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Industrialism and Imperialism

Nationalism Europe Spain o Weak kings by 17th century; competition o

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Colonies becoming self-sufficient; local aristocrats taking control Failing mercantile and political systems Treaty of Utrecht: Bourbon leadership of Spain Goal: to revive Spain Expulsion of Jesuits from Spain and empire (1767) Opening of ports Indies: Jose de Galvez: investigation revealed corruption; tried to force Creoles out of bureaucracy

War of Spanish Succession: no heir to Spanish throne in 1701 Bourbon Reforms: centralization

Seven Years War: England took over Havana and Florida Overall revival of empire, but growing sense of dissatisfaction among colonial elites

Portuguese Brazil o o o o Pomballs (prime minister) reforms State intervene in economy Expelled Jesuits from Brazil (1759) Ended slavery in Portugal, ensure supply to Brazil

Latin American 18th Century Reforms o o Enlightenment effects, talks of reform; for material benefits, not political Increasing demand for American products American Revolution model French Revolution slogan was liberty, equality, fraternity St. Dominique French sugar colony, slave rebellion; Toussaint LOverture created independent republic of Haiti o Iberian confusion: French invasion, guerilla warfare Mexico: Spanish American Independence Struggles o

Causes of Political Change o o o

Father Hidalgo: 1810, led mestizos and Indians against Creole; captured and executed Iturbide: 1820, Creoles back on road to independence; Iturbide was the emperor of Mexico; in 1824 it was a republic

South America: Simon Bolivar: Creole officer, won by 1822 in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador Gran Colombia until 1830 Jose de San Martin: southern South America; helped free Chile 1825: Spanish South America all independent

Brazilian Independence o o o Portuguese court fled Napoleon; set up imperial capital at Rio de Janeiro 1820: king called back to Portugal 1822: Brazil declared independence established constitutional emperor of Brazil

Residuals o Classic problem for colonies: demand for products products on European markets tied to economies o o o Population growth rebellion Reforms: disruptions in old patterns Revolts: New Granada (1781), internal tensions ended its initial success; Peru, Tupac Amaru (mestizo), failed because of Creoles

Nationalism Challenges to the Conservative Order o o Liberals wanted constitutional governments Nationalists wanted independent states 1848: rebellions in Austria, Italy, German states; all failed Nationalism: first loyalty to nation with common culture and history Ties that bind: common ethnicity, language, religion Nation-state: nation has its own government Nationalists: loyal to people, not kings; right to independence Empires with a variety of ethnic groups Russia: Romanovs tried to maintain control through Russification, enforcing Russia culture

Conflicts o Key Ideas of Nationalism o o o o

Problems of Nationalism o o

Industrialization Britain Mid-1700s Rise to Global Power o Geography o Location good for trade From outposts to empire Abundance of natural resources Won Nova Scotia and Newfoundland Pushed French out of India

Success in War

o o o

Favorable business climate Union with Scotland Repression in Ireland Political parties The cabinet system The prime minister Oligarchy of land owners Middle-class included merchants and manufacturers Personal rule Cabinet rule restored The Working Class The Middle Class Houses Women stayed at home Merchants, inventors, skilled artisans Pleasant neighborhoods Children were educated Opposed efforts to improve conditions for workers

Growth of Constitutional Government o o o

Politics and Society o o

George III Reasserted Royal Power o o

Early Industrial Life Tenement housing Women worked Factory and mine workers Crowded slums Children worked Organized for better housing conditions

Industrial Revolution Technology changed, especially engines replacing people/animals, automated

Britain 1st: natural resources, population growth, government promoted economic growth, strong banking Origins of Industrialization (1770 1840) o o o o o Inventions in textiles, domestic system (cottage industries) James Watt: 1770s, invented steam engine Interchangeable parts and standardization Transportation/communication: telegraph, steamboats, railways Agricultural improvements: population growth and surplus fed citydwellers o Urbanization: hubs of factory system because limited power sources (rivers) o o Factory system: in cities, out of homes, increased specialization of labor Environmental impact: smoke pollution, water pollution 1820s: Belgium and France 1830s: U.S. and German states Reshaping of human life: migrations, families changed, suburbanized, resistance (Luddites) o o Families: middle class left for quiet suburbs Progress is not necessarily progressive Government Functions: civil service exams, extension of regulations Education: generally compulsory to age 12; moral mission of women (home economies), nationalism; U.S. required high school by 1900 o o Welfare programs: replaced churches and families The Social Question: realignment of political spectrum, social issues replaced constitutional issues; feminism threatened conservatives and liberals o Socialism Early Socialism: Utopian and utilitarian movements; Saint-Simon in France Marxism: cyclical vision of history marked by class struggle (haves/bourgeoisie vs. have-nots/proletariat); socialism final stage of history, scientific, shaped by industry; new enemies: middle class vs. property-less workers

