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U.V.Patel College of Engineering

U.V.Patel College of Engineering MECHANICAL & MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT Laboratory manual M.tech.cad-cam

MECHANICAL &

MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Laboratory manual M.tech.cad-cam (semester-I) Computer integrated manufacturing (3 ME1 1 5)

U.V.Patel College Of Engineering GANPAT UNIVERSITY Ganpat Vidyanagar, Mehsana-Gozaria HighwayMehsana - 382711, INDIA

U.V.Patel College of Engineering Mehsana-Gozaria Highway Mehsana - 382711, INDIA

Certificate

This is certify that Roll no integrated manufacturing to within
This is certify that
Roll no
integrated
manufacturing
to
within

semester

computer

during

Mr. / Ms

of

of M.tech.Cad-Cam has satisfactorily completed his/her work

the

in

year

engineering.

four walls of U.V.patel College of

Date of submission

Staff in charge

Head of Mech. Engg.Department

INDEX

Sr.

 

Name of Experiment

 

Date

Page No.

Sign.

No

 

1

TO

STUDY

INTRODUCTION

TO

COMPUTER

     

INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING.

2

TO

STUDY

INTRODUCTION

TO

FMS,

     

FLEXIBILITIES

IN

FMS

AND

ITS

MENASUREMENT CRITERION.

 

3

TO STUDY QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FMS USING BOTTLENECK MODEL.

     

4

TO STUDY GROUP TECHNOLOGY AND STRUCTURE OF CODING SYSTEM.

     

5

ANALYSIS

OF

MATERIAL

HANDLING

AND

     

STORAGE SYSTEM

 

6

TO STUDY ABOUT NC, CNC, DNC AND VNC MACHINE TOOLS ALONG WITH ITS SPECIFICATION AND MODERN FEATURES

     

7

MANUAL PART-PROGRAMMING FOR CNC TURNING CENTER AND MACHINING CENTER.

     

8

STUDY OF CAD CAM INTEGRATION.

       

9

TO

STUDY

INTRODUCTION

OF

NETWORKING

     

AND COMMUNICATIONS.

10

CASE STUDY OF CIM

       

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

GANPAT UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

E NGINEERING U V P ATEL C OLLEGE OF E NGINEERING C OMPUTER I NTEGRATED M

COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING ( 3ME1 1 5)

M. TECH. CAD-CAM

EXPERIMENT NO:1

DATE:

/

/

AIM:

TO

S TUDY

MANUFACTURING.

CIM DEFINATION:

I NTRODUCTION

TO

COMPUTER

INTEGRATED

Computer Integrated Manufacturing, known as CIM, is the phrase used to describe

the complete automation of a manufacturing plant, with all processes functioning under

computer control and digital information tying them together.

Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) may be viewed as the successor

technology which links computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing

(CAM), robotics, numerically controlled machine tools (NCMT), automatic storage and

retrieval systems (AS/RS), flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), and other computer-based

manufacturing technology.

Computer-integrated manufacturing is also known as integrated computer-aided

manufacturing (ICAM). Auto factoring includes computer-integrated manufacturing, but also

includes conventional machinery, human operators, and their relationships within a total

system.

EVOLUTION OF CIM:

Manufacturing industries have evolved tremendously from cottage industries in the

early 16th century to the global force as it stands today. The characteristics of the present

world market include higher competition, shorter product life cycles. Greater product

diversity, fragmented markets, variety and complexity and smaller hatch sizes to satisfy a

variety of customer profiles .

Furthermore, non-price factors, such as quality, product design, innovation and

delivery services are the primary determinants of product success in today's global arena . To

achieve these requirements, manufacturing companies need to be flexible. adaptable.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

responsive to changes, proactive and be able to produce variety of products in a short time at

a lower cost in addition, they should be able to address new environmental requirements,

complex social issues and concerns. Hence, manufacturing companies are compelled to seek advanced technologies as a panacea for all these needs.

The most significant outcome of this search resulted in the concept of computer integrated manufacturing (ClM) in the early 1970s.

The concept of ClM was initially coined by Dr. Joseph Harrington in 1973 in the book "Computer Integrated manufacturing".

However, until the early 1980s, CIM did not become a commonly known acronym as

it exists today.

The idea of "Digital Manufacturing is a vision for the 1980s. In the 1980s, Computer Integrated Manufacturing was developed and promoted by machine tool manufacturers and the CASA/SME (Computer and Automated Systems Association /Society for Manufacturing Engineers).

CIM HARDWARE:

CIM hardware includes all the devices which are having physical presence. All the devices which we can see, touch, can operate with application of human effort is known as a hardware, in case of CIM all the applications accept programs are hardware. Majorly we can classify them in this m/c tool format.

all the applications accept programs are hardware. Majorly we can classify them in this m/c tool

CIM Hardware

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Manufacturing equipment such as machines or computerized work centers, Robotic work cells, DNC/FMS systems, VNC systems, Work handling &tool handling devices, Inspection machines etc… Computers ,controllers ,CAD/CAM systems ,work stations/terminals, Data entry terminals, Bar code readers, Printers ,plotters and other peripheral devices, modems ,cables ,connectors etc….

CIM SOFTWARE:

CIM software is combination of following function software:

MIS (management information system):

MIS software helps for managing your accounts, inventory, taxation, payroll, stock, banking, financial and other records. MIS involves all aspects of gathering, storing, tracking, retrieving and using information within a business or organization. All the policies, procedures, and practices that direct an organization's operations and the staff that interact with the information, combined with the software and hardware, comprise an information system.

PLANNING AND SCHEDULING:

It delivers a single database that contains all data for the software modules, which would include:

Manufacturing:

Engineering, bills of material, scheduling, capacity, workflow management, quality control, cost management, manufacturing process, manufacturing projects, manufacturing flow Supply chain management:

Order to cash, inventory, order entry, purchasing, product configuration, supply chain planning, supplier scheduling, inspection of goods, claim processing, commission calculation Financials:

General ledger, cash management, accounts payable, accounts receivable, fixed assets Project management:

Costing, billing, time and expense, performance units, activity management Human resources :

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Human resources, payroll, training, time and attendance, roistering, benefits Customer relationship management:

Sales and marketing, commissions, service, customer contact and call center support. Data warehouse and various self-service interfaces for customers, suppliers, and employees Access control - user privilege as per authority levels for process execution Customization - to meet the extension, addition, change in process flow.

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN: (CAD)

Computer-aided design software is the use of computer technology for the de sign of objects, real or virtual. The design of geometric models for object shapes. Phesibility of design, testing as per software programs based on practical observations. Static, kinetic and dynamic analysis of design.

COMMUNICATION:

Communication software is used to provide remote access to systems and exchange files and real-time messages in text, audio and/or video formats between different computers. This includes terminal emulators, file transfer programs, chat and instant messaging programs, as well as similar functionality integrated within MUDs(multi-user dungeon).This is for creating proper communication between person to person, person to machine, machine to machine, machine to person

OFFICE AUTOMATION:

Office Automation software is very beneficial to the company having big kind of

business for export and import. This Office Automation software is the easier way to store details of the multiple company (you own) or working with. The Office Automation software can be used any time and you can store as many data as you want to. Office Automation software will keep record of all the things that is entered by you.

MAJOR AREAS OF CIM:

Areas Of CIM includes major four areas which are having their own parts which we can include with them:

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:

Management

information

system,

Sales

Marketing,

Finance,

Database

management, Communication, Network management.

DESIGN AND MANUFACTURING SUPPORT SYSTEM:

Modeling and Design,

Simulation, Analysis,

Manufacturing area control

Process Planning, Manufacturing facilities, Quality management.

MACHINE TOOLS:

Work flow automation, driving devices

MATERIAL HANDLING SYSTEM:

Ordeal entry, Job ticketing, Material storage units, etc….

Ordeal entry, Job ticketing, Material storage units, etc…. E LEMENTS OF CIM: We can say that

ELEMENTS OF CIM:

We can say that there are basically nine major elements of CIM system:

Marketing: The need for a product is defined by the marketing division. The specifications of the The need for a product is defined by the marketing division. The specifications of the product, the projection of manufacturing quantities and the strategy for marketing the product are also decided by the marketing dept.

Product Design: The design department of the company establishes the initial database for the production of a The design department of the company establishes the initial database for the production of a proposed product. In CIM system this is accomplished through activities such as geometric modeling and computer aided design while considering the product requirement and concept generated by the creativity of the design engineer.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Planning: The planning department takes the database established by the product design and enriches it with The planning department takes the database established by the product design and enriches it with production data and information to produce a plan for the production of product.

Purchase: The purchase department is responsible for placing the purchase orders and follows up, receives the The purchase department is responsible for placing the purchase orders and follows up, receives the item, arrange for inspection and supply the items to store for eventual supply to manufacture and assembly.

Manufacturing Engineering: Manufacturing Engineering is activity of carrying out the production of the product, involving further enrichment Manufacturing Engineering is activity of carrying out the production of the product, involving further enrichment of the database with performance data and information about the production equipment and processes.

Factory Automation Hardware: Factory automation equipment further enriches the database with equipment and process data, resident either in Factory automation equipment further enriches the database with equipment and process data, resident either in the operator or the equipment to carry out the production process.

Warehousing: Ware housing is the function involving storage and retrieva l of raw material, components, finished Ware housing is the function involving storage and retrieva l of raw material, components, finished goods as well as shipment items.

Finance: Finance deals with the resource pertaining to money. Planning of investment ,working capital, cash flow Finance deals with the resource pertaining to money. Planning of investment ,working capital, cash flow control, accounting, and allocation of funds are the major task of finance department.

Information Management: It is perhaps one of the crucial tasks in CIM.This involves master production schedule, database It is perhaps one of the crucial tasks in CIM.This involves master production schedule, database management, communication, manufacturing system integration and management information systems. Which can be directly understand by figure

manufacturing system integration and management information systems. Which can be directly understand by figure 6

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

ACTIVITIES OF CIM:

CIM Technology ties together all the manufacturing related functions in a company:

all the manufacturing related functions in a company: Activities of CIM

Activities of CIM

Cad,Shopdata,FEM,MEM,Analysis,Drafting,Processplanning,ToolDesign,Schedulingrelated functions in a company: Activities of CIM ,Si-mulation,CNC,Robots,FMS,AS/RS,QC. Marketing, Finance,

,Si-mulation,CNC,Robots,FMS,AS/RS,QC.

