Command, the mission will fall under the responsibility of Africa Command. The Congress approved $500 million for the Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative (TSCTI) over six years to support countries involved in counterterrorism against alleged threats of Al Qaeda operating in African countries, primarily Algeria, Chad, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Nigeria, and Morocco. This program builds upon the former Pan Sahel Initiative (PSI), which concluded in December 2004 and focused on weapon and drug trafficking, as well as counterterrorism. TSCTI has both military and non-military components to it. OEF-TS are the military component of the program. Civil affairs elements include USAID educational efforts, airport security, Department of the Treasury, and State Department efforts. Canada deployed teams of less than 15 CSOR members to Mali throughout 2011 to help combat militants in the Sahara. Although the Special Forces will not engage in combat, they will train the Malian military in basic soldiering. Areas include communications, planning, first aid, and providing aid to the general populace.

Operation Enduring Freedom Trans Sahara


Operation Iraqi Freedom

The Iraq War, or the War in Iraq (also referred to as the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, or Operation Iraqi Freedom by the United States military), was a conflict that occurred in Iraq from March 20, 2003 to December 18, 2011, though sectarian violence continues since and caused hundreds of fatalities. Prior to the war, the governments of the United States and the United Kingdom claimed that Iraq's alleged possession of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) posed a threat to their security and that of their coalition/regional allies. In 2002, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1441 which called for Iraq to completely cooperate with UN weapon inspectors to verify that Iraq was not in possession of WMD and cruise missiles. TheUnited Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) found no evidence of

WMD, but could not verify the accuracy of Iraq's weapon declarations. Lead weapons inspector Hans Blix advised the UN Security Council that while Iraq was cooperating in terms of access, Iraq's declarations with regards to WMD still could not be verified. After investigation following the invasion, the U.S.-led Iraq Survey Group concluded that Iraq had ended its nuclear, chemical, and biological programs in 1991 and had no active programs at the time of the invasion, but that they intended to resume production if the Iraq sanctions were lifted.[52] Although some degraded remnants of misplaced or abandoned chemical weapons from before 1991 were found, they were not the weapons which had been the one of the main arguments for the invasion. Some US officials also accused Iraqi President Saddam Hussein of harboring and supporting alQaeda, but no evidence of a meaningful connection was ever found. Other proclaimed reasons for the invasion included Iraq's financial support for the families of Palestinian suicide bombers, Iraqi government human rights abuses, and an effort to spread democracy to the country. The invasion of Iraq led to an occupation and the eventual capture of President Hussein, who was later tried in an Iraqi court of law and executed by the new Iraqi. Violence against coalition forces and among various sectarian groups soon led to the Iraqi insurgency, strife between many Sunni and Shia Iraqi groups, and the emergence of a new faction of Al-Qaeda in Iraq. In June 2008, U.S. Department of Defense officials claimed security and economic indicators began to show signs of improvement in what they hailed as significant and fragile gains. Iraq was fifth on the 2008 Failed States Index, and sixth on the 2009 list. As public opinion favoring troop withdrawals increased and as Iraqi forces began to take responsibility for security, member nations of the Coalition withdrew their forces. In late 2008, the U.S. and Iraqi governments approved a Status of Forces Agreement effective through January 1, 2012. The Iraqi Parliament also ratified a Strategic Framework Agreement with the U.S., aimed at ensuring cooperation in constitutional rights, threat deterrence, education, energy development, and other areas. In late February 2009, newly elected U.S. President Barack Obama announced an 18-month withdrawal window for combat forces, with approximately 50,000 troops remaining in the country "to advise and train Iraqi security forces and to provide intelligence and surveillance". General Ray Odierno, the top U.S. military commander in Iraq, said he believes all U.S. troops will be out of the country by the end of 2011, while UK forces ended combat operations on April 30, 2009. Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki has said he supports the accelerated pullout of U.S. forces. In a speech at the Oval Office on 31 August 2010 Obama declared "the American combat mission in Iraq has ended. Operation Iraqi Freedom is over, and the Iraqi people now have lead responsibility for the security of their country." Beginning September 1, 2010, the American operational name for its involvement in Iraq changed from "Operation Iraqi Freedom" to "Operation New Dawn." The remaining 50,000 U.S. troops are now designated as "advice and assist brigades" assigned to non-combat operations while retaining the ability to revert to combat operations as necessary. Two combat aviation brigades also remain in Iraq. In September 2010, the Associated Press issued an internal memo reminding its reporters that "combat in Iraq is not over," and "U.S. troops remain involved in combat operations alongside Iraqi forces, although U.S. officials say the American combat mission has formally ended."

On October 21, 2011, President Obama announced that all U.S. troops and trainers would leave Iraq by the end of the year, bringing the U.S. mission in Iraq to an end. On December 15, 2011, U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta officially declared the Iraq War over, at a flag lowering ceremony in Baghdad. The last U.S. troops left Iraqi territory on December 18, 2011 at 4:27 UTC. Since U.S. withdrawal, a new wave of sectarian violence erupted across Iraq, raising concerns over a full blown civil war between the main factions of Iraq, most notably the Sunni and the Shia Arabs.

Operation New Dawn

The war entered a new phase on 1 September 2010, with the official end of US combat operations. The war was declared formally over in December 2011.