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The Philippine Islands became a Spanish colony during the 16th century;
they were ceded to the US in 1898 following the Spanish-American War.
In 1935 the Philippines became a self-governing commonwealth. Manuel
QUEZON was elected president and was tasked with preparing the
country for independence after a 10-year transition. In 1942 the islands
fell under Japanese occupation during World War II, and US forces and
Filipinos fought together during 1944-45 to regain control. On 4 July
1946 the Republic of the Philippines attained its independence. The 20-
year rule of Ferdinand MARCOS ended in 1986, when a "people power"
movement in Manila ("EDSA 1") forced him into exile and installed
Corazon AQUINO as president. Her presidency was hampered by several
coup attempts, which prevented a return to full political stability and
economic development. Fidel RAMOS was elected president in 1992 and
his administration was marked by greater stability and progress on
economic reforms. In 1992, the US closed its last military bases on the
islands. Joseph ESTRADA was elected president in 1998, but was
succeeded by his vice-president, Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, in
January 2001 after ESTRADA's stormy impeachment trial on corruption
charges broke down and another "people power" movement ("EDSA 2")
demanded his resignation. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO was elected to a
six-year term as president in May 2004. The Philippine Government
faces threats from three terrorist groups on the US Government's Foreign
Terrorist Organization list, but in 2006 and 2007 scored some major
successes in capturing or killing key wanted terrorists. Decades of
Muslim insurgency in the southern Philippines have led to a peace accord
with one group and an ongoing cease-fire and peace talks with another.
Geography Philippines Top of Page
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South
China Sea, east of Vietnam
coordinates: 13 00 N, 122 00 E
Map references:
Southeast Asia
total: 300,000 sq km
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km
Area -
comparative: slightly larger than Arizona
Land boundaries:
0 km
36,289 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline
as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-
shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest
monsoon (May to October)
mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
extremes: lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m
resources: timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Land use:
arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 16.67%
other: 64.33% (2005)
Irrigated land:
15,500 sq km (2003)
Total renewable
water resources: 479 cu km (1999)
withdrawal total: 28.52 cu km/yr (17%/9%/74%)
(domestic/industr per capita: 343 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:
astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six
cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive
earthquakes; tsunamis
Environment -
current issues: uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air
and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation;
increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish
breeding grounds
Environment -
international party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol,
agreements: Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea,
Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical
Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography -
note: the Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located
in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South
China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait
People Philippines Top of Page
96,061,680 (July 2008 est.)
Age structure:
0-14 years: 35.5% (male 17,392,780/female 16,708,255)
15-64 years: 60.4% (male 28,986,232/female 29,076,329)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 1,682,485/female 2,215,602) (2008 est.)
Median age:
total: 22.3 years
male: 21.8 years
female: 22.8 years (2008 est.)
growth rate: 1.991% (2008 est.)
Birth rate:
26.42 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Death rate:
5.15 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Net migration
rate: -1.36 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2008 est.)
Infant mortality
rate: total: 21.2 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 23.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 18.42 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)
Life expectancy
at birth: total population: 70.8 years
male: 67.89 years
female: 73.85 years (2008 est.)
Total fertility
rate: 3.32 children born/woman (2008 est.)
adult prevalence less than 0.1% (2003 est.)
people living 9,000 (2003 est.)
with HIV/AIDS:
deaths: fewer than 500 (2003 est.)