Spread of Industry o o

Disruptions of Industrial Life o

Social Questions and New Government Functions o o

Fear among liberals and conservatives took revolution literally

Feminism: 1900, sought legal and economic gains for women Pankhurst: radical reformer (bombs, arson)

Emphasis on Consumption and Leisure o o o o o Better wages and fewer hours more opportunities for leisure White-collar labor force: working class with middle-class values Production encouraged consumption advertising Mass leisure culture: newspapers, vaudeville, movies, vacations Overall: growing secularism Improvements: medicine (germ theory), agriculture (fertilizers) Theoretical Science: Darwin and evolution, Origin of Species Einstein: theory of relativity Social sciences: Freud (subconscious, solve emotional problems by bringing out to rational discussion)

Advances in Scientific Knowledge o o o o

New Directions in Artistic Expression o Arts glorified the irrational, reaction against science: Romanticism and some realism (Dickens, photography) o Debates over traditional beliefs of Christianity and Enlightenment

19th Century Theories and Movements Adam Smith o o o o Capitalism; laissez-faire (it will regulate itself) The invisible hand Role of self-interest Wealth of Nations (1776) Food supply could only support a certain number of people Population regulates itself (much like the economy does under the invisible hand theory) Socialism o o o o Collective or government ownership of the means of production (factories) Still some private property Socialism is also a step on the way to establishing communism Utopian Socialism Robert Owem and the Oneida Community

Thomas Malthus o o

Set up communes in which everyone worked collectively Jeremy Bentham and John Stewart Mill All laws should be judged by their utility, or usefulness Greatest good for the greatest amount of good (similar to Rousseaus general will)

Ulitarianism

Karl Marx and Marxism o o History is economics in action viewed history in economic terms; struggle between bourgeoisie (ultrarich) and proletariat o o o o Communist Manifesto (co-authored with Friedrich Engels) Das Kapital Asserted that revolution is necessary 3 steps to Communism (radical) o successful revolution by proletariat dictatorship of proletariat (government run by workers) government and classes will disappear

From each according to his ability and to each according to his needs Labor unions: collective bargaining Luddites: angered by machines smashed machines Chartists: British workers advocated universal male suffrage and more representation in Parliament Womens suffrage: Britain, U.S., New Zealand

Social Reform Movements o o o

o Imperialism

Imperialism in Africa Helpful Technology: Maxim gun, quinine (anti-malaria drug), steam engine, telegraph Africa Before Imperialism o o o o o Hundreds of ethnic and linguistic groups Religiously diverse Politically diverse: empires to city-states to villages As late as 1800, Europeans only controlled 10% Europe traveled to interior hindered: no navigable rivers Western contact: explorers, missionaries

Nations Compete for Overseas Empires o

Congo: David Livingston went missing and Henry Stanley looked for him Stanley gave Leopold of Belgium personal control of land Imperialism: take over of a country by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life Economic: new markets and materials, competition Political: nationalism Social: technology led to racism and Social Darwinism (survival of the fittest applied to social change) Motives of Imperialism

Reasons for Imperialism/Colonization: natural resources, new markets, nationalism, military defense, conversion of the locals Forces enabling imperialism: European technology (maxim gun, steam engine, communication), quinine (protected from Malaria)

Imperialism in Asia Shift to Land Empire in Asia o o Hesitation to take colonies; expensive to administer men-on-the-spot: company men had a lot of control locally because governments so far away, communication limited o Prototype: Dutch Advance on Java o Dutch gradually gained monopoly on spices Dutch intervened on wars of succession Similar patterns as Java Sepoys: Indian troops who worked for British East India Co. Used a bullet that had a paper opening (which was glued with animal fat) that needed to be opened with teeth; animal fat led to uprisings Indian princes tried to use Britons to gain power, eventually Britons gained and became rivals o British Raj: British politics established in India Britons power and land grew as Mughals declined and regional powers fought Indian handicaps in fighting British advances: no sense of national unity, locals severed in British army (better uniforms, weapons, pay) Consolidation of British Rule