Marketing, Finance, Purchase, Human Resource, ERP, Shipping, Database.CIM Cad,Shopdata,FEM,MEM,Analysis,Drafting,Processplanning,ToolDesign,Scheduling ,Si-mulation,CNC,Robots,FMS,AS/RS,QC. 7

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Machine Tool ,Material Handling system ,Computer system ,FEM ,Element Modeling ,MEM,ERP(Enterprise Resource Planning) ,QC.Computer Integrated Manufacturing K EY C HALLENGES : There are three major challenges to development of

KEY CHALLENGES:

There are three major challenges to development of a smoothly operating Computer Integrated Manufacturing system:

Integration of components from different suppliers:smoothly operating Computer Integrated Manufacturing system: When different machines, such as CNC, conveyors and robots,

When different machines, such as CNC, conveyors and robots, are using different communications protocols. In the case of AGVs, even differing lengths of time for charging the batteries may cause problems.

Data integrity:of time for charging the batteries may cause problems. Data integrity is a term used in

Data integrity is a term used in computer science and telecommunications that can mean ensuring data is "whole" or complete the condition in which data are identically maintained during any operation, the preservation of data for their intended use, or, relative to specified operations, and the prior expectation of data quality.

: The higher the degree of automation, the more critical is the integrity of the data used to control the machines. While the CIM system saves on labor of operating the machines, it requires extra human labor in ensuring that there are proper safeguards for the data signals that are used to control the machines.

Process control:for the data signals that are used to control the machines. Process control is a statistics

Process control is a statistics and engineering discipline that deals with architectures, Mechanism s, and algorithms for controlling the output of a specific process

Computers may be used to assist the human operators of the manufacturing facility, but there must always be a competent engineer on hand to handle circumstances which could not be foreseen by the designers of the control software.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Set up time, Quality, Manufacturing, Inventory, Flexibility, and Distance.Computer Integrated Manufacturing Manufacturing industry Goals. Market position, Global economy, etc… CIM W HEELS :

Manufacturing industry Goals.Manufacturing, Inventory, Flexibility, and Distance. Market position, Global economy, etc… CIM W HEELS :

Market position, Global economy, etc…Flexibility, and Distance. Manufacturing industry Goals. CIM W HEELS : CASA/SME (Computer and automated system

CIM WHEELS:

CASA/SME (Computer and automated system association of society of manufacturing Engineers) has suggested a framework, the CIM WHEEL to explain the meaning of CIM. CIM is a closed loop system whose prime inputs are product requiring concept prime output are finished product. CIM WHEEL depicts a central core (Integrated System Architecture) That handles the common manufacturing data and is concern with information re sources management and communication. The radial sectors surrounding the core represent the various activities of manufacturing processing design, material, processing and inspection. This activity has been grouped under three categories.

Manufacturing planning and control,This activity has been grouped under three categories. Product process, Factory Automation The outer rim represents

Product process,under three categories. Manufacturing planning and control, Factory Automation The outer rim represents the upper

Factory AutomationManufacturing planning and control, Product process, The outer rim represents the upper management functions,

The outer rim represents the upper management functions, grouped into four categories:

Strategic Planningupper management functions, grouped into four categories: Marketing Manufacturing and HRManagement The modifications

Marketingfunctions, grouped into four categories: Strategic Planning Manufacturing and HRManagement The modifications have been

Manufacturing andgrouped into four categories: Strategic Planning Marketing HRManagement The modifications have been done by researchers

HRManagementcategories: Strategic Planning Marketing Manufacturing and The modifications have been done by researchers for making

The modifications have been done by researchers for making the CIM WHEEL acceptable in all industries as per requirements.

Key Strengths:

CIM creates a database of information.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

CIM Can be applied to other sectors.

CIM is low cost, low effort to get started.

Manufacturing Planning and Scheduling is possible.

Easy to understand islands of the CIM.

Resource allocation is easier than conventional method.

Key Weaknesses:

No compelling reason for growers to participate.

Needs on-the-ground (arms-&-legs) facilitation.

It cannot show complete connection between different island of CIM.

No clear instructions are there for implementation.

It do not have time constrain so may take months for implementation.

Declared by CASA/SME in 1980, 1985, 1986. CASA/SME 1980.

take months for implementation. Declared by CASA/SME in 1980, 1985, 1986. CASA/SME 1980. Figure:-Wheel-CASA/SME 1980 10

Figure:-Wheel-CASA/SME 1980

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

CASA/SME 1986

Figure:-CIM Wheel-CASA SME 1986
Figure:-CIM Wheel-CASA SME 1986

CASA SME/1985(CIM ENTERPRISE WHEEL)

CASA/SME 1986 Figure:-CIM Wheel-CASA SME 1986 CASA SME/1985(CIM ENTERPRISE WHEEL) Figure- CIM ENTRPRISE WHEEL 11

Figure- CIM ENTRPRISE WHEEL

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Six Perspectives on the New Manufacturing Enterprise:

The

competitive manufacturing:

new

Manufacturing

Enterprise

Wheel

describes

six

fundamental

elements

for

1. The central role of the customer and evolving customer needs. A clear

understanding of the marketplace and customer desires is the key to success. Marketing, design, manufacturing, and support must be aligned to meet customer needs. This is the bull's-eye, the hub of the Wheel, the vision and mission of the enterprise.

2. The role of people and teamwork in the organization. Included here are the means of organizing, hiring, training, motivating, measuring, and communicating to ensure teamwork and cooperation. This side of the enterprise is captured in ideas such as self-directed teams, teams of teams, the learning organization, leadership, metrics, rewards, quality circles, and corporate culture.

3. The revolutionary impact of shared knowledge and systems to support people and processes. Included here are both manual and computer tools to aid research, analysis, innovation, documentation, decision-making, and control of every process in the enterprise.

4. Key processes from product definition through manufacturing and customer support. There are three main categories of processes: product/process definition; manufacturing; and customer support. Within these categories 15 key processes complete the product life cycle.

5. Enterprise resources (inputs) and responsibilities (outputs). Resources include capital, people, materials, management, information, technology, and suppliers. Reciprocal responsibilities include employee, investor, and community relations, as well as regulatory, ethical, and environmental obligations. In the new manufacturing enterprise, administrative functions are a thin layer around the periphery. They bring new resources into the enterprise and sustain key processes.

6. The manufacturing infrastructure. While a company may see itself as self- contained, its success depends on customers, competitors, suppliers, and other factors in the environment. The manufacturing infrastructure includes: customers and their needs, suppliers, competitors, prospective workers, distributors, natural

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

resources,

research institutions.

financial

markets,

communities,

governments,

and

educational

and

1) Customer

In the end, every activity in the manufacturing enterprise should contribute something of value to the customer. Providing superior value to the customer generates growth and profits. The role of an enterprise mission and vision is to align all work toward meeting--and surpassing--customer expectations. This is the bull's-eye, the hub, and the center of the new Manufacturing Enterprise Wheel. A customer-centered mission provides a clear direction to align activities and empowers the work of teams in the new manufacturing enterprise. Recent years have seen unprecedented experimentation in the organization of manufacturing enterprises. Start-up companies grew and became giants. Huge conglomerates formed from other companies. Giant companies faltered, with some regaining their competitive edge. Others are gone. The globalization of manufacturing continued at a dizzying pace, from small niche producers to the largest international firms. These successes--and failures--have proven the need for a clear mission and vision, focused on the customer needs. Profits and growth can only be sustained when customer needs are met or exceeded.

only be sustained when customer needs are met or exceeded. 2) People and Teamwork in the

2) People and Teamwork in the Organization (P-T-O)

All members of the organization stake their futures on their ability to deliver value to the customer, and earn profits in return. The central role of people in the organization forms the inner circle of the Wheel. The enterprise is only as strong as its people, organizatio n, and culture. Today's highly competitive worldwide markets require a new approach to managing, organizing, and applying the knowledge and skills of people. When venture capitalists consider funding a new company, their first consideration are people their knowledge, their experience, their motivation. When successful companies explain their success, the answer is much the same: it is "our people and our organization." When Japanese or German business leaders explain the manufacturing success of their nations, with fewer

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

natural resources than many, they again point to people. Manufacturing success builds on the education, skills, drive, cooperation, and leadership of people.

skills, drive, cooperation, and leadership of people. 3) Shared Knowledge and Systems: In the past, epochs

3) Shared Knowledge and Systems:

In the past, epochs were named by the dominant materials and tools of the age: the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age. Materials and processes are still evolving. Yet, today, the dominant material of civilization is information; and the dominant tool is electronic interchange. In this age of shared knowledge, people and systems transform information into better products and services. Nearly every job in every company is changing in some way as a result of shared knowledge in the information age. Computer systems and intelligent machines are as much an influence today as were the stone, bronze, or iron tools of the past. The unique expertise of CASA/SME is understanding information technology and the ways this technology can empower people in the manufacturing enterprise. Indeed, a key

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

function of the Wheel is to illustrate ways in which computer systems support people and processes in the enterprise. The CASA/SME Industry LEAD Award (Leadership and Excellence in the Application and Development of CIM) is given each year to a manufacturing company that exemplifies enterprise integration. The CASA/SME-sponsored AUTOFACT Conference and Exposition is the world's leading showcase of CAD, CAM, and other systems for product and process definition and manufacturing.