Major infectious
diseases: degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria (2008)
noun: Filipino(s)
adjective: Philippine
Ethnic groups:
Tagalog 28.1%, Cebuano 13.1%, Ilocano 9%, Bisaya/Binisaya 7.6%,
Hiligaynon Ilonggo 7.5%, Bikol 6%, Waray 3.4%, other 25.3% (2000
Roman Catholic 80.9%, Muslim 5%, Evangelical 2.8%, Iglesia ni Kristo
2.3%, Aglipayan 2%, other Christian 4.5%, other 1.8%, unspecified
0.6%, none 0.1% (2000 census)
Filipino (official; based on Tagalog) and English (official); eight major
dialects - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Bicol,
Waray, Pampango, and Pangasinan
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 92.6%
male: 92.5%
female: 92.7% (2000 census)
School life
expectancy total: 12 years
(primary to male: 11 years
tertiary female: 12 years (2006)
expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (2005)
Government Philippines Top of Page
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of the Philippines
conventional short form: Philippines
local long form: Republika ng Pilipinas
local short form: Pilipinas
type: republic
name: Manila
geographic coordinates: 14 35 N, 121 00 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC during
Standard Time)
divisions: 81 provinces and 136 chartered cities
provinces: Abra, Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Aklan, Albay,
Antique, Apayao, Aurora, Basilan, Bataan, Batanes, Batangas, Biliran,
Benguet, Bohol, Bukidnon, Bulacan, Cagayan, Camarines Norte,
Camarines Sur, Camiguin, Capiz, Catanduanes, Cavite, Cebu,
Compostela, Davao del Norte, Davao del Sur, Davao Oriental, Dinagat
Islands, Eastern Samar, Guimaras, Ifugao, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Iloilo,
Isabela, Kalinga, Laguna, Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur, La Union,
Leyte, Maguindanao, Marinduque, Masbate, Mindoro Occidental,
Mindoro Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Misamis Oriental, Mountain
Province, Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental, North Cotabato, Northern
Samar, Nueva Ecija, Nueva Vizcaya, Palawan, Pampanga, Pangasinan,
Quezon, Quirino, Rizal, Romblon, Samar, Sarangani, Shariff Kabunsuan,
Siquijor, Sorsogon, South Cotabato, Southern Leyte, Sultan Kudarat,
Sulu, Surigao del Norte, Surigao del Sur, Tarlac, Tawi-Tawi, Zambales,
Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Zamboanga Sibugay
chartered cities: Alaminos, Angeles, Antipolo, Bacolod, Bago, Baguio,
Bais, Balanga, Batac, Batangas, Bayawan, Baybay, Bayugan, Bislig,
Bogo, Borongan, Butuan, Cabadbaran, Cabanatuan, Cadiz, Cagayan de
Oro, Calamba, Calapan, Calbayog, Candon, Canlaon, Carcar,
Catbalogan, Cauayan, Cavite, Cebu, Cotabato, Dagupan, Danao, Dapitan,
Davao, Digos, Dipolog, Dumaguete, Escalante, El Salvador, Gapan,
General Santos, Gingoog, Guihulngan, Himamaylan, Iligan, Iloilo,
Isabela, Iriga, Kabankalan, Kalookan, Kidapawan, Koronadal, La
Carlota, Lamitan, Laoag, Lapu-Lapu, Las Pinas, Legazpi, Ligao, Lipa,
Lucena, Maasin, Makati, Malabon, Malaybalay, Malolos, Mandaluyong,
Mandaue, Manila, Marawi, Marikina, Masbate, Mati, Meycauayan,
Muntinlupa, Munoz, Naga (Camarines Sur), Naga (Cebu), Navotas,
Olongapo, Ormoc, Oroquieta, Ozamis, Pagadian, Palayan, Panabo,
Paranaque, Pasay, Pasig, Passi, Puerto Princesa, Quezon, Roxas, Sagay,
Samal, San Carlos (in Negros Occidental), San Carlos (in Pangasinan),
San Fernando (in La Union), San Fernando (in Pampanga), San Jose, San
Jose del Monte, San Juan, San Pablo, Santa Rosa, Santiago, Silay,
Sipalay, Sorsogon, Surigao, Tabaco, Tabuk, Tacloban, Tacurong,
Tagaytay, Tagbilaran, Taguig, Tagum, Talisay (in Cebu), Talisay (in
Negros Occidental), Tanauan, Tandag, Tangub, Tanjay, Tarlac, Tayabas,
Toledo, Tuguegarao, Trece Martires, Urdaneta, Valencia, Valenzuela,
Victorias, Vigan, Zamboanga (2007)
12 June 1898 (independence proclaimed from Spain); 4 July 1946 (from
the US)
National holiday:
Independence Day, 12 June (1898); note - 12 June 1898 was date of
declaration of independence from Spain; 4 July 1946 was date of
independence from US
2 February 1987, effective 11 February 1987
Legal system:
based on Spanish and Anglo-American law; accepts compulsory ICJ
jurisdiction with reservations
18 years of age; universal
branch: chief of state: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since 20
January 2001); note - president is both chief of state and head of
head of government: President Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (since
20 January 2001)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president with consent of Commission
of Appointments
elections: president and vice president (Manuel "Noli" DE CASTRO)
elected on separate tickets by popular vote for a single six-year term;
election last held on 10 May 2004 (next to be held in May 2010)
election results: Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO elected president;
percent of vote - Gloria MACAPAGAL-ARROYO 40%, Fernando POE
37%, three others 23%
branch: bicameral Congress or Kongreso consists of the Senate or Senado (24
seats - one-half elected every three years; members elected at large by
