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Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa

Volume 63 Number 2 April/June 2010

Contents
Editors Comment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 TWEEBUFFELSMETEENSKOOTMORSDOODGESKIETFONTEIN Development and integration of ventilation simulation tools for colliery ventilation practice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Use of Baseline Personal DPM Exposure Data for Mine Ventilation Planning A South African Journey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 MVS 2010 Conference 13 - 15 May 2010 Emperors Palace, Kempton Park . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Bulk air cooling system close to completion on Tanzanian Mine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Electra Mining Africa 2010 - World renowned mining and industrial show . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

Published quarterly by the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa

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Aerial view of Lonmin Karee South, 1B and 4B shafts

Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

TWEEBUFFELSMETEENSKOOTMORSDOODGESKIETFONTEIN
Those of us fortunate enough to live in this southern tip of Africa will understand the title above from the Afrikaans language. It literally means the water hole where two buffaloes were killed, stone-dead, with one shot. It is a very "telegraphic" and descriptive and yet, in its own way, long-winded phrase. recognised that atomised water dust suppression (or fogger) systems had the potential to reduce the levels of respirable dust in atmospheres containing crystalline silica. This was recognised as a "leading" practice and was further researched and adapted for a number of applications. For its troubles, the MOSH team collected both bouquets and brick-bats! Some saw the application of fogger systems as a "patch" for an essentially flawed system - in this case, the application of such systems to main rock-tipping and rock-transfer arrangements. Although the criticism is unfortunate considering the good intent and success in some applications, it is significant in pointing out that the flaw lies in the design of modern rock-tips and ore-pass systems. Through the years, tried and tested designs have been discarded for the sake of expedience and to save time and cost at the expense of providing an effective dust capturing system from the beginning. This example is perhaps extreme but it exposes the fact that, despite the dedication and hard work of many, we often address the symptom rather than the cause so that we might find a quick and inexpensive solution. It is for this reason that we might not be able to achieve the milestones. This is just one example but it may be applicable to other situations. Whether or not we will succeed, irrespective of when, depends very much on our attitude in addressing these hazards and on how determined we are in challenging flawed systems and short-sighted attitudes alike. We must be able to get to the root causes and address these issues directly before we might have a chance to succeed. The adoption of new designs, strategies and systems is essential in this strategy. There is little time left. The MOSH adoption teams provide real answers to these challenges. They must be assisted and supported as much as possible. At the same time, to make a significant difference, we must address the real causes as these become apparent. The desired outcome might not be realised in three years' time, but if we start now we will be three years ahead than if we had continued in the present manner. Although it might not be possible to "shoot" both "buffaloes" with one shot as planned, we do have a chance with a well directed second "shot". We have been talking about this for decades. The time is now to make a difference.
Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

Editorial
Marco Biffi Honorary Editor
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The two "buffaloes" about to be shot in this case are the hazards posed by noise and silica dust and more specifically the actions planned to reduce their impact on the health of workers. A set of milestones were proposed in 2003 and adopted by the Chief Executive Officers of various South African mining companies in 2005 whereby: By December 2008, 95% of individual exposures to silica dust will be less than 0.1 mg/m3 averaged over an eight hour shift. After 2013, no new cases of silicosis will be detected amongst previously unexposed individuals, using current (2003) diagnostic methods By December 2008, there will be no deterioration in hearing capacity greater than 10% amongst occupationally exposed individuals After 2013 the total noise emitted by all equipment in any workspace will not exceed a sound pressure level of 110dB(A).

The deadlines set for the first set of milestones have come and gone and the deadlines for the last set of milestones are approaching Please send your seemingly at a fast rate. comments and Although one does not want to criticise such opinions to well-intended objectives, it is fair to say that info@mvssa.co.za aspects remain ambitious. In particular, and more importantly, is the eradication of silicosis after 2013. The number of cases of this occupational disease is diminishing at an alarmingly low rate. If one adds to that the fact that the cases identified today are as the result of exposure over anything from five to twenty year periods, then the possibility of meeting such a challenge becomes less evident. There is no doubt that the eradication of silicosis must remain a priority but not enough time has been focussed on providing meaningful engineering solutions. In 2007 the Chamber of Mines established the Mining Industry Occupational Safety and Health (MOSH) Leading Practice Adoption System to facilitate the achievement of occupational safety and health targets and milestones to be attained by industry. In March 2008 industry expert and the MOSH dust team

THE MINE VENTILATION SOCIETY OF SOUTH AFRICA OFFICER BEARERS


President: Dr B Belle Senior Vice President: Mr M De Koker Junior Vice President: Mr S Ambrosio Honorary Editor: M Biffi Honorary Treasurer: A van der Linde Honorary Chairman of Education: Mr D Labuschagne Immediate Past President: J Janse van Rensburg

MVS Public Relations Committee - Communication Facility


The MVS Public Relations Committee would appreciate any feedback on any matter relating to the operation of this society. This facility has been initiated in order to ensure that any matter that is raised is given due attention. It would be appreciated that the questionnaire below be completed and faxed / e-mailed to any one of the person/s listed below: Dr Bharath Belle, info@mvssa.co.za MVS Office, Fax 086 660 7171, e-mail secretary@mvssa.co.za All communications will remain confidential in terms of identification of the communicator. Should you wish to remain anonymous you are welcome to do so. Name: Contact details: Telephone number: Fax number: E-mail address: Remember, should you choose to remain anonymous; you are welcome to do so. Nature of communication (please mark with an X) Complaint Compliment Other

COUNCIL MEMBERS
Mr R Cornelissen, Mr B Doyle, Mr R H McIntyre, Mr M Beukes, Mr D Labuschagne, Mr AR Nundlall , Mr P Botha, Mr D Farlam, Mr LJ de Villiers.

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE MEMBERS

Mr M Biffi (Hon. Editor), Dr BK Belle, Mr AD Unsted, Mr B Doyle, Mr F von Glehn, Ms Debbie Myer.

BRANCH REPRESENTATIVES
The Free State Branch Mr D van Greuning The Collieries Branch Mr B Doyle The Western Branch Mr J van Sittert The Northern Branch Mr D Stanton

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Development and integration of ventilation simulation tools for colliery ventilation practice
L van den Berg, K van Zyl, & WM Marx Bluhm Burton Engineering, South Africa C. Thomson Anglo Coal Operations Limited - Anglo Coal South Africa

Abstract
Effective tools are not only essential for the design of practical and efficient underground mine ventilation systems but must also play an integral part in the operation of the mine. One such tool is VUMA-coal ventilation simulation software. VUMA-coal is Windows-based and has been specially designed for the simulation of underground coal mines and includes user-friendly coal specific interfaces and three-dimensional graphics designed to facilitate in the construction and analysis of networks. VUMA-coal can be utilised during the design phase of new collieries, be used to conduct what-if and optimisation studies, and be integrated into the day-to-day ventilation related operations. In addition, VUMAcoal can be used to simulate dust and gas distribution in a ventilation network, as well as predict the impact of control measures. This paper describes the interactive VUMA-coal ventilation simulation software and its underlying design features and outlines a case study of how VUMA-coal has been integrated into Anglo Coals Ventilation and Occupational Hygiene Engineering [VOHE] department as part of the standard planning and evaluation process in their operational mines as well as long term planning and future mining operations.