4) Processes:

The manufacturing enterprise combines people and tools, in processes, to add value to purchased materials and components. Processes are the life of the manufacturing enterprise. The real manufacturing enterprise might have hundreds or thousands of processes, depending upon the level of detail. In the new Wheel, there are three main groups of processes, a trinity of actions focused on customer satisfaction. These are product/process definition, manufacturing, and customer support. First is product/process definition. It defines what is to be built and how it is to be built. While product/process definition may consume only 5 to 20 percent of the manufacturing enterprise's total resources, it casts a long shadow. When product and process definition is complete, the ultimate performance and value of the product, as well as most manufacturing expenses, have already been determined. Second is the lower segment of the wheel, manufacturing. For products like automobiles, industrial equipment, office equipment, and appliances, manufacturing requires the largest investment of resources. Third are processes which, combined with the manufactured product, make it available and useful to the customer. These customer support processes include global support, distribution, sales and promotion, and customer service throughout the product life cycle. The three main process groups are further divided. Together, all 15 processes form a Manufacturing Enterprise value chain:

PRODUCT/PROCESS DEFINITION:

1) Business Definition

2) System Design

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

3) Component Design 4) Continuous Improvement 5) Documentation and Release MANUFACTURING (/Service) 6) Resource Planning 7) Operations Planning 8) Component Fabrication 9) Assembly and Test 10) Material Management CUSTOMER SUPPORT 11) Global Organization 12) Distribution 13) Sales and Promotion 14) Customer Services 15) Life-Cycle Transitions

11) Global Organization 12) Distribution 13) Sales and Promotion 14) Customer Services 15) Life-Cycle Transitions 16

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

SIMILARITIES IN CASA/SME CIM Wheels:

In middle rim of the wheel shows the product, process and manufacturing facility requirements for the CIM implementation.Manufacturing SIMILARITIES IN CASA/SME CIM Wheels: The wheels clearly define the resource required for complete

The wheels clearly define the resource required for complete implementation of CIM.facility requirements for the CIM implementation. The islands of CIM WHEEL are same for Designing and

The islands of CIM WHEEL are same for Designing and manufacturing in all.the resource required for complete implementation of CIM. The wheels are customer requirement oriented so are

The wheels are customer requirement oriented so are showing proper policy of manufacturing.CIM WHEEL are same for Designing and manufacturing in all. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CIM WHEEL AND CIM

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CIM WHEEL AND CIM ENETERPRISE WHEEL:

The CIM wheel more emphasis on information system, Design Manufacturing,Business.Segment where as the CIM Enterprise Wheel emphasis on customer satisfaction ,knowledge manageme nt ,Globalization.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CIM WHEEL AND CIM ENETERPRISE WHEEL: The CIM Wheel is also concentrated on the

The CIM Wheel is also concentrated on the factory automation side that portion was not included in CIM Enterprise Wheel.customer satisfaction ,knowledge manageme nt ,Globalization. In CIM Wheel there is no portion to taking into

In CIM Wheel there is no portion to taking into account the customer satisfaction, where as in the CIM Enterprise Wheel customer satisfaction was taken into account as a key factor.side that portion was not included in CIM Enterprise Wheel. The organizational goals were set out

The organizational goals were set out in the CIM Enterprise Wheel, where as in CIM wheel only Operational and financial matter can be clear out only.satisfaction was taken into account as a key factor. IMPLIMENTATION AND INTEGRATION OF CIM: CIM IMPLEMENTATION:

IMPLIMENTATION AND INTEGRATION OF CIM:

CIM IMPLEMENTATION:

Integration and adaptability are the key issues of the implementation process of CIM. Therefore, it is appropriate to discuss the main elements of integration and adaptability of CIM and how these issues should be taken into account during the implementation of CIM. The integration of systems is frequently hindered by the resistance to converge the activities of different functions within the business. Organizational integration and the elimination of departmental barriers are proving to be more difficult to achieve in practice and will in turn hinder the technical development of the ` seamless‘ integration required. The integration of computer- aided design (CAD) and CNC machines made a huge impact on the development of CIM. In support of the critical roles that humans play in the

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

success of CIM, the most common recommendation found in almost all recent literature is the dire need for education and training in relation to the adoption of CIM. It could even mean a redefinition of responsibilities from the top to the bottom of the organization. Research in CIM design and implementation has mainly been in the area of production. However, the major issues in CIM are directly related to information systems.

A

conceptual model illustrating the integration and adaptability issues of implementing CIM

is

presented in Figure 1. The organization has to develop a strategy which bests the

environment in which it operates. The model explains the importance of the alignment between various implementation strategies for improving integration and adaptability of CIM. For instance, strategic level issues such as the alignment between business and manufacturing strategies require suitable organizational structure, technology, employee involvement and the nature of production planning and control system. Therefore, this relation-ship is represented by the closed loop as shown in Figure 1, to explain the interaction and dependency between managerial, technological and operational level issues. There is a number of organizational issues which companies meet when analyzing, designing and managing the implementation of CIM systems. The strategy for the successful implementation of CIM should include the use of computers for integrating information and material, sma ll batch production with on- line production control system (e.g. FMS) , and a local area network (LAN) for integrating the information within the organization. A conceptual framework is presented in Figure 2 to explain the main issues involved in improving the integration and adaptability aspects of CIM. The model presents a set of major elements of CIM implementation that includes strategic, organizational, behavioral, technological and operational issues. Each of these elements is discussed from the view of improving integration and adaptation in the implementation of CIM. The details follow here under.

Strategic aspects:

Top management selects CIM as a manufacturing strategy based on the business strategy considering the internal and external factors. Middle management should work out the CIM development programme. The workers along with middle management are responsible for the implementation of CIM. The company‘s limitations in terms of capital, knowledge workers, complexity of the material, layout types, etc. should be considered while

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

designing and implementing CIM. In addition, the achievement of objectives should be used to justify the adoption of CIM technology.

Organizational aspects:

CIM requires cross- functional co-operation, and high involvement of employees in product development process. To be successful in the implementation of CIM, an initiative must have the direct involvement and commitment of top management. Top management also invests company resources and accepts long- term results, by eventually modifying the company organization as required for a successful CIM. Effective implementation of CIM requires a strong degree of communication and co-ordination among interdependent units in companies. The internal factors such as product and process characteristics, infrastructure and skills available. The external factors such as market characteristics, government support and regulations tremendously in the implementation process of CIM. Behavioral aspects:

Co-operation among different levels of employees can be achieved by smoother communication systems. The type of workforce involved in the implementation and operation of CIM is knowledge workers such as computer operators, software engineers, and network managers and so on. Therefore, the type and level of training and education required should be determined taking into account the infrastructure, integration and adaptability issues. Effective teamwork (with empowerment and responsibility) has to be achieved to successfully implement CIM. This could be achieved by a collective incentive scheme, team work, training and job enrichment. Technological aspects:

A suitable CIM configuration should be decided before the implementation process that generally centers around the identification of tasks to computerize, the selection of feasible software packages, and improving software compatibility. In order to include flexibility in CIM, manual policies, procedures, and practices should be established. The integration and adaptability of CIM can be made considerably easier with FMS, cellular manufacturing systems and JIT production systems. Technologies such as Internet, multimedia and LAN can be used to improve the integration of various business areas of manufacturing organizations. Automated guided vehicle systems (AGVs) using computers can play an important role in improving the integration of material flow within the

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Production system. Integration of operational activities with suppliers can be improved by on- line computer information systems such as an electronic data interchange (EDI). These also can play a vital role in an unmanned factory.

Operational aspects:

CIM requires the reorganization of the production planning and control system with an objective to simplify the material and information flows. The manufacturing concepts such as JIT and MRP II and technologies such as CE and AGVs provide the base for easy implementation of CIM to improve integration and adaptability. The essence of CE is the integration of product design and process planning into one common activity, that is CAD/ CAE. Concurrent design helps to improve the quality of early design decisions and has a tremendous impact on the life cycle cost of the product. The implementation of CE will facilitate integration and adaption in CIM.

impact on the life cycle cost of the product. The implementation of CE will facilitate integration

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

INTEGRATION:

( I ) CIM should be implemented only after the basic foundations are put in place in the

com-pany. It may bemore productive to redesign the organizational structure before implementing available technology than to hope the technology will, bring about manufacturing effectiveness. Simplification of information and material establish a solid foundation for adopting CIM technology.

( ii ) Integration and adaptability issues of CIM should be evaluated considering the lack of

knowledge about CIM and its potential, strategic implications of longer term planning, etc of

delaying CIM implementation on company competitiveness and the etc of operations integration.

( iii ) The integration and adaptability issues of CIM are in uenced by factors such as the

required hardware platform, integration requirements, and data processing skills. Therefore, there is a need to consider these factors while implementing CIM. Knowledge workers such

as computer operators and software engineers, and a multifunctional workforce are essential to improve integration and adaptation in the implementation of CIM.

( iv ) Human workers play a significant role in influencing the integration and adaptability issues of CIM especially by co-operative supported work. This reveals the importance of providing a comprehensive training to equip workers with the knowledge of automation, computer technologies, and manufacturing process.

( v ) Despite the arguments regarding exibility of CIM, the experience from practice is that

automation is frequently too rigid to adapt to changing market needs and the production of new products. This indicates the importance of exibility of CIM while designing the system and re-organization of the production planning and control system.

( vii ) There is a need for a unique set of standards that satires‘ all the requirements of a CIM system. The answer to both the questions just posed is no. the starting point for CIM is not islands of automation or software, not is it the structure presented by the CIM wheel, rather it is a

company’s business strategy.

System modeling tools

It is helpful if the modeling tool is of sufficient sophistication that it exists in three forms:

As a representation of the system

As a dynamic model

As an executable model

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

IDEF (Integration Definition for Function Modeling)

IDEF initially provided three modeling methods

IDEF0 is used for describing the activities and functions of a system

IDEF1 is used for describing the information and its relationships

IDEF2 is used for describing the dynamics of a system Activity cycle diagrams

notation of IDEF0

This modeling approach follows the

by having activities

represented as rectangles and by having the activity names specified inside the rectangle. All

resources which are to be represented in the model are classified as entity classes. CIM open system architecture (CIMOSA)

CIMOSA was produced as generic reference architecture for CIM integration as part of an ESPRIT project. The architecture is designed to yield executable models or parts of models leading to computerized implementations for managing an enterprise. Manufacturing enterprise wheel The new manufacturing enterprise wheel‘s focus is now the customer at level 1, and it identifies 15 key processes circumferentially at level 4. These are grouped under the headings of customer support, product/process and manufacturing. CIM architecture

Data dictionary

Data repository and store

A layered structure

Repository builder

Product data management (PDM): CIM implementation software The four major modules typically contained within the PDM software are

Process models

Process project management

Data management

Data and information kitting

The PDM environment provides links to a number of software packages used by a company. They are

A CAD package

A manufacturing/production management package

A word processing package

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Databases for various applications

Life-cycle data

Communication fundamentals

A frequency

An amplitude

A phase which continuously changes

A bandwidth

An introduction to baseband and broadband

Telephone terminology

Digital communications

Local area networks

Signal transmission, baseband and broadband

Interconnection media

Topology

Star topology

Ring topology

Bus topology

Tree topology

LAN implementations

Client server architecture

Networks and distributed systems

Multi-tier and high speed LANs

Network management and installation

Security and administration

Performance

Flexibility

User interface

Installation Opportunities include:

• "Best Practice" focus emerging in the industry.

• Opportunity to undertake Global benchmarking.

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Main Threats and Restraints are:

• Intra-industry competition for funding (both levy and matching).

• Industry apathy/scepticism.

