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Physical Science I/8th Grade Unit 7 Study Guide

Class of 2016 April 3, 2012

1) Dalton 1803: Dalton believed that atoms were tiny, indivisible spheres containing no charge. Dalton correctly stated that every element is made up of different atoms. But, his model was incorrect because atoms are divisible and do have a charge.

Thomson 1897: Through experiments with a cathode ray tube (CRT), Thomson identified the electron. He knew that there were positive pieces making up the mass, so due to his experiments and the information that atoms are neutrally charged, he knew that there must be negative pieces. Although he was correct about the sub-atomic particles, he incorrectly thought that atoms were positive spheres embedded with electrons. In addition, he believed only the negative particles could be removed from the atom, which was incorrect. Rutherford 1911: Rutherford was the first to discover the nucleus in the atom and how most of the atom is empty space. The nucleus proved Thomsons model incorrect because it showed that all of the positive pieces are compacted into a small space. The shortcoming of this model was that Rutherford believed that the electrons orbited around the nucleus, like the planets around the sun. Bohr 1922: He suggested that instead of orbiting around the nucleus, the electrons occupy energy levels where they can circulate in fixed orbits. When energy is lost or gained, the electrons can move to different energy levels. Bohr was mostly correct, but he had the shape of the energy levels wrong. 2) Vocab Set 1: http://quizlet.com/10535558/psi-unit-7-set-1-flash-cards/ Vocab Set 2: http://quizlet.com/10822366/psi-unit-7-bromfield-set-2-flash-cards/ 3) See above 4) Volta Lab: We used a multimeter (an electronic device that measures voltage) to find the voltages of Cooper, Carbon, Lead and Zinc. We determined their voltages by measuring the difference in their electronegativity, or the ability to pull on electrons. After collecting the data, we ranked the substances using the voltages. First, we determined that Zinc and Carbon had the greatest voltage (about 1.2), meaning the largest difference in electronegativity, meaning they would be the ends of the list. Next, we looked at zinc to cooper and zinc to lead (or carbon to cooper and carbon to lead) and saw that the difference between zinc and cooper was .9 and the difference between zinc and lead was

See packet for model

.5, therefore lead would be next to zinc in the list because they have a smaller voltage. So, the list was: Zinc Lead Cooper Carbon *Electronegativity is the ability to pull on electrons (characteristic property of every element). *Voltage is the difference in electronegativity (2 substances needed). 5) Mendeleev: Mendeleev made cards of every known element of his time (about 30 elements) and arranged them into the first periodic table of the elements by using the repeating pattern in characteristic properties to organize them. This repeating pattern in characteristic properties was due to the repeating pattern in electron structure. The Mendeleev Game was similar because the cards also had a repeating pattern of characteristics and we had to figure out this pattern in order to organize the cards and then find the information on the missing card, just like Mendeleev who predicted the characteristic properties of undiscovered elements. 6) Proton Neutron Electron Mass 1 AMU 1 AMU .0002 AMU Charge + O Location Nucleus Nucleus Energy Levels

7) Rutherford Experiment: Marble-alpha particle Big Circle-outer limit of the atom Inner Circle-outer limit of the nucleus Marble Marks-path and size of the alpha particles Marble Marks making contact with the inner circle-deflected particle Since our model was not to scale, in order to make it to scale if we were to keep the nucleus the same size the size of the alpha particle would need to be 50x bigger and the area of the outer circle would also need to be 50x bigger. 8) Periodic Table: A chart of the elements first organized by Mendeleev using increasing atomic mass and rows of repeating patter of characteristic properties but was later reorganized using the number of protons instead of mass. Each column is a family (or group) of elements because they all have similar characteristic properties, like number of incomplete electron pairs for example.

9) Isotope Notation: Common, Neutral Isotope of Carbon Atomic Mass 12 O Charge (neutral) Chemical Symbol

Atomic Number (# of protons) 6

10) Isotopes: To determine if an isotope is the most common isotope or not, first you look up the atomic mass average for that element and round it to the nearest whole number. Then, you use the equation AM (Atomic Mass) P (Protons) = N (Neutrons). If the number of neutrons you got in the equation matches up with the number of neutrons in the depiction of the atom (If it is in isotope notation, not a bohr model, then subtract the protons from the AM), then it is the most common isotope. If not, then it is an unusual isotope. Example: Oxygen AM avg= 15.9994 16 16 2AM-P=N O 16-8=8 Yes, this is the common isotope. 8 11) If an atom has one more or one less electron than proton, it is an ion. If it has extra electron(s), than you count how many more it has and the charge is that number with a negative sign (for example, 2- or -2). If it is missing one or more electrons, than you count how many less electrons than protons it has and then the charge is that number with a positive sign (for example, 2+ or +2). 12) Elegant Universe: The main point was that the Super String Theory is about the unification of the forces into one equation. 13) See the example on the study guide in addition ot this example. C-O-C O=O H-O-H K C-O-C

Substances: 4 Atoms: 12 Elements: 4 Compounds: 2 Molecules: 4 Particles: 16 Bonds: 8