popular vote to serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or
Kapulungan Ng Mga Kinatawan (as a result of May 2007 election it has
239 seats including 218 members representing districts and 21 sectoral
party-list members representing special minorities elected on the basis of
1 seat for every 2% of the total vote but limited to 3 seats; members
elected by popular vote to serve three-year terms; note - the Constitution
prohibits the House of Representatives from having more than 250
elections: Senate - last held on 14 May 2007 (next to be held in May
2010); House of Representatives - elections last held on 14 May 2007
(next to be held in May 2010)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party -
Lakas-Kampi 4, LP 4, NPC 3, Nacionalista 2, independents 4, others 6;
note - there are 23 rather than 24 sitting senators because one senator was
elected mayor of Manila; House of Representatives - percent of vote by
party - NA; seats by party - Lakas 86, Kampi 46, NPC 29, LP 21, Party-
list 21, others 36
Judicial branch:
Supreme Court (15 justices are appointed by the president on the
recommendation of the Judicial and Bar Council and serve until 70 years
of age); Court of Appeals; Sandigan-bayan (special court for hearing
corruption cases of government officials)
Political parties
and leaders: Genuine Opposition or GO (coalition of oppositon parties formed to
contest the 2007 elections); Kabalikat Ng Malayang Pilipino or Kampi
[Ronaldo PUNO]; Laban Ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Struggle of
Filipino Democrats) or LDP [Edgardo ANGARA]; Lakas Ng Edsa
(National Union of Christian Democrats) or Lakas [Jose DE VENECIA];
Liberal Party or LP [Manuel ROXAS]; Nacionalista [Manuel VILLAR];
National People's Coalition or NPC [Frisco SAN JUAN]; PDP-Laban
[Aquilino PIMENTEL]; People's Reform Party [Miriam Defensor
SANTIAGO]; PROMDI [Emilio OSMENA]; Pwersa Ng Masang
Pilipino (Party of the Philippine Masses) or PMP [Joseph ESTRADA];
Reporma [Renato DE VILLA]
Political pressure
groups and AKBAYAN [Etta ROSALES, Mario AGUJA, and Risa HONTIVEROS-
leaders: BARAQUIEL]; ALAGAD [Rodante MARROLITA]; ALIF [Acmad
TOMAWIS]; An Waray [Horencio NOEL]; Anak Mindanao [Mujiv
MARIANO]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC)
[Sunny Rose MADAMBA, Ernesto PABLO, and Edgar VALDEZ]; AVE
[Eulogio MAGSAYSAY]; Bayan Muna [Satur OCAMPO, Joel
VIRADOR, and Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE and
Hans Christian SENERES]; BUTIL [Benjamin CRUZ]; CIBAC
[Emmanuel Joel VILLANUEVA]; COOP-NATCO [Guillermo CUA];
GABRIELA [Liza MAZA]; Partido Ng Manggagawa [Renato
MAGTUBO]; Veterans Federation of the Philippines [Ernesto GIDAYA]
organization ADB, APEC, APT, ARF, ASEAN, BIS, CP, EAS, FAO, G-24, G-77,
participation: IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC,
representation in chief of mission: Ambassador Willy C. GAA
the US: chancery: 1600 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 467-9300
FAX: [1] (202) 467-9417
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San
Francisco, Saipan (Northern Mariana Islands), Tamuning (Guam)
representation chief of mission: Ambassador Kristie A. KENNEY
from the US: embassy: 1201 Roxas Boulevard, Ermita 1000, Manila
mailing address: PSC 500, FPO AP 96515-1000
telephone: [63] (2) 301-2000
FAX: [63] (2) 301-2399
Flag description:
two equal horizontal bands of blue (top; representing peace and justice)
and red (representing courage); a white equilateral triangle based on the
hoist side represents equality; the center of the triangle displays a yellow
sun with eight primary rays, each representing one of the first eight
provinces that sought independence from Spain; each corner of the
triangle contains a small, yellow, five-pointed star representing the three
major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, Visayas, and
Mindanao; the design of the flag dates to 1897; in wartime the flag is
flown upside down with the red band at the top
Economy Philippines Top of Page
Economy -
overview: The Philippine economy grew at its fastest pace in three decades with
real GDP growth exceeding 7% in 2007. Higher government spending
contributed to the growth, but a resilient service sector and large
remittances from the millions of Filipinos who work abroad have played
an increasingly important role. Economic growth has averaged 5% since
President MACAPAGAL-ARROYO took office in 2001. Nevertheless,
the Philippines will need still higher, sustained growth to make progress
in alleviating poverty, given its high population growth and unequal
distribution of income. MACAPAGAL-ARROYO averted a fiscal crisis
by pushing for new revenue measures and, until recently, tightening
expenditures. Declining fiscal deficits, tapering debt and debt service
ratios, as well as recent efforts to increase spending on infrastructure and
social services have heightened optimism over Philippine economic
prospects. Although the general macroeconomic outlook has improved
significantly, the Philippines continues to face important challenges and
must maintain the reform momentum in order to catch up with regional
competitors, improve employment opportunities, and alleviate poverty.