1 Introduction
The global increases in the demand of resources has lead to bigger mines being developed and continually drives efforts to develop more efficient and rapid mining methods. This leads to large, complex and last changing underground infrastructures that needs to be ventilated. To effectively ventilate these complex mining networks requires a fast and accurate ventilation planning and design process. By replacing manual calculation methods with fast and accurate ventilation simulation software the ventilation planning and design process is significantly improved. With this in mind, VUMA-network ventilation software was developed. Over the past decade VUMA-network
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has been used in the analysis of environmental control networks ranging from mining narrow reefs, massive ore bodies and underground collieries. The programme may be used equally effectively as a planning tool and as a means of verifying environmental performance parameters of operational mines. VUMA-network is a Windows based software program for the simulation of steady-state environmental conditions encountered in underground mines. VUMA-network is used to predict airflow and pollutant [dust, gas, radon, smoke, heat] distribution throughout the ventilation circuit. The software includes graphics enhancements that facilitate the creation, editing and management of mine ventilation networks.

Although VUMA-network can be successfully used to model underground collieries, a need for a coalspecific network simulator, which excludes thermodynamic aspects, with specific focus on coal mining practices and terminology was identified. By developing a coal specific version of VUMA-network [VUMA-coal], not only will the simulation software be made more user-friendly to coal mining ventilation practitioners, but a reduction in price of VUMA-coal compared to VUMA-network, due to the removal of the thermodynamic aspects, could be affected making the software more accessible to a larger user group. To satisfy this need a new product, VUMA-coal was developed based on the tried and tested VUMA-network simulation software and added to the VUMA suite of simulation software.

2 VUMA-Coal simulation and operational process


One of the major benefits of ventilation simulation is the ability to incorporate ventilation into the strategic planning of current and new mining operations. This allows mine management to test various mining scenarios such as number of mining sections, position/distance of working areas from main ventilation intake/return infrastructure, scheduling of main infrastructure, etc. VUMA-coal was specifically designed and developed to assist underground coal mine managers and ventilation engineers and practitioners to effectively plan, design and operate

Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

coal mine ventilation systems. VUMA-coal is an interactive network simulation program that allows for the simultaneous simulation of airflow, gas and dust emissions in an underground coal mine. VUMA-coal caters for most typical coal mining methods. A fundamental feature of VUMA-coal is the incorporation of user-friendly interfaces that allow for rapid construction of simulation networks. These networks can be used for long term strategic planning, current ventilation system optimisation, or to conduct what-if studies to assess the impact of ventilation changes at an operational level. VUMA-coal is based on the following principles of operation: Mine ventilation network is graphically constructed. VUMA-coal consists of multiple and single roadway branches, starting and ending with a node. The branches can be used to depict network components such as multiple and single intake and return roadway systems, declines, shafts, etc. Only information relating to the geometry, air resistance characteristics and ventilation wall construction of the roadways need be entered. Input data for roadways is used to calculate the air pressure drop in roadways, leakage resistance factors for ventilation walls and contaminant sources/sinks in specific branches of a network. VUMA-coal also incorporates control manager elements that assist with the design and control of airflow in the model. Typical control managers include ventilation wall leakage paths, workshop commitments, regulators, fixed flows, fans, etc. Input data for nodes consists of the X, Y and Z coordinates and barometric pressure [BP]. The BP only needs to be set for the startnode as the BP is calculated for other nodes throughout the rest of the network. Simulation networks are constructed in a two dimensional [2-D] graphical editor on a

seam-byseam basis. Different levels are then interconnected, typically by declines and shafts. A network is viewed in 2-D format in either geometric, strike, or section view. Input data for each roadway or control manager is entered in a relevant input screen for that type of branch or control manager before a solution is obtained for airflow and contaminants properties. Iterative network solution algorithms are used to solve for airflow, gas and dust. VUMA-coal contains an extensive help function to assist with the development of a simulation model. A three-dimensional (3-D) graphical viewer is used to view the network in 3-D to conduct fault analysis and visually assess airflow, contaminant and pressure distributions in the network. In addition to the 2-D and 3-D graphics output display, results can be exported in spreadsheet format.

engineers and practitioners uncomplicated. By using terminology that is familiar to practitioners VUMAcoal was accepted as a coal mining specific design. The introduction of the terminology also reduced ambiguity and made the construction and interpretation of models easier.

3.2 Primary vent leakage determination


In general airflow requirements for a colliery are determined by methane and/or diesel exhaust dilution requirements, in-section air utilisation, required air for commitments other than production [e.g. workshops, battery bays, pump stations etc.], and primary leakage past main intake and return system vent walls. The accurate prediction of air leakage across ventilation walls, especially in the primary intake and return systems are a critical factor in determining air availability for underground coal mining operations. A unique method was developed to allow VUMA-coal to predict this primary wall leakage. This method is briefly described below.

3 VUMA-Coal Features
There are four main factors that distinguish VUMA-coal from VUMAnetwork. The first, as mentioned above, is that VUMA-coal does not support a thermodynamic solution and is limited to a maximum depth of 500m below surface. For South African collieries in general thermodynamic aspects of ventilation and depths of greater than 500m is not a concern. The other three changes include: Exclusive use of coal mining terminology; Simplified methodology to simulate vent wall leakage; and Main development branch input format.

3.2.2 Primary vent leakage simulation


The above description illustrates the complexities and interrelationships associated with determining the primary leakage in a colliery. These complexities can be handled easily with VUMA-coal which allows primary leakage quantities to be determined by simulating the impact of these influencing factors. It can be appreciated that not all vent wall leakage paths can be simulated. In order to handle the large amount of potential vent walls for a typical underground colliery, an equivalent length branch is used that is set by the user. With the other geometric input parameters [seam height, bord width and pillar centers] VUMA-coal calculates the overall exposed surface area of the vent walls for that equivalent length branch. Based on a standard vent wall resistance coefficient determined for a specific size [Martinson M.J. 1985]
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3.1 Terminology
A distinctive differentiating feature between VUMA-network and VUMAcoal is the change in general terminology. By introducing the change in terminology from general hard rock to general colliery terminology made the introduction of VUMA-coal to colliery ventilation

Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

wall, an equivalent pressure related fixed resistance is calculated and a control manager element between the intake and return airways is inserted in the model. Depending on the simulated static pressure differential between the intake and return airway, the control manager leaks air from the intake to the return. This leakage is equivalent to the total leakage that can be expected at the highest pressure differential between intake and return airways for the defined equivalent length leakage branch. By constructing the simulation model in this manner the overall leakage of a mine can be accurately modeled. Figure 1 shows how VUMA-coal graphically represents this type of layout. By varying the equivalent length leakage branch and varying the standard vent wall resistance, existing mines vent system can be accurately calibrated. For new mines current best practice wall resistance values [as a result of experience of typical resistance values of existing mine calibration] are used. Simulation models of typical South African collieries showed that the resistance values for walls of similar quality do not vary significantly from mine to mine [within a mining group].