BENEFITS OF CIM :

A reduction in inventory translates into higher profits.matching). • Industry apathy/scepticism. BENEFITS OF CIM : Tangible Benefits: Higher Profits, less direct labor

Tangible Benefits:: A reduction in inventory translates into higher profits. Higher Profits, less direct labor ,Increased machine

Higher Profits, less direct labor ,Increased machine utilization ,Reduced scrap and rework ,Increased factory capacity ,Reduced inventory ,Shortened new product development time, Decreased warranty costs, Shorter lead times for all process.inventory translates into higher profits. Tangible Benefits: Intangible Benefits : Higher employee moral ,Safer working

Intangible Benefits :warranty costs, Shorter lead times for all process. Higher employee moral ,Safer working environment ,Improved

Higher employee moral ,Safer working environment ,Improved customer iage ,Greater Scheduling flexibility ,Grater ease in recruiting new employees, Increased job security ,Moral opportunities for upgrading skills.Shorter lead times for all process. Intangible Benefits : CIM I & II: Fundamental concept of

CIM I & II:

Fundamental concept of information and communication technology like Computers, communication and database systems. In CIM-I 4 th generation of computer is used and is called as CIM-I.LSI and VLSI technology is used for CIM- I. In CIM- II the main focus is on flexibility in automated processes of manufacturing that are characterized by the operation of NC-Machines and industrial robots. Typical systems of the flexible automation are FMC (Flexible manufacturing cells), flexible production lines, Flexible production systems. The parallel processing is done in CIM-II with Designing and Modeling or Analysis.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing
Computer Integrated Manufacturing EDI : CIM I & II Electronic Data Interchange Electronic Data Interchange (EDI

EDI :

CIM I & II

Electronic Data Interchange

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is simply a set of data definitions that permit business forms that would have been exchanged using paper in the past, to be exchanged electronically. This simple set of definitions has spurred a number of components of an industry to put in place an operational environment in which the exchange of electronic form data substitutes for the exchange of paper forms of data. This has resulted, in some cases, in the establishment of an EDI environment, which arguably represents the most advanced state of computer integrity today, causing some to view EDI and CIM as one and the same. We view EDI only as a subset of electronic commerce applied in manufacturing, albeit a very important one. As such, EDI provides an excellent example of a working in an intelligent environment and is a good starting point for application in CIM.

Electronic data interchange aims at single point collection of data for use by various departments participating in an industrial activity.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

OBJECTIVE

The basic documents for transaction of manufacturing data will be taken only once by one department of industry and other departments will take the information from the first one electronically, avoiding the need to either physically take the document from one office to another or keying in the data again and again involving the attendant problems of manual labor and errors creeping in at each stage of data entry etc….

FUTURE SCENARIO It should be possible to create a few or even a single message/document for the entire process of manufacturing in the course of Automated manufacturing.

Once VSAT connectivity is established with all Customs / Excise formations in India, all modal verifications, end use certificate, re warehousing certificate for transfer of material, TRA's could be made immediately. Above all there would be uniformity in assessment decision all over India.

EDI is a way of business life. It is based on the principle of trust and contractual obligations. Once Evidence act and other laws of the land recognize. EDI transactions and provide for the same by fast set tlement of disputes, it should be possible to do away with requirements for paper documentation, i.e., there would be no necessity to submit product design ,manufacturing data ,scheduling ,material handling path generation etc in paper. Records need only be kept at the offices of Importers / Exporters for a minimum period, for verification by concerned authorities, if required. Since EDI is based on trust, there would be no need for examination of cargo in a routine manner , the facility of Green Channel would apply to almost 80% of cases of regular Importers with a clean tract record. Therefore it is essential that Govt., trade and transporters recognize the likely benefits and move forward to establish a regime of mutual trust and confidence.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Electronic Data Inter-change (EDI) is a way of business life, which thrives in an environment based on trust of faith, whereas in the present manual system the procedures and practices are all based on lack of trust and faith. Attitudinal change in the officers and the business people is required to adopt to EDI. EDI is a reality, EDI cannot be introduced in a significant way unless we have complete overhaul of working system, methods and procedures. Above all unless the Laws/Acts governing business in the country are amended to recognize EDI transactions, full-fledged EDI is not possible. Unless sincere efforts are made to transform the working environment, with a distinct positive attitude we would be left behind in the interest of the nations economic prosperity we adopt ourselves to global scenario and move towards paperless transaction system.

Definition and Use of EDI. EDI is the computer-to-computer interchange of strictly

formatted messages that represent documents other than monetary instruments. EDI implies a sequence of messages between two persons, person and machine, machine and person, machine and machine either of whom may serve as originator or recipient. The formatted data representing the documents may be transmitted from manufacturer to recipient via telecommunications or physically transported on electronic storage media.

In EDI, the usual processing of received messages is by computer only. Human intervention in the processing of a received message is typically intended only for error conditions, fo r quality review, and for special situations. For example, the transmission of binary or textual data is not EDI as defined here unless the data are treated as one or more data elements of an EDI message and are not normally intended for human interpretation as part of on-line data processing.

Standards Required for EDI. From the point of view of the standards needed, EDI may be defined as an interchange between computers of a sequence of standardized messages taken from a predetermined set of message types. Each message is composed, according to a standardized syntax, of a sequence of standardized data elements. It is the standardization of message formats using a standard syntax, and the standardization of data elements within the messages, that makes possible the assembling, disassembling, and processing of the messages by computer.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Implementation of EDI requires the use of a family of interrelated standards. Standards are required for,

(a)

The syntax used to compose the messages and separate the various parts of a message,

(b)

Types and definitions of application data elements, most of variable length,

(c)

The message types, defined by the identification and sequence of data elements forming

each message, and

(d) The definitions and sequence of control data elements in message headers and trailers.

Additional standards may define:

(e)

A set of short sequences of data elements called data segments,

(f)

The manner in which more than one message may be included in a single transmission,

and

(g)

The

manner

of

adding

protective

measures

for

integrity,

confidentiality,

and

authentication into transmitted messages.

The Long-Range Goal for EDI Standards. There are several different EDI standards in use today, but the achievement of a single universally-used family of EDI standards is a long- range goal. A single universally-used family of standards would make use of EDI more efficient and minimize aggregate costs of use. Specifically, it would (a) minimize needs for training of personnel in use and maintenance of EDI standards, (b) eliminate duplication of functionality and the costs of achieving that duplication now existing in different systems of standards, (c) minimize requirements for different kinds of translation software, and (d) allow for a universal set of data elements that would ease the flow of data among different but interconnected applications, and thereby maximize useful information interchange.

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Application:

Examples of applications (not necessarily the subject of current standards) are:

a. vendor search and selection: price/sales catalogs, bids, proposals, requests for

quotations, notices of contract solicitation, debarment data, trading partner profiles;

b.

acknowledgments, purchase order changes;

c. product data: specifications, manufacturing instructions, reports of test results, safety data;

d. shipping, forwarding, and receiving: shipping manifests, bills of lading, shipping

status reports, receiving reports;

e. customs: release information; manifest update;

f. payment information: invoices, remittance advices, payment status inquiries,

payment acknowledgments; g. inventory control: stock level reports, resupply requests, warehouse activity reports;

h. maintenance: service schedules and activity, warranty data;

i. tax-related data: tax information and filings;

j. insurance-related data: health care claim; mortgage insurance application;

k. other government activities: communications license application; court conviction

record; hazardous material report; healthcare event report.

purchase orders, purchase order

contract award: notices of award,

BENEFITS OF EDI:

More Secure than paper

Cost savings

Acknowledgements from receiving institution

Speed

Easy partner exchange each term

Automated transfer articulation

Small file size

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

GANPAT UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

E NGINEERING U V P ATEL C OLLEGE OF E NGINEERING C OMPUTER I NTEGRATED M

COMPUTER INTEGRATED M ANUFACTURING ( 3ME1 1 5)

M. T

ECH CAD-CAM

.

EXPERIMENT NO: 2

DATE:

/

/

AIM: TO STUDY INTRODUCTION TO FMS, FLEXIBILITIES IN FMS AND ITS

MEASUREMENT

FMS :

CRITERION.

FMS is an integrated approach to automating a production. The primaryI N F MS A ND I TS M EASUREMENT FMS : C RITERION . characteristic

characteristic of an FMS is that it is a computer-controlled manufacturing system that

ties together storage, manufacturing machines, inspection, tooling, and materials

handling equipment. The FMS is designed to be flexible so that it can manufacture a

variety of products at relatively low volumes, with minimum lead time between

product changes.

A flexible manufacturing system is highly automated GT machine cell, consisting oflow volumes, with minimum lead time between product changes. group of processing workstation, interconnected by automated

group of processing workstation, interconnected by automated material handling and

storage system and controlled by distributed computer system. The reason the FMS

is called flexible is that it is capable of processing a variety of different part, systems

and quantity of production.

An FMS relies on principle of group technology. No manufacturing system can beof different part, systems and quantity of production. completely flexible. These are limits to the range

completely flexible. These are limits to the range of parts or products that can be

made in an FMS.

A more appropriate term for an FMS would be flexible automated system tothe range of parts or products that can be made in an FMS. differentiate it from

differentiate it from manned GT machine cell of conventional transfer line.

NEED OF FMS

The key objective in manufacturing is to get the right raw materials or to the right

machines at the right time.

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Examples indicate the underutilization of equipment and gross inefficiencies existing in a vast majority of Manu factoring industries. The common day to day disturbances within overall manufacturing process consisting of:

1. Priority changes

2. Eng. Design changes

3. Tooling difficulties

4. Machine breakdowns

5. Processing problems

6. Lost, Misplaced and scrapped parts

7. Vendor lateness

What is needed in today‘s competitive environment, regardless of what products a particular company make. This implies that:

1. There should be minimum delay between order placement and order delivery.

2. Quality and reliability should be high.

3. Operating costs should be predictable and under control.

4. Replacement parts should be available and accessible on a quick turnaround basis.

OBJECTIVES OF FMS :

1. Improve operational control through :

Reduction in the number of uncontrollable variables.

Providing tools to recognize and rect quickly to deviations in the

manufacturing plan

Reducing dependence on human communication

2. Reduce direct labor through :

Removing operators from the machining site.