Longer-term fiscal stability will require more sustainable revenue
sources, rather than non-recurring revenues from privatization.
GDP (purchasing
power parity): $300.1 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official
exchange rate): $144.1 billion (2007 est.)
GDP - real
growth rate: 7.3% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita
(PPP): $3,200 (2007 est.)
composition by agriculture: 13.8%
sector: industry: 31.7%
services: 54.5% (2007 est.)
Labor force:
36.22 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by
occupation: agriculture: 35%
industry: 15%
services: 50% (2007 est.)
rate: 7.3% (2007 est.)
income or lowest 10%: 2.4%
consumption by highest 10%: 31.2% (2006)
percentage share:
Distribution of
family income - 45.8 (2006)
Gini index:
Investment (gross
fixed): 14.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
revenues: $24.63 billion
expenditures: $24.9 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:
55.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Inflation rate
(consumer 2.8% (2007 est.)
Central bank
discount rate: 4.28% (31 December 2007)
Commercial bank
prime lending 8.69% (31 December 2007)
Stock of money:
$21.27 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of quasi
money: $65.85 billion (31 December 2007)
Stock of
domestic credit: $65.66 billion (31 December 2007)
Agriculture -
products: sugarcane, coconuts, rice, corn, bananas, cassavas, pineapples, mangoes;
pork, eggs, beef; fish
electronics assembly, garments, footwear, pharmaceuticals, chemicals,
wood products, food processing, petroleum refining, fishing
production 7.1% (2007 est.)
growth rate:
Electricity -
production: 53.67 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity -
consumption: 46.86 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity -
exports: 0 kWh (2005)
Electricity -
imports: 0 kWh (2005)
Oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2007 est.)
Oil -
consumption: 340,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil - exports:
34,900 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - imports:
353,700 bbl/day (2004)
Oil - proved
reserves: 152 million bbl (31 December 2006)
Natural gas -
production: 2.781 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas -
consumption: 2.781 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas -
exports: 0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas -
imports: 0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas -
proved reserves: 107.5 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account
balance: $6.351 billion (2007 est.)
$49.32 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports -
commodities: semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments,
copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, fruits
Exports -
partners: US 17%, Japan 14.5%, Hong Kong 11.5%, China 11.4%, Netherlands
8.2%, Singapore 6.2%, Malaysia 5%, Germany 4.3% (2007)
$57.56 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports -
commodities: electronic products, mineral fuels, machinery and transport equipment,
iron and steel, textile fabrics, grains, chemicals, plastic
Imports -
partners: US 14.1%, Japan 12.3%, Singapore 11.2%, Taiwan 7.3%, China 7.2%,
Saudi Arabia 6.4%, South Korea 5.9%, Malaysia 4.1%, Thailand 4.1%
Reserves of
foreign exchange $33.75 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
and gold:
Debt - external:
$61.78 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct
foreign $19.88 billion (2007 est.)
investment - at
Stock of direct
foreign $5.584 billion (2007 est.)