3.2.3 Results from primary vent leakage simulation


As mentioned earlier primary vent leakage across a single wall depends on the static pressure differential across the wall. The impact of this is that higher leakage occurs through walls which are close to vent shafts and reduces further away from the vent shafts. The number of vent walls [leakage paths] increases as mining advances away from vent shafts with a resulting increase in overall leakage. However, the overall vent system static pressure also increases with distance. These two factors because the relationship between leakage and distance from vent shafts to be non-linear but follow an almost quadratic relationship. Figure 2 illustrates the increase in ratio of total air required to air required at the section, with increased in mining distance. The graph is based on two mines that are similar in quality and number of walls per unit length with different system pressures. Figure 2 further illustrates that with increasing the number of sections in a mine, the overall required air quantity and system pressure increases requiring different design air ratios. It is clear that a mine with lower system

pressure would reach a greater distance than a mine with higher pressure difference for the same airflow quantity. Therefore, it is obvious that two collieries with the same wall standard / quality can have significantly different leakage characteristics depending on the mine system pressure.

3.3 Main Development Branch Input Format


Bord-and-pillar mining layouts, either for production or development, are a common feature of underground coal mines. This has the impact that main intakes and returns consists of multiple roadways. In VUMA-coal this scenario is simulated with an equivalent cross-sectional area and perimeter branch type. A further input required is fixed resistance leakage paths at predetermined equivalent length leakage branches [Section 3.2]. In VUMA-network this input is done manually which is a cumbersome and time consuming exercise that requires concentration. In order to streamline the input of main development branches with multiple roadways and fixed resistance leakage paths, an input branch was developed specifically for VUMA-coal to simplify this process and by doing so eliminating potential errors. The input branch developed is the Main Development input branch. The input screen for this branch is shown in Figure 3.

4 Mine ventilation system design and simulation process 4.1 Current situation
The increasing size and dynamics of modern underground coal mines makes it progressively more difficulty to predict the airflow behaviour and to ensure adequate ventilation in all sections of a mine. With modern and accurate simulation tools such as VUMA-coal, a mine ventilation system can be designed to provide the necessary airflow at the lowest capital and operating cost while ensuring effective mine ventilation conditions and the associated benefits of worker safety and health.

Figure 1. Graphical representation of VUMA-coal leakage paths

Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

Figure 2. Air requirements as mining distance increase In most of the literature on South African coal mine ventilation, little attention is given to ventilation network design. One of the reasons for this might be a lack of confidence in ventilation network simulators available to date. The following sections aim to demonstrate the relevance and potential benefit of using VUMA-coal to simulate coalmine ventilation systems, with a specific example from Anglo Coal. Obtain base case solution and calibrate to ensure correlation with operational data. Determine critical snap-shots over Life-of-Mine [LoM] where significant changes to the system occur or where certain horizons are reached. Determine airflow profiles over LoM. Construct snap-shot simulation models based on operational models. Solve airflow networks, evaluate results and optimise airflow distribution through what-if analysis. Solve contaminant distribution and re-optimise airflow distribution. Liaise with mine planning team and iterate to obtain optimum mine planning and design. Document inputs and results, and formulate conclusions and recommendations. Ventilation planning and design is one component of the broader mine planning system, and recommendations could include changes to the original layout and physical parameters such as fan specifications, shaft location and timing, roadway sizes, etc.

part of ventilation planning for collieries. Greenside Colliery in the Witbank region is expanding its operations to the north of their current main upcast and downcast infrastructure. The mine already re-located three out of four sections to the north and is planning to move a fourth section north from its current location in the south. The northern mining boundary is significantly further away from the ventilation infrastructure than the southern boundary. In order to maintain a last through road velocity of 1.5 m/s in all sections will require an additional 45 m3/s airflow in the north when four sections are situated in this area. Currently the mine has no additional air available to be redirected to the north and strategies will have to be put in place to provide the required 45 m3/s. One such strategy is to seal off worked out areas to save air, which can then be supplied to the north. The following air quantities are currently supplied to areas in the south that could potentially be sealed: Table 1: VUMA-coal simulation results Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Section to be moved Total: 15 20 25 50 110 m3/s m3/s m3/s m3/s m3/s

4.2 Typical methodology for design and simulation process


The methodology of mine ventilation planning and design in modern mine theory and practice differs substantially from the traditional hands-on calculation approach. It uses all possibilities offered by computer hardware and software that are available to the mine ventilation engineer. The following methodology is typically applied in simulating planned networks: Obtain mine ventilation network layout, and the required physical and operational data [mining dimensions, production schedules, etc.]. Obtain mine vent standards and confirm design criteria and constraints. Construct an operational simulation model in VUMA-coal and complete data input.

4.3 Case study


The following case study illustrates the benefit of VUMA-coal modeling as

Table 2 below gives the results of VUMA-coal simulations where each area in the model has been progressively sealed. The table shows the cumulative impact of each of the sealing strategies on the additional available air quantity in the north, total upcast quantity and total leakage. The results show that with more areas sealed in the south, more air is forced towards the northern boundary and the mine system pressure increases. The simulations clearly show how the increase in pressure results in a simultaneous reduction of upcast quantity [fan duty] and increase in overall system leakage. After completing the sealing work and moving the section, of the saved 110 m3/s in the south only 45 m3/s
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Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

Table 2: VUMA-coal simulation results for sealing strategy Sealing strategy Cumulative Air Available for North [m3/s] 0 15 25 30 45 Total Upcast Volume [m3/s] 515 510 505 495 475 Cumulative Leakage [m3/s] 125 125 135 142 150

Base Area 1 Area 2 Area 3 Move Section

was effectively available in the north. The airflow loss can be accounted for as follows: 40 m3/s reduction in total upcast quantity due to increased fan pressure [515 m3/s down to 475 m3/s] 25 m3/s increase in leakage due to higher system pressure [125 m3/s increased to 150 m3/s] Only 41% of the perceived saved air will reach the new section in the north. Simulations indicate that it will be Figure 3. VUMA-coal Main Development branch input screen possible to move the section to the north and supply the required 45 m3/s once the sealing work is completed. A further issue that had to be considered was how far the section can advance away from the main infrastructure before the available air will be insufficient to maintain the minimum last through road. VUMAcoal simulations showed that the section can only advance another 1 000 m before it would run out of air. At this point new ventilation infrastructure would be required which can be sized using VUMA-coal simulation software. From information from the mine, the section started to run out of air at the 1 000 m mark as predicted by VUMAcoal.

group and assists in standardisation in planning, reporting and evaluation of the VOHE business unit functions. The planning and evaluation process is further supplemented by planning and evaluation documentation including methodologies, reporting templates, graphs, tables and spreadsheets. The VOHE planning and evaluation system ensures a standard planning process and document that covers short term and LoM, as well as a standard evaluation process and document to compare key VOHE parameters as a measure of performance. VUMA-coal has been integrated into the full VOHE process and forms part of the long term planning and evaluation process as well as the dayto-day operational aspects. Detail VUMA-coal models are constructed and calibrated for all the Anglo Coal underground collieries

once a year. These calibrated base models are used in the LoM planning process of the various shafts to conduct what if studies related to current and required new infrastructure. The calibrated models are also used by the mine ventilation department to quickly and accurately clarify day-to-day ventilation issues that may arise during the year. Anglo Coal has achieved significant benefits from the process and some of the highlights are quantified and/or qualified below: Long term planning simulations showed that a number of previously considered Raise Bored Holes [RBH] and associated fan stations will ultimately not be required. A rough estimate of the Capital Expenditure [CAPEX] saving related to this RBH and fan station capital is $155 million [2006]. Ventilation system snap shots simulations for LoM allowed scheduling of ventilation infrastructure according to LoM production planning. This resulted in significant capital expenditure to be delayed by a number of years. Ventilation simulations of proposed mining scenarios indicated new ventilation infrastructure requirements [and scheduling] to