Eliminating dependence on highly skilled machinists

Providing a catalyst to introduce and support unattended or lightly

attended machine operation

3. Improve short-run responsiveness consisting of :

Engg. Changes

Processing changes

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Machine downtime of unavailability

Cutting tool failure

Late material delivery

4. Improve long-run accommodations through quicker and easier

assimilation of :

Changing product volumes

New product additions and Introductions

Different part mixes

5. Increase machine utilization by :

Eliminating machine setup

Utilizing automated features to replace manual intervention

Providing quick transfer devices to keep machines in the cutting cycle

6. Reduce inventory by :

Reducing lot sizes

Improving inventory turnovers

Providing the planning tools for just-in-time manufacturing

AREAS OF APPLICATIONS OF FMS :

The FMS is applicable in other manufacturing & machining:

Assembly of equipmentsFMS is applicable in other manufacturing & machining: Semiconductor component manufacturing Plastic injection

Semiconductor component manufacturingother manufacturing & machining: Assembly of equipments Plastic injection molding Sheet metal fabrication Welding

Plastic injection moldingAssembly of equipments Semiconductor component manufacturing Sheet metal fabrication Welding Textile machinery

Sheet metal fabricationcomponent manufacturing Plastic injection molding Welding Textile machinery manufacture Such systems have

WeldingPlastic injection molding Sheet metal fabrication Textile machinery manufacture Such systems have proved to be

Textile machinery manufacturePlastic injection molding Sheet metal fabrication Welding Such systems have proved to be practical and economical

Such systems have proved to be practical and economical for applications with the following characteristics:

Families of parts with similar geometric features for require similar types of equipment and processesfor applications with the following characteristics: A moderate number of tools and processes steps Moderate

A moderate number of tools and processes stepswith similar geometric features for require similar types of equipment and processes Moderate precision requirements 32

Moderate precision requirementsgeometric features for require similar types of equipment and processes A moderate number of tools and

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

TYPES OF FMS

Having considered the issue of flexibility let us now consider the various types of flexible manufacturing systems. Each FMS is designed for a specific application, that is, a specific family of parts and processes. Therefore, each FMS is custom-engineered and unique. Given these circumstances, one would expect to find a great variety of system designs to satisfy a wide variety of application requirements. Flexible manufacturing system can be distinguished according to following. Number of machines. Level of flexibility

Number of machines.

Flexible manufacturing system can be distinguished according to the number of machines in the system. The following are typical categories:

Single machines cell, Flexible manufacturing cell, and Flexible manufacturing system.

A single machines cell consists of one CNC machining center combined

with a parts storage system for unattended operation. Completed parts are periodically unloaded from the parts storage unit, and raw work parts are loaded into it. The cell can be designed to operate in a batch mode, a flexible mode, or a combination of the two. When operated in a flexible mode, the system satisfies three

of the four flexibility tests. It is capable of (1) processing different part styles, (2) responding to changes in production schedule and (4) accepting new part introductions. Criterion (3), error recovery, cannot be satisfied because if the single machine breaks down, production stops.

A flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) consists of two or three processing

workstations (typically CNC machining centers or turning centers) plus a parts

handling system. The parts handling system is connected to a load/unload station. The handling system usually includes a limited parts storage capacity.

A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) has four or more processing

stations connected mechanically by a common parts handling system and electronically by a distributed computer system. Thus, an important distinction

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

between a FMS and a FMC is in the number of machines: a FMC has two or three machines, while a FMS has four of more. There are usually other differences as well. One is that the FMS generally includes nonproccesing workstations that support production but do not directly participate in it. These other stations include part/pallet washing stations, coordinate measuring machines, and so on. Another difference is that the computer control system of a FMS is generally larger and more

sophisticate, often including function not always found in a cell, such as diagnostics and tool monitoring. These additional functions are needed more in a FMS tha n in a FMC because the FMS is more complex.

A dedicate FMS is designed to produce a limited variety of part styles, and

the complete universe of part to on the system is known in advance. The part family is likely to be based on product commonality rather than geometric similarity. The product design is considered stable, so the system can be designed with a certain amount of process specialization to make the operation more efficient. Instead of being general propose the machines can be designed for the specific processes required to make the machine sequence may be identical or nearly identical for all parts processed, so a transfer line may be appropriate, in which the workstations

possess the necessary the machine sequence may be identical or nearly identical for all parts processed, so a transfer line may be appropriate, in which the workstations possess the necessary a transfer line may be appropriate, in which the workstations possess the necessary flexibility to process the different parts in the mi x.

A random-order FMS is more appropriate when the part family is large,

there are substantial variations in part configurations, new part designs will be introduced into the system and engineering changes will occur in parts currently produced, and the production schedule is subject to change from day to day. To accommodate these variations, the random-order FMS must be more flexible than the dedicated FMS. It is equipped with general purpose machines to deal with the variations in product and is capable of processing parts in various sequences (random order). A more sophisticated computer control system is required for this FMS type.

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

FMS LAYOUT CONFIGURATION :

The material handling system establishes the FMS layout. Most layout configuration found in today's FMS can be divided into five categories.

In-line layout.in today's FMS can be divided into five categories. Loop layout. Ladder layout. Open Field layout.

Loop layout.FMS can be divided into five categories. In-line layout. Ladder layout. Open Field layout. Robot Controlled

Ladder layout.divided into five categories. In-line layout. Loop layout. Open Field layout. Robot Controlled cell Computer control

Open Field layout.five categories. In-line layout. Loop layout. Ladder layout. Robot Controlled cell Computer control system: The FMS

Robot Controlled cell Computer control system:layout. Loop layout. Ladder layout. Open Field layout. The FMS includes a distributed computer system that

The FMS includes a distributed computer system that is interfaced to the workstation, material handling system and other hardware components. A typical FMS computer system consists of central computer components. The various control requirements are:

1. Workstation control

2. Distribution of control instruction to work station

3. Production cycle

4. Shuttle control

5. Traffic control

6. W/p monitoring

7. Tool control

8. Performance monitoring & reporting

9. Diagnostics

HUMAN RESOURCES:

One additional component in the FMS is human labor. The use of manpower in FMS is attributed to the following functions.

Loading/unloadingof manpower in FMS is attributed to the following functions. Changing & setting tools Maintenance &

Changing & setting toolsis attributed to the following functions. Loading/unloading Maintenance & repair NC part programming Overall

Maintenance & repairfollowing functions. Loading/unloading Changing & setting tools NC part programming Overall management of system 35

NC part programmingfunctions. Loading/unloading Changing & setting tools Maintenance & repair Overall management of system 35

Overall management of systemto the following functions. Loading/unloading Changing & setting tools Maintenance & repair NC part programming 35

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

FMS BENEFITS :

A number of benefits expected in successful FMS application.

Increase machine utilization.A number of benefits expected in successful FMS application. Fewer machine required. Less factory floor space

Fewer machine required.in successful FMS application. Increase machine utilization. Less factory floor space required. Lower manufacturing lead

Less factory floor space required.Increase machine utilization. Fewer machine required. Lower manufacturing lead times. Reduced inventory

Lower manufacturing lead times.Fewer machine required. Less factory floor space required. Reduced inventory requirements. Reduced direct labor

Reduced inventory requirements.floor space required. Lower manufacturing lead times. Reduced direct labor requirements & higher productivity.

Reduced direct labor requirements & higher productivity.manufacturing lead times. Reduced inventory requirements. So for high productivity for all batch size, large of

So for high productivity for all batch size, large of smallReduced direct labor requirements & higher productivity. Lower storage costs. Reduced labor if not altogether

Lower storage costs.So for high productivity for all batch size, large of small Reduced labor if not altogether

Reduced labor if not altogether avoiding labor.for all batch size, large of small Lower storage costs. reduced handling flexible production system to

reduced handlingcosts. Reduced labor if not altogether avoiding labor. flexible production system to incorporate product changes At

flexible production system to incorporate product changeslabor if not altogether avoiding labor. reduced handling At short notice to meet customer's specific

At short notice to meet customer's specific requirements.flexible production system to incorporate product changes Unity for unattended production. F LEXIBLITY I N FMS:

Unity for unattended production.short notice to meet customer's specific requirements. F LEXIBLITY I N FMS: Types of Flexibility in

FLEXIBLITY IN FMS:

Types of Flexibility in FMS are as following :-

1. Machine Flexibility

2. Process Flexibility

3. Product Flexibility

4. Routing Flexibility

5. Volume Flexibility

6. Expansion Flexibility

7. Operation Flexibility

8. Production Flexibility

[1] Machine Flexibility "Ease of making change required to produce a given set of part type." Depends of Factors:

of making change required to produce a given set of part type." Depends of Factors: Setup

Setup or change over time.

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Ease of machine reprogramming (ease with which part program can be downloaded to machine).Computer Integrated Manufacturing Tool storage capacity of machines. Skill and versatility of workers in the system.

Tool storage capacity of machines.(ease with which part program can be downloaded to machine). Skill and versatility of workers in

Skill and versatility of workers in the system. Measures: Measures:

Time to replace worn-out or broken cutting tools.Skill and versatility of workers in the system. Measures: Time to change tools in a tool

Time to change tools in a tool magazine.Measures: Time to replace worn-out or broken cutting tools. Time to assemble or mount the new

Time to assemble or mount the new fixtures.cutting tools. Time to change tools in a tool magazine. Machine tool setup time - Tool

Machine tool setup timea tool magazine. Time to assemble or mount the new fixtures. - Tool preparation - Part

- Tool preparation

- Part positioning and releasing

- NC part program change over

How to attain machine flexibility?

By using sophisticated tool-loading and part loading devices(technological progress)

By using sophisticated tool-loading and part loading devices(technological progress)

Minimize tool changes (proper operation assignment)

Minimize tool changes (proper operation assignment)

Bring the part and required tool together to the machine (technological capability)

Bring the part and required tool together to the machine (technological capability)

changes (proper operation assignment) Bring the part and required tool together to the machine (technological capability)

[2]

Process Flexibility "Ability to produce a given set of part types in several ways" Depends on Factors:

Machine flexibilityset of part types in several ways" Depends on Factors: Skills of workers Measure: The number

Skills of workers Measure: Measure:

The number of part types that can be simultaneously processed without using batches. How to attain process flexibility? How to attain process flexibility?

By using machine flexibilitywithout using batches. How to attain process flexibility? By using Multi-purpose, adoptable, and CNC machining

By using Multi-purpose, adoptable, and CNC machining centers.can be simultaneously processed without using batches. How to attain process flexibility? By using machine flexibility

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

[3]

Product Flexibility "Ability to change over to new set of products economically and quickly." Depends on Factors:

How closely the new part design matches the existing part familyproducts economically and quickly." Depends on Factors: Off-line part program preparation Machine flexibility

Off-line part program preparationclosely the new part design matches the existing part family Machine flexibility Measure: The time required

Machine flexibility Measure:

Machine flexibility Measure:

The time required from one part mix to another How to attain process flexibility?

The time required from one part mix to another How to attain process flexibility?