Pivot of World Empire: Rise of British Rule in India

Early Colonial Society Left social systems alone; formed new class at the top of the hierarchies for Europeans Left daily administration to locals Little interest in spreading Christianity British reforms in India tried to remake Indian society along Western lines Social Reform in the Colonies

Industrial Rivalries and Partition of the World 1870 1814 o o Empires heightened economic competition and political rivalries Unequal Combat Technology led to greater capacity to wage war HUGE European advantage with weapons Suez Canal: advantage in transportation Resistance movements: West Africa, Vietnam, Zulus, usually led by religious leaders

Patterns of Dominance o 2 types of colonies: tropical dependencies: small number of Europeans ruled large indigenous populations settlement colonies: 2 types (white dominions and contested settler states) White dominions: lots of land for empire, little population; mostly European and descendants (Australia, New Zealand) o Shifts in Methods of Economic Extraction Paternalistic attitudes persisted economic reorganization roads, railroads from interior to ports, reduced to dependence on European-dominated global mix o Pacific Tragedies Social disruptions because no immunity to European diseases Cultures vulnerable to new ideas social disintegration New Zealand: alcoholism Hawaii: British political influence; U.S. cultural and economic influence

Modern Russia Russias Reforms and Industrial Advance

Before Reform o o Conservatism and isolation during era of Revolution New tensions: admiration of political freedom, cultural styles (especially Romanticism in literature and music); dislike industrialization o o o Censorship and repression (secret police) Separate political orbit from Europe Expansionist policies: Poland, Ottoman Empire Fell behind Europe in technology and trade Increased exports increased demand on serfs Few factories (usually Western owned); stagnant agricultural society Crimean War Tsar Nicholas I picked a fight with the Ottomans; Britain and France helped Ottomans o Changes: economic changed and need for labor force Emancipation of Serfs (1861) o Received land, but paid high fees for redemption Larger urban labor force, but no change in agricultural labor force Uprisings and population growth (potatoes)

Economic and Social Problems o o o o

Reform Era o

Zemstvoes: local political councils; contributed to political rise of middle/professional class Literacy and education Women: more education and professional access

o o

Early Industrialization State support required, because no middle class or capital (factors of production) Railroads: trans-Siberian railroad, stimulated iron and coal Modernization: promoted banking, Western investment cost = status as debtor nation Effects: not efficient; agriculturally still behind Road to Revolution o Protest of educated Responses: Intelligentsia: radicals, still nationalistic; terrorism Anarchism: terrorist tactics Protest and Revolution

o o

Alexander II: pulled back from reforms; assassinated Marxism: gained new momentum with Intelligentsia Lenin: started a worldwide proletariat uprising Revolutionary cells (soviets): group of people who plot strategy Bolshevik party adopted

Revolution seemed inevitable by 1900 Russo-Japanese War: lost to Japan (1904 1905); shift of balance of power in Pacific/East Asia Response: massive protests, Winter Palace; Nicholas II tried to pacify with creation of Duma (parliament) Nicholas II unwilling to give up any power (absolute monarch)

Revolution of 1905 o

Japan: Transformation without Revolution Final Decades of Shogunate Financial problems: only agricultural taxes, stipends to samurai Neo-Confucianism o Debates: traditional vs. reforms; rising nationalism; influence of Dutch (led to the opening to Western influence) Economy: willingness to consider change By late 1700s, threats realized need for navy 1853: Commodore Matthew Perry (U.S.) used gunboats to force opening of ports Response: o o o Role of emperor adjusting both sides sought him Shogunate system depended on isolation Civil War (1866) Changed in Meiji State Abolished feudalism Social revolution: abolished samurai class; new conscripted army o New roles: Iwasaki Yataro, founded Mitsubishi (railroads, steamships) Constitution of 1889: powers to Diet (lower house) Political Changes: conservative, centralized system o Imitated West, but retained identity Samurai defeated shogunate force shocking victory 1868: end reform group, Meiji or enlightened one (Meiji Restoration) Challenge to Isolation

Industrial Revolution Industrialization: build factors of production (land, labor, capital) o o o Paucity of resources 1900: industrialized, but from Russian social and economic dependent on world economy (exception: silk)

Population growth: strained resources Education: primary schools for all children Foreign policy: because imperialist, need for markets and raw materials, safety valve effect for samurai o o Sino-Japanese War (1894 1895): Japanese superiority Russo-Japanese War (1904 1905): Japan defeated European power; took Korea

3/19/2011 10:02:00 AM

3/19/2011 10:02:00 AM