5 Simulation as part of the planning process


The interaction between VUMAcoals ventilation simulation software with its primary design features forms part of Anglo Coals Ventilation and Occupational Hygiene Engineering [VOHE] departments that have a standard planning and evaluation process. This process is used across the
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Figure 3. VUMA-coal Main Development branch input screen


Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

ensure planned production is achieved. Production would have suffered if the correct infrastructure was not in place on time. VUMA-coal models specified all future fan station aerodynamic design criteria. The work produced VOHE planning documents that will allow continuity in future as LoM OPEX and CAPEX are scheduled.

6 Conclusion
The VUMA-coal simulation programme is an essential tool to assist colliery ventilation engineers, practitioners to assist and mine planners and management to design optimal and cost effective underground coal mines by effectively and confidently incorporating ventilation aspects as part of the decision making process. This will enhance the holistic approach required for modern mine planning and design, and the everincreasing demands for quick, accurate and reliable answers. VUMAcoal can be used to develop effective

solutions for complex and interactive ventilation networks. Effective integration of simulation software into the operational and long term planning of a coal mining group has been achieved. Anglo Coal is maximising the benefits from applying simulation software in operational mines, long term planning and future mines. The continued profitability of existing operations and the viability of future mining prospects will be determined by operators ability to provide a safe and healthy working environment cost effectively. The use of precise and reliable simulation and planning tools for the design of underground ventilation systems will become more of a necessity rather than a luxury in future.

Acknowledgements
Anglo Coal for their support of VUMA and for allowing the examples and case study to be published in this paper.

References
Bluhm, S.J., Marx W.M., von Glehn, F.H. & Biffi, M. VUMA mine ventilation software.

Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, vol 54, 2001. Martinson, M.J., Leakage between intake and retrun airways in bord and pillar workings, 2nd US Mine Vent Symposium, Rheno, NV, September 1985. Marx, W.M., Biffi, M., Von Glehn, F.H., and Bluhm, S.J. VUMA network: a simulation tool for mine ventilation and cooling networks, Australian Centre of Geomechanics, International Seminar on Deep and High Stress Mining, Perth, Australia, November 2002. Marx, W.M., Biffi, M., Von Glehn, F.H., and Bluhm, S.J.. VUMA (Ventilation of Underground Mine Atmospheres)- A mine ventilation and cooling network simulation tool, 7th International Mine Ventilation Congress, Krakow, Poland, September 2001. Marx, W.M. and Belle, B.K. Simulating airflow conditions in a South African coalmine, using the VUMA-network simulation software. North American/Ninth U.S. Mine Ventilation Symposium, Toronto, June 2002. Marx, W.M., Bluhm, S.J., Von Glehn, F.H., and Biffi, M. The simulation of mine ventilation and cooling networks using the VUMA suite of software, Australian Centre of Geomechanics, Second International Seminar on Deep and High Stress Mining, Johannesburg, South Africa, February 2004.

Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

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Use of Baseline Personal DPM Exposure Data for Mine Ventilation PlanningA South African Journey
by B. K. Belle, Anglo American plc, Johannesburg, South Africa

1. Introduction
The use of diesel engine locomotives in SA mines can be traced to Van Dyk Consolidated Mines Ltd on the Witwatersrand gold mines in 1928 as a replacement for battery locomotives. The advantages and disadvantages were recognised in those days, and surprisingly, there are no significant additions to this list, but only refinements. The recognised advantages were viz., no installation cost, high mobility, greater power. The disadvantages were, viz., heat input into the air, noxious gases exhausted into the air, danger of explosions (in coal mines) or fires. The mining regulations at the time required that the proportion of CO and CO2 should not be more than 0.01 % and 0.1 % respectively. This translated to a dilution factor of 0.0168 m3/s/kW for the diesel engines used at the time (Barratt, 1941). In the last decade or two, the solid component of the diesel exhaust, called DPM has been recognised as a health hazard. Unlike the gold and platinum mines, which are generally at low levels of diesel mechanisation, coal mines use large numbers of diesel vehicles for transportation, materials handling and other support operations like longwall, and section belt moves. In recent years, small diesel vehicles are commonly used for worker transportation from surface to underground. In South Africa, DPM research in the 1990s was focused on diesel exhaust and control measures in underground workings (Haase, Unsted and Denysschen, 1995; Unsted, 1996). However, advances in DPM measurement technology has resulted in OELs for DPM being set in most of North America, Australia and Europe. With the impending legislation surrounding

Abstract
The use of diesel engine locomotives in South African mines can be traced to Van Dyk Consolidated Mines Ltd on the Witwatersrand gold mines in 1928 as a replacement for battery locomotives. The advantages and disadvantages were recognized in those days, and surprisingly, there are no significant additions to this list, but only refinements. The recognized advantages were viz., no installation cost, high mobility, greater power. The disadvantages were, viz., heat input into the air, noxious gases exhausted into the air, danger of explosions (in coal mines) or fires. In the last decade or two, the solid component of the diesel exhaust, called Diesel Particulate Matter (DPM) has been recognized as a health hazard. Exposure monitoring for DPM in South Africa (SA) is likely to be introduced in the future and SA is expected to follow the DPM legislation route in the USA. In the absence of any Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) for DPM in SA, the Mine Safety and Health Administration (USA) rule is currently being used as a benchmark for the ventilation design of new underground mines or expansion projects or for assessment purposes. In this regard, some local mines took an initiative to quantify personal DPM levels in order to cater for any anticipated legislative controls, as part of the legislated risk assessment process (MHSA, 1996). This paper discusses the ongoing SA journey of measurement and limitations of exposure data for ventilation planning and regulatory purposes. Preliminary SA personal DPM measurements and the data on total carbon (TC)/Elemental carbon (EC) ratios have highlighted the DPM issue and shown the limitations of the adoption of overseas limits. The currently accepted DPM limits are based upon the belief that they are economically and technically feasible for the mines to reach and are not necessarily health based. For SA underground platinum mines, a median TC/EC ratio of 1.8 with a range of 1.2 to 5.8 was observed. For SA coal mines, a median TC/EC ratio of 1.44 with a range of 1.25 to 2.13 was observed. This is in comparison to the median TC/EC ratio of 1.3 with a range of 1.25 to 1.67 that was observed in the 31-Mine Study (USA). While it is common practice in the USA to use the ratio of TC/EC for metal mines to be 1.3, the ratio found in local metal mines is exceeding 2.0 (platinum); diamond mines it is 1.95 and for coal mines, the ratio was 1.53 which is lower than Australian studies, i.e., 1.96. While the TC/EC ratios are being debated overseas and the result of a NIOSH DPM health effects study is awaited, most SA mines are carrying out baseline exposure measurements to understand the range of TC/EC ratios for varying mining conditions and engine controls. The preliminary measurements have provided an understanding of personal DPM exposures in the SA mines. It has been shown that a need for critical analysis of TC/EC ratios exists, and possible reasons for variance must be understood before stringent adoption of overseas recommended limits for DPM. Furthermore, the collation of appropriate ratios (TC/EC or OC/EC) from various local measurements would provide enough data for discussion purposes. It is hoped that the findings from this paper would provide input to scientific approaches in developing appropriate conversion factors and limits for DPM and also in ensuring appropriate error factors (currently 1.14 for TC and 1.2 for EC) for compliance determination.
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Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

DPM in SA and in the absence of any previous work specific to DPM measurement, this paper discusses the ongoing SA journey of measurement and limitations of exposure data for ventilation planning and regulatory purposes.