By using an efficient and automated production planning and control system which containing.one part mix to another How to attain process flexibility? (i) Automatic operation assignment procedure (ii)

(i)

Automatic operation assignment procedure

(ii)

Automatic pallet distribution calculation capability

By using machine flexibility.(ii) Automatic pallet distribution calculation capability [4] Routing Flexibility "Ability to handle

[4]

Routing Flexibility "Ability to handle breakdowns (machines, tools, etc)."

- Either a part type can be processed via. Several routes OR

- Equivalently, each operation can be performed on more than one machine Routing flexibility is of two types:

(i) Potential: - part route are fixed but parts are automatically rerouted

when a breakdown occurs

(ii) Actual: - Identical parts are actually processed through different

routes, independent of breakdown.

Depends on Factors:

Similarity of parts in the mix.routes, independent of breakdown. Depends on Factors: Similarity of workstation. Duplication of workstation. Cross

Similarity of workstation.Depends on Factors: Similarity of parts in the mix. Duplication of workstation. Cross training of manual

Duplication of workstation.Factors: Similarity of parts in the mix. Similarity of workstation. Cross training of manual workers. Common

Cross training of manual workers.on Factors: Similarity of parts in the mix. Similarity of workstation. Duplication of workstation. Common tooling.

Common tooling.of parts in the mix. Similarity of workstation. Duplication of workstation. Cross training of manual workers.

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Measure :

Robustness of FMS (Continuity of production)Computer Integrated Manufacturing Measure : How to attain process flexibility? By allowing automated and automatic

How to attain process flexibility?

By allowing automated and automatic rerouting of parts (potential routing flexibility)of production) How to attain process flexibility? Pooling machines into machine groups Duplicating operation

Pooling machines into machine groupsautomatic rerouting of parts (potential routing flexibility) Duplicating operation assignments (Actual routing

Duplicating operation assignments (Actual routing flexibility)routing flexibility) Pooling machines into machine groups [5] Volume Flexibility "Ability to operate an FMS

[5]

Volume Flexibility "Ability to operate an FMS profitable at different production volume" Depends on Factors :

Level of manual labor performing production

Level of manual labor performing production

Amount invested in capital equipment Measure :

Amount invested in capital equipment Measure :

Smallest volumes for all part types that allow the system run profitably How to attain

Smallest volumes for all part types that allow the system run profitably How to attain volume flexibility ?

By using multi purpose machinessystem run profitably How to attain volume flexibility ? Layout not dedicated to a particular process

Layout not dedicated to a particular processattain volume flexibility ? By using multi purpose machines By using sophisticated, automated materials handling system,

By using sophisticated, automated materials handling system, e.g. intelligent carts (not fixed-route conveyors)machines Layout not dedicated to a particular process Though routing flexibility [6] Expansion Flexibility

Though routing flexibilitysystem, e.g. intelligent carts (not fixed-route conveyors) [6] Expansion Flexibility "Ease of modularly

[6]

Expansion Flexibility "Ease of modularly expanding a system" Depends on Factors :

Expense of adding workstationof modularly expanding a system" Depends on Factors : Ease with which layout can be expanded

Ease with which layout can be expandedDepends on Factors : Expense of adding workstation Type of part handling system used Ease with

Type of part handling system usedof adding workstation Ease with which layout can be expanded Ease with which properly trained workers

Ease with which properly trained workers can be addedon Factors : Expense of adding workstation Ease with which layout can be expanded Type of

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Measure :

How long the FMS can becomeComputer Integrated Manufacturing Measure : How to attain volume flexibility ? Non-dedicated, non-process driven layout

How to attain volume flexibility ?

Non-dedicated, non-process driven layoutlong the FMS can become How to attain volume flexibility ? Flexible materials handling system containing

Flexible materials handling system containing wire guided cartsflexibility ? Non-dedicated, non-process driven layout Modular flexible machining cells with pallet changers

Modular flexible machining cells with pallet changersmaterials handling system containing wire guided carts Through routing flexibility. [7] Operation Flexibility

Through routing flexibility.carts Modular flexible machining cells with pallet changers [7] Operation Flexibility "Ability to interchange the

[7]

Operation Flexibility "Ability to interchange the ordering of (some) operations for each part type" Depends on Factors :

Machine flexibilityoperations for each part type" Depends on Factors : Interchangeability of operation Sequence of operation

Interchangeability of operationpart type" Depends on Factors : Machine flexibility Sequence of operation Measure : Ability and extent

Sequence of operation Measure : Measure :

Ability and extent of not pre-determining the order of all operations, each on a particular machine (type) How to attain volume flexibility ? How to attain volume flexibility ?

Design a decision system to make decision in real-time determining the 'next' operation and the 'next' machine, depending on the system state (idle, busy, bottleneck) of various elements of FMSmachine (type) How to attain volume flexibility ? Through machine flexibility. [8] Production Flexibility

Through machine flexibility.state (idle, busy, bottleneck) of various elements of FMS [8] Production Flexibility "The universe of part

[8]

Production Flexibility "The universe of part types that the FMS can produce" Depends on Factors :

Machine flexibility of individual stationtypes that the FMS can produce" Depends on Factors : Range of machine flexibilities of all

Range of machine flexibilities of all stations in the system Measure : Measure :

Level of existing technology How to attain volume flexibility ? How to attain volume flexibility ?

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Increase the level of technologyComputer Integrated Manufacturing Increase the versatility of the machine tools All previous flexibilities. M EASUREMENT

Increase the versatility of the machine tools All previous flexibilities.Integrated Manufacturing Increase the level of technology M EASUREMENT OF V OLUME F LEXIBILITY Volume Flexibility

MEASUREMENT OF VOLUME FLEXIBILITY

Volume Flexibility

Volume Flexibility is defined as an ability to economically produce parts in high and low total quantities of production, given the fixed investment in the system.

It also defined as an ability of a manufacturing sy stem to be operated profitably at

different overall output levels, thus allowing the system to adjust production within a wide range. Different factors which act on volume flexibility system are as followings :

1)

level of manual labour performing production.

2)

Amount invested in capital equipment.

Following are the aspects for which product flexibility is working :

1)

Change in production rate in the past & present production levels.

2)

Ability to utilized space capacity in case of order shortage.

3)

In case of under demand utilizing capacity with time rescheduling.

4)

In case of order shortage cost incurred for rescheduling.

5)

Increment the investment for leading time.

6)

Extra cost involved in sub contracting.

7)

Cost implication for lost order in past due to over demand.

8) Extra cost generated due to overtime, deteriorated quality or increased

9)

breakdown to meet the demands. To minimize fluctuation of demand adopt different strategy.

Product flexibility measurement Product flexibility is reflected by the ease with which new parts can be added or substituted for existing parts. Product flexibility helps the firm to respond to the market by

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

enabling it to bring newly designed products quickly to the market. It is measured through the response through the response to the question on the following aspects.

a) Varity of products being manufactured

b) Frequency of producing new products.

c) No. Of new products introduced at various intervals.

d) Time & cost required to change tooling and software to accommodate different products.

e) Major change made in product design.

f) Minor change made in product design.

Now here there is an example of volume flexibility is as follow :

SOLVED PROBLEM (1) A survey is carried out for three companies (X,Y, & Z) for finding the status of volume flexibility within their company. the score of different aspects as written above are mention in the following table-1 based on the questionnaire for the aspects. The weightage of each parameter towards volume flexibility has been determined by calculating eight vectors & normalizing it. Table-2 shows the contribution of different factors towards flexibility.

Aspects

                 

(Parameters)

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

Score of X

2

3

3

1

4

3

4

2

4

Score of Y

1

4

3

2

3

4

3

3

2

Score of Z

2

2

4

4

3

4

2

3

3

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Aspects

                 

(Parameters)

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

Weightage

For

                 

X

.4395

.0193

.0122

.0257

.1233

.2151

.0167

.0394

.1084

Weightage

For

                 

Y

.0111

.0286

.4531

.0182

.0156

.0398

.1102

.1123

.2121

Weightage

For

                 

Z

.2222

.1005

.1204

.0288

.0111

.0152

.4423

.0211

.0101

Find the volume flexibility for three companies and its average value. Show volume flexibility for three companies X,Y, & Z. Solution:

The volume flexibility =

w

x

s x
s
x

4

Where, Wx is the weightage of Xth. Factor, and Sx is the score of question based on Xth factor.

Note : Based on this, volume flexibility values of surveyed enterprise are found in a scale of 0 to 1 so found out.

For Company X :

The volume flexibility =

w

x

s x
s
x

4

Based on above equation,

VFx =

[(0.4395

x 2) / 4] + [(0.0193

x 3) / 4] + [(0.0122

x 3) / 4] + [(0.0257

x 1) / 4] +

[(0.1223

x 4) / 4] + [(0.2151

x 3) / 4] + [(0.0167

x 4) / 4] + [(0.0394

x 2) / 4] +

[(0.01084 x 4) / 4]

= 0.21975+0.014475+0.00915+0.006425+0.1233+0.161325+0.0167+0.0394+0.1084

= 0.698925

VFx = 0.70

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For Company Y :

The volume flexibility =

w

x

s x
s
x

4

Based on above equation, VFy = [(0.0111) / 4] + [(0.0286 x 4) / 4] + [(0.4531 x 3) / 4] [(0.0182 x 2) / 4] +

[(0.0156

[(0.2121 x 2) / 4]

x 3) / 4] + [(0.0398 x 4) / 4] [(0.1102 x 3) / 4] [(0.1123 x 3) / 4] +

= 0.002775+0.0286+0.009718995+0.0091+0.0117+0.0398+0.08265+0.084225 + 0.10605

= 0.37461 VFy = 0.375

For Company Z :

The volume flexibility =

w

x

s x
s
x

4

Based on above equation,

VFz =

[(0.2222

x 2) / 4] + [(0.1005

x 2) / 4] + [(0.1204

x 2) / 4] + [(0.0288

x 2) / 4] +

[(0.0111

x 3) / 4] + [(0.0152

x 4) / 4] + [(0.4423

x 2) / 4] + [(0.0211

x 3) / 4] +

[(0.0101 x 3) / 4]

 

=

0.1111+0.05025+0.1204+0.0288+0.008325+0.0152+0.22115+0.015825+0.007575

=

0.578625

VFz = 0.58 Now, average value of volume flexibility for companies X,Y,Z is,

VF

a

VF VF VF x y z 3
VF VF VF
x
y
z
3

VFa = [(0.70 + 0.375 + 0.58)/3] VFa = 0.55167 VFa = 0.552

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(2)

A survey is carried out for three companies (P, Q, and R) for finding the status of product flexibility within their company. The scope of different aspects (as written above) are mentioned in the following table-1, based on the questionnaire prepared for these aspects. The weightage of each parameter towards product flexibility has been determined by calculating. Eigen vector and normaling it. Table-2 shows the contribution of different factors towards product flexibility.