investment -
Market value of
publicly traded $103.4 billion (2007)
Currency (code):
Philippine peso (PHP)
Exchange rates:
Philippine pesos (PHP) per US dollar - 46.148 (2007), 51.246 (2006),
55.086 (2005), 56.04 (2004), 54.203 (2003)
Communications Philippines Top of Page
Telephones -
main lines in use: 3.633 million (2006)
Telephones -
mobile cellular: 51.795 million (2007)
system: general assessment: good international radiotelephone and submarine
cable services; domestic and interisland service adequate
domestic: domestic satellite system with 11 earth stations; cellular
communications now dominate the industry; combined fixed-line and
mobile-cellular telephone density about 60 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 63; a series of submarine cables together
provide connectivity to Asia, US, the Middle East, and Europe; multiple
international gateways (2007)
Radio broadcast
stations: AM 381, FM 628, shortwave 4 (each shortwave station operates on
multiple frequencies in the language of the target audience) (2007)
broadcast 250 (plus 1,501 CATV networks) (2007)
Internet country
code: .ph
Internet hosts:
283,579 (2008)
Internet users:
5.3 million (2007)
Transportation Philippines Top of Page
255 (2007)
Airports - with
paved runways: total: 84
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 10 (2007)
Airports - with
unpaved total: 171
runways: 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 68
under 914 m: 99 (2007)
2 (2007)
gas 565 km; oil 135 km; refined products 105 km (2007)
total: 897 km
narrow gauge: 897 km 1.067-m gauge (492 km are in operation) (2006)
total: 200,037 km
paved: 19,804 km
unpaved: 180,233 km (2003)
3,219 km (limited to vessels with draft less than 1.5 m) (2007)
Merchant marine:
total: 391
by type: bulk carrier 75, cargo 125, carrier 16, chemical tanker 17,
container 6, liquefied gas 5, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 68, petroleum
tanker 36, refrigerated cargo 15, roll on/roll off 11, vehicle carrier 11
foreign-owned: 161 (Bermuda 34, China 4, Greece 4, Hong Kong 1,
Japan 81, Malaysia 1, Netherlands 23, Norway 10, Singapore 1, Taiwan
1, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 11 (Comoros 1, Cyprus 1, Hong Kong 1,
Indonesia 1, Panama 7) (2008)
Ports and
terminals: Cagayan de Oro, Cebu, Davao, Liman, Manila, Nasipit Harbor
Transportation -
note: the International Maritime Bureau reports the territorial and offshore
waters in the South China Sea as high risk for piracy and armed robbery
against ships; numerous commercial vessels have been attacked and
hijacked both at anchor and while underway; hijacked vessels are often
disguised and cargo diverted to ports in East Asia; crews have been
murdered or cast adrift
Military Philippines Top of Page
branches: Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP): Army, Navy (includes Marine
Corps), Air Force (2008)
Military service
age and 18-25 years of age (officers 21-29) for compulsory and voluntary military
obligation: service; applicants must be single male or female Philippine citizens
available for males age 16-49: 23,547,252
military service: females age 16-49: 23,177,487 (2008 est.)
Manpower fit for
military service: males age 16-49: 18,232,050
females age 16-49: 19,827,538 (2008 est.)
reaching male: 1,012,779
militarily female: 977,030 (2008 est.)
significant age
expenditures: 0.9% of GDP (2005 est.)
Transnational Philippines Top of Page
Disputes -
international: Philippines claims sovereignty over certain of the Spratly Islands, known
locally as the Kalayaan (Freedom) Islands, also claimed by China,
Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam; the 2002 "Declaration on the Conduct of
Parties in the South China Sea," has eased tensions in the Spratly Islands
but falls short of a legally binding "code of conduct" desired by several of
the disputants; in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the
Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord to conduct marine seismic
activities in the Spratly Islands; Philippines retains a dormant claim to
Malaysia's Sabah State in northern Borneo based on the Sultanate of
Sulu's granting the Philippines Government power of attorney to pursue a
sovereignty claim on his behalf; maritime delimitation negotiations
continue with Palau
Refugees and
internally IDPs: 300,000 (fighting between government troops and MILF and Abu
displaced Sayyaf groups) (2007)
Illicit drugs:
domestic methamphetamine production has been a growing problem in
recent years despite government crackdowns; major consumer of
amphetamines; longstanding marijuana producer mainly in rural areas
where Manila's control is limited