2.2 DPM Exposure Limits


There have been several changes worldwide (mainly, USA, Canada, and Australia) to the DPM exposure limits and measurement techniques (e.g., use of EC as a DPM surrogate). In USA, for metal mines, the current DPM limit enforced by the MSHA is 350 g/m3 TC or 270 g/m3 EC. The final limit of 160 g/m3 TC will become effective on May 20, 2008. For coal mines, currently, there are no personal OELs but instead a tail pipe emission limit of not greater than 2.5 grams per hour of DPM as measured in a laboratory test, is enforced. For the current exposure limits, the TC/EC ratio used by the MSHA is 1.3. There is no clear indication yet if the TC/EC ratio of 1.3 will be used at the final DPM limit of 160 g/m3 TC. The ratio plays an important role as the EC is the most sensitive and specific marker of DPM. The proposed MSHA limits are based upon the belief that it is economically and technically feasible for the mines to reach and are not fully health based. In SA, it is not known when or how the Department of Minerals and Energy Affairs (DME) will respond with similar compliance limits, but there is a DPM task team, which is investigating the possible exposure limits to the SA mining industry. In the absence of any regulatory limits, the industry is proactively pursuing the issues of personal DPM exposure levels in order to cater for any anticipated legislative controls as part of the legislated risk assessment process (Mine Health and Safety Act, 1996).

2 Background 2.1 DPM Basics


The incomplete combustion of diesel fuel in diesel engines results in the formation of solid and liquid particles in the exhaust stream. In recent years, DPM has been classified (NIOSH, 1988; IARC 1989) as a suspected Human Carcinogen (Class-2). Evidence of worker health impact from inhaling diesel exhaust gases and particulates are documented elsewhere (HEI, 1995). DPM is defined as a sub-micron (< 1.0 micron) physical aerosol component of diesel exhaust, which is made up of solid carbon particles which attract and adsorb organic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), condensed liquid hydrocarbons and inorganic compounds such as sulphate compounds. The carbon component found in diesel emissions, known as total carbon (TC), is the combination of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and usually makes up about 85 % of DPM. EC is the pure carbon particles that are the basic building blocks of DPM. OC is the group of complex carbon compounds found in DPM, including hydrocarbons such as aldehydes and PAHs but excluding inorganic substances such as sulphates. DPM levels in underground mines depend on the amount, size, workload of diesel equipment, fuel used, ventilation and, the effectiveness of control technology that may be in place. Due to its sub micron size, DPM is not easily removed from the air stream and will not settle to the ground easily due to gravity. Once airborne, a portion of DPM is likely to remain airborne all the way to the mine return air. This means that DPM not only affects the workplace where it is produced, it also contaminates workplaces downwind, requiring control at source.

2.3 Personal DPM Sampling


Sampling of worker exposure to DPM is important in order to assess the risk associated with DPM

exposure. Therefore, to evaluate the exposure of workers to DPM, personal DPM sampling strategy is followed in SA. Also, by measuring personal exposure, a mine would be able to estimate the engine exhaust using the known ventilation air quantities. It is believed that the personal DPM measurement will enable verification of the state of maintenance of an engine and the need for tailpipe exhaust measurement or control measures. Personal DPM exposure monitoring is similar to sampling of dust in mines except that the DPM sampling filter cassette is different. The DPM sampler consists of a cyclone, a pre-packed filter cassette with SKC jewel impactor, a length of tubing, lapel clips and a constant flow sampling pump (Figure 1). The purpose of the impactor is to eliminate respirable coal dust particles larger than 0.9 m in size. The presence of this impactor reduces, but does not completely eliminate the potential for other carbon-based compounds such as coal dust to interfere with the DPM analysis. It is now commonly accepted that the respirable combustible dust (RCD) method developed in Canada is not favored due to accuracy limitations as levels are reduced, and the use of EC as the DPM surrogate. Regardless of the method used to analyse the sample, DPM sample collection is similar to the gravimetric sampling requirements as per DME Sampling Guidelines (2002) except the following points discussed hereafter. The pump flow rate is set at 2.0 Lpm in accordance with the supplier specification (SKC DPM cyclone) and the minimum sampling period is 300 minutes. Ideally, blank filters from each batch of filters (i.e. pack of 10) should be kept as field blanks for analysis as a quality control (background DPM

Figure 1. DPM sampler (right) worn by surface operator (left) and an underground LHD operator (centre).
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Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

levels). However, due to the high cost of DPM sampling, it is advised that appropriate judgment be made based upon the availability of resources. After a DPM sample is collected, it must be sent to an accredited laboratory for analysis (CSIR-Johannesburg, the only accredited laboratory in SA). If the DPM sample is collected to quantify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the DPM sample must be stored in a refrigerator immediately after sampling.

B = control filter DPM (EC or OC) in g/cm2 FL = sample flow rate in litres per min ST = sampling time in min A = DPM filter deposition area, cm2 An 8-hour time-weighted average DPM sampling concentration (DPMST) is obtained as follows:
((DPMST x ST) TWA - 8h = 480 (2)

2.4 DPM Analyses


Figure 2 shows a photographic view of the DPM samples (soot colored) for analyses. The most commonly used analytical method to measure workers' exposure to DPM is the NIOSH 5040 method, which measures EC, OC and TC. The detailed information on the NIOSH 5040 method is available elsewhere (NIOSH 5040, 1999).

For example, the NIOSH 5040 method recommends a filter deposit area of 8.55 cm2 for a 37 mm filter when using a three piece style cassette. However, a study by NIOSH (Noll et al., 2005) using SKC impactor produced areas of DPM deposit between 8.11 and 8.21 cm2. For calculation purposes, the value used by the MSHA (USA) of 8.04 cm2 is recommended (Haney, 2006). It was noted during a few initial platinum baseline studies, a DPM filter deposition area of 8.4 cm2 was used.

3 Results and discussions


A summary of 8-hr time weighted average EC concentrations (g/m3) assuming zero exposure for the unsampled portion of the remaining shift is shown in Figures 3 and 4 for coal and non-coal mines. The data analyses indicated that the ratio of TC/EC for the underground coal mine DPM sample was 1.52 which was lower than the Australian finding of

Figure 2. DPM Samples sent for NIOSH 5040 analyses.