Aspects

         

(Parameters)

a b

 

c

d

e

f

Score of P

1 3

 

2

1

4

3

Score of Q

1 3

 

4

2

4

4

Score of R

2 2

 

1

4

3

4

 

Table-1

 

Aspects

           

(Parameters)

 

a

b

c

d

e

f

Weightage

For

           

P

0.1605

0.1331

0.0747

0.5187

0.1125

0.00036

Weightage

For

           

Q

0.1595

0.1055

0.0858

0.6071

0.2111

0.00122

Weightage

For

           

R

0.2021

0.00095

0.5567

0.0785

0.1423

0.1795

Table-2

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Find the product flexibility for three companies and its average value. Show product flexibility and their status on histogram for three P,Q, and R

Solution :

The product flexibility =

w

x

s x
s
x

4

where, Wx is the Weightage of Xth factor, and Sx is the score of question based on Xth factor.

Note : Based on this, product flexibility values of surveyed enterprise are found on a scale of 0 to 1 is found out.

For Company P :

The product flexibility =

w

x

s x
s
x

4

Based on the above equation.

VFp = [(0.1602 x 1) / 4] + [(0.1331 x 3) / 4] + [(0.0747 x 2) / 4] + [(0.2187 x 1) / 4] +

[(0.1125 x 4) / 4] + [(0.00036 x 3) / 4]

VFp = 0.040125+0.099825+0.03735+0.129675+0.1125+0.00027 = 0.419745 VFp = 0.42 For Company Q :

The product flexibility =

w

x

s x
s
x

4

Based on the above equation.

VFQ =[(0.1595 x 1) / 4] + [(0.1055 x 3) / 4] + [(0.0858 x 4) / 4] + [(0.6071 x 2) / 4] +

[(0.2111 x 3) / 4] + [(0.00122 x 4) / 4]

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VFQ =0.039875+0.079125+0.0858+0.30355+0.158325+0.00122

= 0.667895

= 0.67

For Company R :

The product flexibility =

w

x

s x
s
x

4

Based on the above equation.

VFR = [(0.2021 x 2) / 4] + [(0.00095 x 2) / 4] + [(0.5567 x 1) / 4] + [(0.0785 x 1) / 4] + [(0.1423 x 3) / 4] + [(0.1795 x 4) / 4]

VFR = 0.10105+0.000475+0.139175+0.0785+0.106725+0.1795 = 0.605425 VFR = 0.61

Now, average value of product flexibility for companies X,Y, and Z is,

VF

a

VF VF VF P Q R 3
VF
VF
VF
P
Q
R
3

VFa = [(0.42 + 0.67 + 0.61) / 3] VFa = 0.5666667 VFa = 0.567

Computer Integrated Manufacturing

GANPAT UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

E NGINEERING U V P ATEL C OLLEGE OF E NGINEERING C OMPUTER I NTEGRATED M

COMPUTER INTEGRATED M

M. T

ANUFACTURING ( 3ME1 1 5)

ECH CAD-CAM

.

EXPERIMENT NO: 3

DATE:

/

/

AIM: TO S TUDY QUA NTITATIVE ANALYSIS O F FMS USING BOTTLENECK

MODEL.

INTRODUCTION:

Implementation of an FMS represents a major investment and commitment by the

user company. It is important that the installation of the FMS system be precede by

thorough planning and design, and that its operation characterized by good management for

all resources: machines, tools, pallets, parts, and people. But there are always some issues

relating with the FMS planning, design, and operations. Most of the operational, and design

related FMS problems can be addressed using quantitative analysis techniques. FMSs have

constituted an active area of interest in operations research, and many of the important

contributions that are included in list of references.

Classification of Quantitative Analysis:

FMS analysis techniques can be classified as follows:

(1) Deterministic models.

(2) Queuing models.

(3) Discrete Event Simulation.

(4) Other approaches, including heuristics.

DETERMINISTIC MODELS:

To obtain starting estimates of the system performance, deterministic models can be

used. The deterministic modeling approach is useful in the beginning stages of FMS design

to provide rough estimates of system parameters such as production rate, capacity, and

utilization. Deterministic models do not permit evaluation pf operating characteristics such

as the build up of ques and other dynamics that can impair performance of the production

system. Consequently, deterministic models tend to overestimate FMS performance.

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On the other hand, if actual system performanc e is much lower than the estimates provided by these models, it may be a sign of either poor system design or poor management of the FMS operation. Queuing Models:

Queuing models can be used to describe some of the dynamics not accounted for in deterministic approaches. These models are based on the mathematical theory of queues. They permit the inclusion of queues, but only in a general way and for relatively simple system configurations. The performance measures that are calculated are usually average values for steady-state operation of the system. Probably the most well known of the FMS queuing model is CAN-Q, that is closed queuing network and developed by Soldberg in 1978. Kimemia and Gershwin in 1978 have presented an optimization model with work center level complexity (i.e., with all machines at a work center having the same process time for all part types) for an open-queuing network. Secco Suardo coupled a non-linear programming formulation with a closed-queuing network model for a single class of jobs.

FMSs can be analyzed using queuing network models for performance evaluation and optimization for system design and planning, one was developed by Chatterjee in 1984. In his model, a work piece goes through a series of operations at various work centers before it is unloaded from the system. A path for a given work piece is defined as a sequential set of operations. The flexibility of the system allows for various kinds of parts to be processed at the same time. The work center may consist of a single machine capable of performing a single job or multiple jobs (i.e., multi-tool machine with automated tool changing capabilities) or a group of machines. Hence, a work piece which enters the system has the option of going to several different workstations. This is governed by the type of operation required on a job and gives rise to at least one path which the job ma y follow before being unloaded. Therefore, the network of work centers a nd the transportation system (connecting work centers and the load/unload center) allows many possible paths for a work piece to move through the system. It has been found that variety and fluctuations in the demand of various work pieces or parts being routed influence the nature of the FMS routing procedure. The pioneering work in the area of analytical modeling of FMS was done by Solberg in 1978, with the development of the CAN-Q model based on a closed queuing network.

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Each of the FMS models has vast variety of the modeling formulation details, but here in this experiment our main focus is on the bottle -neck model (Deterministic model), we will not go in depth of the other models.

DISCRETE EVENT SIMULATION:

In the letter stages of design, discrete event simulation probably offers the most accurate method for modeling the specific aspects of the given FMS. The computer model can be constructed to closely resemble the details of a complex FMS operation. Characteristics such layout configuration, number of pallets in the system, and production scheduling rules can be incorporated into the FMS simulation model. Indeed, the simulation can be helpful in determining optimum values for these parameters. A discrete-event simulation based on a discrete-state model fires the event with the earliest scheduled time among all scheduled events enabled in the current state. As a result, the current state may change, in turn causing some formerly enabled events to become disabled, and some disabled ones to become enabled. The process starts with the initial state, which is normally an input specified by the model itself, and, along the way, it accumulates state-dependent measures, or rewards, which in turn are used to compute statistics such as means and variances. The simulation ends according to various criteria, such as maximum number of events or runtime reached, or desired precision of some measures met. While the system model can have an enormous or even infinite state space, only a finite but large subset of states is of course explored on any finite run (with some states likely to be visited multiple times). Analogously, the number of possible state- to-state transitions is also large. In practice, this makes it impossible to use a low-level formalism (i.e., one where all states and transitions are explicitly enumerated). For this reason, high-level formalisms, i.e., those where a global state is described as a vector of local (sub)states, such that events affect some of these components, are quite popular.

Examples include Petri nets and queuing models: while their description is compact, they can define complex under- lying low-level stochastic processes. A standard simulation engine can then interact with such a high-level model just as with a low-level model, provided we specify a well-defined interface that maps such a structured model onto the under- lying flat view of the low-level process. Since the underlying state space of the modeled system is still the same, though, the runtime remains large; in fact, it is made even

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worse by the a dditional ov erhead introduced by a high-lev el model.

OTHER TECHNIQUES:

The other techniques that have been applied to analyze FMS design and operational problems include mathematical programming and various heuristic approaches.

BOTTLENECK MODEL:

Important aspects of FMS performance can be mathematically described by a deterministic model called the bottleneck model, developed by Solberg. Notwithstanding the limitations of a deterministic approach, the value of the bottleneck model is that it is simple and intuitive. It can be used to provide starting estimates of FMS design parameters such as production rate and number of workstations. The term bottleneck refers to the fact that the output of the production system has an upper limit, given that the product mix flowing through the system is fixed.

The model can be applied to any production system that possesses this bottleneck feature, for an instance, a manually operated machine cell or a production job shop. It is not limited to FMSs.

TERMINOLOGY AND SYMBOLS FOR BOTTLENECK:-

First we should go through the features, terms, and symbols for the bottleneck model as they might be applied to an FMS:

Part Mix:

The mix of various part or product styles produced by the system is defined by p j=

the fraction of the total system output that is of style j. The subscript j=1,2,3,4,………,P, where P = the total number of different part styles made in the FMS during the time period of interest. The values of p j must sum to unity: that is,

n P 1.0 j i 1
n
P
1.0
j
i
1

Workstations and Servers:

The flexible production system has a number of distinctly different workstations n. In the terminology of the bottleneck model, each workstation may have more than one

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server, which simply means that it is possible to have two or more machines capable of

performing the same operations. Using the terms ―stations‖, and ―servers‖ in the bottleneck

model is a precise way of distinguishing between machines that accomplish identical

operations from those that accomplish different operations. Let s i = the number of servers at

workstations i, where

i=1,2,…….,n. We include the load/unload station as one of the stations in the FMS.

Process Routing:

For each part or product, the process routing defines the sequence of operations, the

workstations at which they are performed, ant the associated processing times. The sequence

includes the loading operations at beginning of processing on the FMS and the unloading

operation at the end of the processing. Let

t ijk = processing time, which is the total time that a production unit occupies a given

workstation server, not counting any waiting time at the station. In the notation for t ijk, the

subscript i refers to a station, j refers to the part product, and k refers to the sequence of

operations in the process routing. For example, the fourth operation in the process plan for

A is performed on machine 2 and taken 8.5 min; thus, t 2A4 = 8.5 min. Note that process

plan j is unique to part j. The bottleneck model does not conveniently allow for alternative

process plans for the same part.

Work Handling System:

The material handling system used to transport part or products within the FMS can

be considered to be a special case of workstation s. And it is designated as station n + 1, and

the number of carriers in the system like convey or charts, AGVs, monorail vehicles, etc, is

analogous to the umber of servers in a regular workstation. Let s n+1 = the number of

carriers in the FMS handling system.