2.5 DPM Calculations


This section of the paper gives a brief summary of the DPM calculations. The DPM sample results for EC, OC and TC are usually reported in units of g/cm2 based on a DPM filter portion of about 1.5 cm2, which is the area of the standard punch provided by the laboratory. To obtain the EC or OC concentration for the sample period, the following equation is used. ((M - B)) x A x 1000) DPMST = (1) FL x ST Where: DPMST = sample DPM concentration measured in g/m3 M = sample DPM (EC or OC) in g/cm2
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1.96 (Roger and Mace, 2005). For the underground platinum mines, the average TC/EC ratio was 1.98. For the underground diamond (kimerlite) mines, the average TC/EC ratio was 1.95, while other metal mines had much higher TC/EC ratios as found from preliminary results. These differ from the findings from the US metal/nonmetal mines (31-mine study), i.e., 1.3. The OC levels in surface mines were much higher than the underground mines for both coal and platinum mines. Due to the limitations of the TC/EC ratio due to interferences of coal dust, adsorption of vapour phase OC on quartz filters, size and concentration of dust etc. the use of TC/EC ratio be carefully applied (Noll and Birch 2004; Birch and Noll, 2004). Depending on the effects of the interferences, the TC/EC ratio might not be an accurate conversion factor (Noll, 2007). In coal mines, the average OC to EC ratio for all underground measurements was at 50% indicating the presence of coal dust particles in the collected DPM samples. There may also be other sources of OC such as vapor phase OC. From coal mines, it was noted that the highest measured DPM levels was during belt move operations involving the contractors with a specialised crew of approximately 10 workers who completed the belt extension within approximately 4 hours, involving extensive use of up to 3 LHD diesel vehicles. It must be noted that, in coal mines, the highest exposure shifts,

Figure 3 EC levels (8-hr TWA) in Coal Mines.


Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

Figure 4 TC/EC ratios from various mining commodities. such as belt extension, do not happen everyday and a worker present during these activities is usually on the fresh air side of the belt. The DPM measurement data in coal mines indicate that at surface mines or under normal underground mining conditions, the DPM exposure is well below the anticipated future DPM compliance limits. The reasons for high DPM exposures can be attributed to the increased number of diesel operating engines, diesel vehicle conditions, engine maintenance and hard working engines during the belt moves and continuous idling of diesel engines. The disruptions in section ventilation layout during belt moves may have contributed to the high DPM exposure. It is understood that all of the diesel engines use water-cooled scrubber filtration systems. It was noted that all the SA mines use low-sulphur diesel fuel (< 500 ppm). Another interesting observation was that even though there was no diesel equipment present during a normal coal cutting operation, the section environment still contained DPM levels (example., a CM section where there was no LHD present during the shift had measured levels of 27.22 g/m3 EC). Figure 5 shows the relationship between the number of dieseloperated vehicles emitting a fixed DPM emission of 2.5 grams/hour at the tailpipe, DPM concentration (TC) in g/m3 and ventilation quantity in m3/s. This model can be used to determine the ventilation quantity or specific need for the diesel engine control requirements after the personal measurement data. For example, if the personal DPM exposure level of the LHD driver during a belt extension was 1054 g/m3. From the plot (Figure 5), the following interpretations can be made, viz., firstly, the belt extension area where the LHD operator was busy was not well ventilated due to obvious ventilation disruptions caused by the belt move; secondly, assuming the

area was well ventilated, indicating that the LHD emission was above the coal mine DPM standard of 2.5 grams/hour. In an another example, an average of three personal DPM samples collected during the belt extension, i.e., 534 g/m3 (1039 g/m3; 240 g/m3; 321 g/m3) with a worst case scenario of 3 LHDs operating with an assumed air quantity of 30 m3/s at the belt extension area, would result in an estimated DPM emission of 20 grams/hour which is 8 times the current tailpipe standard, indicating that the current controls do not provide sufficient protection against DPM exposure. This would indicate a requirement for both control measures, i.e., increased ventilation during the belt extension, as well additional engine control devices. The control parameters that are available for lower DPM exposure are viz., use of low sulphur fuel; good engine maintenance; exhaust aftertreatment, good ventilation control, control of the number of diesel vehicles and non-idling in the section. Therefore, for high exposure activities, this would require applying engineering controls at the diesel engine and generalised controls such as increasing ventilation to a given workplace. However, this must be done in conjunction with appropriate economic and technical analyses and risk assessment of controls. For

4 Use of Personal DPM Data for Ventilation Planning Purposes


In the USA, the effective underground coal DPM standard is for each piece of diesel-powered equipment to emit no more than 2.5 grams per hour of diesel particulate matter (DPM).

Figure 5. Relationship between air quantity and DPM.


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Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

example, during the belt move operation, section ventilation requires control of air movement so as to dilute the DPM and exhaust it to the return air as soon as possible by using brattices or small jet fans. Other engine based control methods involve after-treatment filters such as a commercially available disposable diesel emission filter. Various practical information on maintenance of the diesel engines can be found at the MSHA website (http://www.msha.gov). This information can be used on selected high DPM emitting engines.

5 Summary and conclusions


The preliminary SA personal DPM exposure measurements and the data on TC/EC ratios have highlighted the DPM issue and shown the limitations of the stringent adoption of overseas limits. The currently accepted DPM limits are based upon the belief that it is economically and technically feasible for the mines to reach and are not necessarily health based. For the SA underground platinum mines, a median TC/EC ratio of 1.8 with a range of 1.2 to 5.8 was observed. For the SA coal mines, a median TC/EC ratio of 1.44 with a range of 1.25 to 2.13 was observed. This is in comparison to the median TC/EC ratio of 1.3 with a range of 1.25 to 1.67 that was observed for valid samples in the 31-Mine Study (USA). While it is common practice in the USA to use the ratio of TC/EC for metal mines to be 1.3, the ratio found in local metal mines is exceeding 2.0 (platinum); diamond mines it is 1.95 and for coal mines, the ratio was 1.53 which is lower than Australian studies, i.e., 1.96. The influence of this TC/EC ratio is significant in terms of their use in the standard development. Recently, it was noted that in the USA, an average exposure level of MSHA compliance samples collected during a 10 month period (Pomroy, 2007) was 181 g/m3 TC and 21% of the mines were cited for noncompliance. Interestingly, at the proposed limit of 160 g/m3 TC, most mines probably would be out-of compliance based on the above data. It is believed that TC/EC ratios are influenced by interferences of
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combustible dust, adsorption of vapor phase OC on quartz filters, size, and concentration of dust, engineering controls and operating conditions. It is accepted that the actual TC/EC ratio could vary from mine to mine, and even from one section in a mine to another, based on the mix of controls at a mine. It was noted that clean engines have more of an impact on reducing OC levels. Alternative fuels, ventilation, and work practices seem to lower EC and TC at similar rates, while diesel particulate filters (DPF) and environmental cabs appear to be more effective in reducing EC levels (EPA, 2005). While the TC/EC ratios are being debated overseas and the results of NIOSH DPM health effects study is awaited, many SA mines are carrying out baseline exposure measurements to understand the range of TC/EC ratios for varying mining conditions and engine controls. The preliminary measurements have provided an understanding of personal DPM exposures in the SA mines. It has been shown that a need for critical analysis of TC/EC ratios exists, and possible reasons for such variance must be understood before stringent adoption of overseas recommended limits for DPM. Furthermore, the collation of appropriate ratios (TC/EC or OC/EC) from various local measurements would provide enough data for discussion purposes. It is hoped that the findings from this paper would provide an input to scientific approaches in developing appropriate conversion factors and limits for DPM and also in ensuring appropriate error factors (currently 1.14 for TC and 1.2 for EC) for compliance determination.