Transport Time:

Let t n+1 = the mean transport time required to move a part from one workstation to

the next station in the processing route. This value could be computed for each individual

transport based on transport velocity and distances between stations in the FMS, but it more

convenient to simply use an average transport time for all moves in the FMS.

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Operation Frequency:

The operation frequency is defined as the expected number of times a given operation in the process routing is performed for each work unit. For example, an inspection might be performed on a sampling basis, once every four units: hence, the frequency for this operation would be 0.25. In other cases, the part may have an operation frequency greater than 1.0; for example, for a calibration procedure that may have to be performed more than once on average to be completely effective. Let f ijk = the operation frequency for operation k in process plan j at station i.

FMS Operational Parameters:

Using the above terms, one can text define certain average operational parameters of the production systems. The average work load for a given station is defined as the mean total time spent at the station per part. It is calculated as follows:

WL

i

t f p ijk ijk i
t f p
ijk
ijk
i

j

k

Where WL i = average workload for station i (min), t ijk = processing time for operation k in

process plan j at station I (min), f ijk = operation frequency for operation k in part j at

station I; and p j = part mix fraction for part j. The work holding system (station n + 1) is a special case as noted in the terminology. The worl load of the handling system is the mean transport time multiplied by the average number of transports required to complete the processing of a workpart. The average number of transports is equal to the mean number of operations in the process routing minus one. That is,

n

t

f p ijk j 1.
f p
ijk
j
1.

i

j

k

Where, n t = mean number of transports.

System Performance Measures:

Important measures for assessing the performance of an FMS include production rate of all parts, production rate of each part style, utilizations of the different workstations, and number of busy servers at each workstation. These measures can be calculated under the

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assumption that the FMS is producing at its maximum possible rate. This rate is constrained by the bottleneck station in the system, which is the station with the highest workload per server.

The workload per server is simply the ratio

WL

i

S

i

for each station. Thus

the bottleneck is identified by finding the maximum value of the ratio among all stations. The comparison must include the handling system, since it might be the bottleneck in the station.

WL*, s*, and t* equal the workload, number of servers, and processing time,

respectively, for the bottleneck station. The FMS maximum production rate of all parts can be determined as the ratio of s* to WL*. One should always refer to it as the maximum production rate because it is limited by the capacity of the bottleneck station.

Let

R *

p

* S * WL
*
S
*
WL

Where R* p

= maximum production rate of all part styles produced by the system,

which is determined by the capacity of the bottleneck station (pc/min), s* = number of servers at the bottleneck station, and WL* = workload at the bottleneck station (min/pc). The value of the R* p includes parts of all styles produced in the system. Individual

part production rates,can be determined by multiplying R* p by the respective part mix ratios.

That is,

Where R* pj

R

*

pj

* * P R P S p j j * WL
*
*
P R
P
S
p
j
j
*
WL

= maximum production rate of part style j (pc/min).

The mean utilization of each workstation is the proportion of time that the servers at the stations are working and not idle. This can be computed as follows.

Where Ui = utilization of station i. The utilization of the bottleneck station is

100% at R* p .

To obtain the average station utilization, one simply computes the average value of

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all stations, including the transport system. This can be calculated as follows:

U

n s u i i i 1 n 1
n
s u
i
i
i
1
n
1

Where U is an unweighted average of the workstation utilizations.

A more useful measure of overall FMS utilization can be obtained using a weighted average, where the weighting is based on the number of servers at each station for the n regular systems, and the transport system is omitted from the system. The overall FMS utilization is calculated as follows:

Where Us = overall FMS utilization, Si = number of servers at station i.

Us

n s u i i i 1 n s i i 1
n
s u
i
i
i
1
n
s
i
i
1

Finally, the number of busy server at each station is of interest. All of the servers at the bottleneck station are busy at the maximum production rate, but the s ervers at the other stations are idle some of the time. The values can be calculated as follows:

Where BSi station i.

BS

i

WL * i WL R p i
WL
*
i
WL R
p
i

S

i

= number of busy servers on average station I, and WLi = Workload t

Bottleneck model on a simple problem:

A flexible machining system consists of two machining workstations and a load/unload station. Station-2 performs milling operations and consists of two servers. Station-3 has one server that performs drilling. The stations are connected by a plant

handling system that has four work carriers. The mean transport time is 3.0 min. The FMS produces two parts are presented in the table. The operation frequency is 1.0 for all operations. Determine: a) maximum production rate of the FMS, b) corresponding

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production rates of each product c) utilization of each station, and d) number of busy servers at each stations.

station, and d) number of busy servers at each stations. SOLUTION: a) To compute the FMS

SOLUTION:

a)

To compute the FMS production rate, we first need to compute w orkloads at

each station, so that bottleneck station can be identified.

WL1

=

(4 + 2) (0.4) (1.0) + (4 + 2) (0.6) (1.0)

=

6.0 min.

WL2

=

30 (0.4)

(1.0) + 40 (0.6) (1.0)

=

36.0 min.

WL3

=

10 (0.4)

(1.0)

+ 15 (0.6) (1.0)

=

13.0 min.

The station routing for both parts is the same: 1 → 2→ 3→ 1. There are three moves, nt =

3.

WL4

=

3 (3.0) (0.4) (1.0) +

3 (3.0) (0.6) (1.0)

=

9.0

min.

The bottleneck station is identified by finding the largest WLi / Si ratio.

For station-1, WL1 / S1 For station-2, WL2 / S2

For station-3, WL3 / S3

=

6.0 / 1.0

= 6.0 min.

= 36.0 / 2.0 = 18.0 min.

= 13.0 / 1.0 = 13.0 min.

For station-4, the part handling system, WL4 / S4 = 9.0 / 4 = 2.25 min.

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The maximum ratio occurs at station-2, so it is the bottleneck station that determines the maximum production rate of all parts made by the system.

RP

*

= 2/ 36.0 = 0.05555 pc/ min = 3.333 pc/ hour.

b)To determine production rate of each product, multiply R* p by its respective part mix fraction.

RP

a

RP

b

*

*

= 3.333 (0.4) = 1.333 pc / hour.

= 3.333 (0.6) = 2.00 pc/ hour.

c)The utilization of each station:

*

U1

= (6.0/ 1) (0.05555) = 0.333 U2 = (36.0\ 2) (0.05555) = 1.0 (100%) U3 = (13.0/ 1) (0.05555) = 0.7222 (72.2%) U4 = (9.0/ 4) (0.05555) = 0.125 (12.5%)

6

= WL1

RP

(33.3%)

d)Mean number of busy servers at each station:

= BS2 = WL2

BS1

WL1

RP

* = 6.0 (0.05555) = 0.333.

RP

* =

36.0 (0.05555) = 2.0.

BS3 =

13.0 (0.05555) = 0.722.

BS4

=

9.0 (0.05555) = 0.50.

Extended Bottleneck Model:

Some assumptions of the bottleneck models are

Sufficient number of parts in the system to avoid starving of workstations

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There is no delay due to queues

Extended bottleneck approach can overcome some of the assumptions Assumes a closed queuing network with fixed number of parts in the FMS

When one part is completed and exits the FMS, a new raw workpart Immediately enters the system

Let N be the number of parts in the system

N

plays a critical role in the operation of the system

If

N is smaller than the number of workstations, then some of the stations will be idle

Due to starving even the bottleneck station

If N is large, then the system will be fully loaded with queues of parts waiting in f ront of

stations.

R* p

Long manufacturing lead time.

will provide good estimation of the production capacity.

As per Little's law WIP = Throughput Manufacturing Lead Time (MLT)

NR p (MLT)

MLT

n wl wl 1 T i n w i 1
n
wl
wl
1 T
i
n
w
i
1

Tw - Mean waiting time experienced by a part due to queues at the stations

Based on the value of N(small or high) and Little‘s law, the system parameters (production rate and MLT ) can be calculated.

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Case 1 (small N):

Bottleneck station is not fully utilized.

Production rate is not R* p

Tw of a unit is theoretically zero.

The MLT can be calculated and the production rate can be calculated using Little‘s law.

MLT

1

n wl wl i n 1 i 1
n
wl
wl
i
n
1
i
1

MLT1 - MLT for case 1.

R p

Rpj

N MLT 1
N
MLT
1

=

pj

Rp

Case 2 (Large N):

Production rate is constrained by bottleneck station.

R

*

p

* S * WL
*
S
*
WL

MLT can be calculated using Little‘s law

MLT

2

N *
N
*

RP

T

w

n MLT WL WL 2 i n 1 i 1
n
MLT
WL WL
2
i
n
1
i
1

The dividing line between case 1 and case 2 is depending on the critical value of N

Let N* be the critical value of N

N

*

n * * RP WL WL RP MLT ( ) i n 1 1 i
n
*
*
RP
WL WL
RP MLT
(
)
i
n
1
1
i
1

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Computer Integrated Manufacturing

Graphical Representation of extended bottleneck model:

Graphical Representation of extended bottleneck model: Fig. General behavior of the extended bottleneck model (a)
Graphical Representation of extended bottleneck model: Fig. General behavior of the extended bottleneck model (a)

Fig. General behavior of the extended bottleneck model (a) MLT as a function of N and (b) Production rate as a function of N.

Validity of the model:

The author (Mejabi) of the model compared the result with the result obtained from Queuing model (Can-Q) for several thousand problems An adequacy factor is suggested which describe the discrepancies of this model from queuing model Adequacy factor (AF)

AF

n N U /( S i ) i 1
n
N U
/(
S
i )
i
1

Anticipated discrepancies between the extended bottleneck model and CAN-Q model as a function of the adequacy factor.

Adequacy Factor Anticipated discrepancies with Can-Q

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AF < 0.9 Discrepancies < 5% are likely. 0.9 < AF < 1.5 Discrepancies > 5% are likely. AF > 1.5 Discrepancies < 5% are likely.

Sizing of FMS:

Determination of number of servers required at each workstation to achieve a specified production rate Information needed

Part mix, process routing and processing times

Si = Minimum integer > Rp ( WLi ) Si - Number of servers at station i Rp- Specified production rate of all parts to be produced by the system WLi- Workload at station i.

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GANPAT UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MECHATRONICS ENGINEERING U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

E NGINEERING U V P ATEL C OLLEGE OF E NGINEERING C OMPUTER I NTEGRATED M

COMPUTER INTEGRATED M ANUFACTURING ( 3ME1 1 5)

M. T

ECH CAD-CAM

.

E