7 References
Barratt, A.G., 1941, Notes on the Use of a Diesel Locomotive Underground at Van Dyk Consolidated Mines, Ltd., Third Empire Mining and Metallurgical Congress, 1941, SA, pp. 489-496. Unsted, A.D., 1996, Control of Diesel Emissions in Underground Workings, GEN 208, SIMRAC Report, SA, pp 214. HEI, 1995, Diesel Exhaust: A Critical Analysis of Emissions, Exposure, and Health Effects. Report of the Special Working Group on Diesel of the Health Effects Institute, Cambridge MA. EPA, 2005, Diesel Particulate Matter Exposure of Underground Metal and Nonmetal Mines, Federal Register: September 7, 2005, Volume 70, Number 172, Proposed Rules Page 53279-53293. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), method 5040, Fourth Edition Haase, H., Unsted, A.D., and Denysschen, C., 1995, Control of Diesel Exhaust in Underground Workings, GEN010, SIMRAC Report, South Africa, 269p. Noll, J D., Timko, R J., McWilliams, L., Hall, P and Haney, R.A., Sampling Results ., of the Improved SKC DPM Cassette. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Hygiene, Volume 2, No.1, January 2005, pp. 29-37. Noll, J.D., M. E. Birch., 2004, Evaluation of SKC DPM Cassettes for Monitoring Diesel Particulate Matter in Coal Mines. J. Environ. Monit., No. 6, 973 - 978. Birch, M.E.; J.D. Noll., 2004, Sub micrometer elemental carbon as a selective measure of diesel particulate matter in coal mines. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, No.6, 799-806. Noll, J.D., 2007, Personal Communications, NIOSH, USA Haney, R.A., 2006, Personal Communications, USA. Rogers, A., and Mace, G, 2005, Diesel Particulate Exposure-Monitoring in Australian Mines, Power Point Presentation, pp 19. NIOSH 1988, Carcinogenic Effects of Exposure to Diesel Exhaust. Current Intelligence Bulletin 50. NIOSH Publication No 88-116 IARC, 1989, Diesel and Gasoline Engine Exhausts and Some Nitroarenes. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol 46, Lyons, France. Pomroy, B., 2007, Recent Developments in DPM, The 12th Annual Underground Stone Safety Seminar, December 4-5, 2007, Executive Inn Louisville, Ky, USA.

6 Acknowledgements
The author wishes to express his sincere gratitude and appreciation to various mines for pro-actively addressing the DPM issue and sharing relevant information for this paper; and to the Anglo Technical Division for permission to publish this paper.

Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

MVS 2010 Conference 13 - 15 May 2010 Emperors Palace, Kempton Park

Exhibitor: Schauenburg Exhibitor: Drger SA

Exhibitor: AMS Haden

Exhibitor: Spero Group

Exhibitor: Ningi Services

Exhibitor: Envirocon Instrumentation

Exhibitor: BBE Exhibitor: HASS Industrial

Exhibitor: GFG

Exhibitor: NAPAS
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Exhibitor: Afrox

Exhibitor: Kobus Dekker Occ Hygiene Consultant


Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

Exhibitor: Mine Support Services

Theresse Stanton, David Stanton, Marie Ackermann, Johan Tucker, Dirk van Greuning, Marco Biffi

Exhibitor: Colliery Dust Control

Networking during tea break Exhibitor: SKC

Vijay Nundlall and Marie Ackermann

Frank von Glehn and Marco Biffi preparing for their sessions

Marco Biffi and Dirk van Greuning


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Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

Jan du Plessis and Kobus Dekker Conference proceedings

Frank von Glehn

Shane Ambrosio

Marie Ackermann, Robyn Grove, Debbie Myer

Enjoying lunch

Dr S Bluhm, Wynand Marx, Russell Ramsden with Cheryl Allen and Brian Keen from Vale Inco Ltd Canada

Exhibitor: Markus Rohner of Spiro, Switzerland Martin van Schoor and Andr van der Linde

Delegates from BBE Engineering


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Bruce Doyle with Ralph McIntyre


Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

Bulk air cooling system close to completion on Tanzanian Mine


BBE Projects is on track for the July 2010 commissioning of a new 7 MW bulk air cooler and two ammonia surface refrigeration machines, at African Barrick Gold's Bulyanhulu Mine in north-west Tanzania, to counter the increased heat load arising from the mine's expansion and deepening. This turnkey project represents Phase 1 of a proposed 14 MW system and is believed to be the first bulk air cooling system to be installed on a Tanzanian mine. It is BBE's third major cooling project in Africa (outside of South Africa), the first two being commissioned at AngloGold Ashanti's Obusai Mine in Ghana in 2005 and 2007. The project comprises a four-cell vertical forced-draught concrete bulk air cooling tower, two axial flow fans, a plant room housing two ammonia refrigeration machines with plate heat exchangers, a four-cell condenser cooling tower, and associated pumps, pipework, electrical, instrumentation and control system. This US$13-million contract was awarded in 2009. Civil construction work is complete, mechanical installation work is well over halfway and the electrical contractor has established site. Equipment for this project was procured internationally and transported to the mine site by sea and road. Construction works have been awarded to local Tanzanian contractors. Bulyanhulu is an underground trackless operation that uses long-hole and drift-and-fill as its principal stoping methods. Ore reserves are accessed via a surface shaft and an internal ramp system. BBE's mine refrigeration and cooling distribution team includes refrigeration and thermo-flow engineers specialising in design, installation and operation of all the elements of mine cooling systems.
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These include refrigeration machines, cooling towers, primary and secondary air coolers and in-stope chilled water systems. At concept level, BBE examines alternative refrigeration and cooling distribution systems and identifies optimum systems for specific circumstances. BBE has expertise in the detailed engineering design of mine refrigeration systems, the preparation of detailed engineering specifications, cost estimating and project execution and management for existing mines and new projects. BBE also has experience in the operational aspects of refrigeration systems and are often involved in assessment and modification work on existing refrigeration machinery.

Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

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Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/June 2010

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Electra Mining Africa 2010


World renowned mining and industrial show
Taking place at the MTN Expo Centre, NASREC, Johannesburg from 4-8 October, Electra Mining Africa is ranked as the second largest mining show in the world and, together with co-located shows Elenex Africa and Transport Expo Africa, will provide visitors with the ultimate platform to view a vast array of new innovations, products, services, technologies, trends and industry developments in the mining, construction, industrial and power generation industries. "Visitors can expect to see many leading-edge South African companies in the packed halls and outside precincts, as well as high-profile international exhibitors from countries such as Australia, Austria, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, China, Croatia, France, Germany, India, Italy, Poland, Russia, Taiwan, Turkey, UK and USA," says Veda Koekemoer, Exhibition Manager at Specialised Exhibitions, organisers of the shows. "Government support is also strong with large stand areas taken by the Australian Trade Commission and Camese, and also the French, German and USA Pavilions." "It's exciting that this year's show has attracted such a high-level of international interest, which shows confidence and interest in our market. The international exhibitors see South Africa as a developing country with growth potential and a very strong player in the mining industry". "We're also excited about the response we've already had for visitor pre-registration on our website," adds Koekemoer. "One of the benefits of pre-registering is the Meet the Buyer Programme, which enables visitors to maximise their time and networking experience at the show. Visitors select the exhibitors they want to meet, track meeting requests through online diaries and then meet at the show. It was extremely popular in 2008 and every pre-registered visitor can benefit from the service this year." Exhibitors are working hard to get ready for the big event in October, such as local earth moving equipment company BGM Trading. They recognise the business potential provided by the show and will be exhibiting the Liugong range of earth moving equipment from China. "We decided to book four stands at the show in order to get the Liugong dealers from Africa involved and to showcase the product applications on the continent," says director Swannie Swanepoel. Mining Exploration equipment supplier Pacific Mining will launch its new water hammer at Electra Mining Africa 2010. This South African first of its kind drills smoother, straighter holes with less noise and vibration than conventional drills. It is ideal for deep hole underground drilling and operates at less cost than a conventional drill. The company will also showcase a range of exploration machines, drill rigs and a crusher plant. The company hopes to build market credibility and increased brand awareness through Electra Mining Africa 2010 as it interacts with potential clients face-to-face. Well established supplier to the cement and mining industries, Polysius will also be exhibiting some exciting products at the show. The company's Polab Automatic Sample Preparation Module is the smallest laboratory automation system in the world. The module prepares samples for X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) using a grinding vessel for efficient yet smooth grinding. It is compact, quiet and quick, can handle a high sample throughput and is compatible with most analysis software. Visitors to the show can also expect to see a laboratory size Polycom High-Pressure Grinding Roll (HPGR). HPGR technology has proven itself in the mining industry and is now used in hard rock comminution operations like gold, copper, platreef, platinum and iron ore. The technology delivers low wear and low energy cost, complimented by high throughput and machine availability compared with that of ball mills. SEW Eurodrive will be exhibiting the new DR series range of motor, launched earlier this year. The range is extremely energy efficient, helping to optimise the energy efficiency of each individual component and combine the drive technology to match the specific application, which will achieve a significant economic benefit. The range seeks to overcome the challenge of high-energy consumption by drive technology in an applications follow-up cost. The new modular system for AC motors offers millions of drive combinations that can be used in many different applications. Independent of the required energy efficiency class, the whole range of DR motor options is available in all efficiency levels and offers an ideally matched brake concept as well as encoders which are integrated in the motor. By combining all the different design requirements, this motor saves time and optimizes processes in the areas of motor selection, ordering and logistics. "Energy efficiency is a non-negotiable in businesses today" comments Ute Bormann, SEW Eurodrive GM: Sales and Marketing. Together, Electra Mining Africa, Elenex Africa - internationally respected as the leading power generation, electrical engineering and lighting exhibition in Africa, and Transport Expo Africa, offer both exhibitors and visitors the opportunity to make valuable business connections and a forum for discussing the latest developments, technologies, trends, products and services in these sectors. The popular Machine Tools showcase will again be in Hall 9 alongside a broad range of general industrial products. Many new innovations will be showcased including energy efficiencies and environmentally friendly products, as well as products in line with the mining industry's goals on health and safety. "Electra Mining Africa experienced its biggest show in 2008 with more than 41 000 visitors," says Exhibition Manager, Charmainne Wood. "We are expecting similar turnouts in 2010 based on the excellent local and internaJournal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, April/July 2010

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tional response we've had from exhibitors and early visitor pre-registration." "Halls 5, 6, 7, 8,9 and 10 are expected to be full to capacity with local and international exhibitors and the outside precinct areas, creatively expanded and designed, will be host to an array of exciting and innovative exhibits and live product demonstrations. There's huge equipment on display - always a draw card - and entertainment will be big this year". "The broad scope of these shows brings these coinciding industry sectors together at one location for visitor and exhibitor convenience," says John Kaplan, Group Managing Director and CEO, Specialised Exhibitions. "It's a platform to showcase the latest developments, technologies, trends, products and services in all sectors of these industries." "This combined with the co-located conferences such as the two morning workshops with the South African Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, and the Inward Buying Missions organised together with the DTI and the South African Equipment Export Council, makes for an extremely informative, interactive and exciting experience for all visitors." Electra Mining Africa 2010, Elenex Africa 2010 and Transport Expo 2010 are being hosted at the newly revamped MTN Expo Centre - home of the Broadcast Media Centre for the FIFA World Cup, NASREC, Johannesburg, from 4-8 October. Entrance without a ticket, or a business card, or pre-registering at www.electramining.co.za is subject to a R20 entrance fee. For further information contact Specialised Exhibitions, Tel: +27 11 835 1565 or email veda@specialised.com or cwood@specialised.com

Mine Ventilation Society


Ties - R60.00 each

To order: Tel: 011 482-7957 / Fax: 011 482-7959 or 086 660 7171 Email: secretary@mvssa.co.za

CSIR Natural Resources & Environment (NRE) Property Cn. Rustenburg & Carlow Road, Emmarentia, 2195, Johannesburg, SA PO Box 291521 Melville 2109

THE MINE VENTILATION SOCIETY OF SOUTH AFRICA

THE MINE VENTILATION SOCIETY OF SOUTH AFRICA


Tel: +27 11 482-7959 or 482-7957 Fax +27 11 482-7959 / 086 660 7171 Email: secretary @mvssa.co.za

APPLICATION FORM FOR ADMISSION TO MEMBERSHIP OR TRANSFER OF GRADE - 2009/2010


Fees: I, Associate R450.00 Member R550.00 Fellow R650.00 (prices exclusive of VAT) (Surname) (Title) / / (Date of Birth) (Full Names)

Apply in terms of the Constitution of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa for i) Admission to Grade of Associate iii) Admission to Grade of Fellow v) Transfer to Grade of Fellow Were you previously a member of the MVS? Yes No ii) iv) Admission to Grade of Member Transfer to Grade of Member

If so, please supply your membership number

I agree that in the event of my admission to the Society, I will be governed by the Constitution and By-Laws of the Society as they are now formulated or as hereafter they may be amended, that I will advance the objects of the Society as far as shall be in my power. I certify that the statements made by me in this form are true. Your Personal Details Title Initials First Name Surname SA ID No Birth Date Gender Addresses Address Line 1 Address Line 2 Address Line 3 Address Line 4 Address Line 5 City Province Country Postal Code Phone Numbers Int. Code Code Tel Cell Email Your Company Details Company VAT Number Domain / Operation Department Position Qualifications Your Company Your Home Your Invoice

Company

Home

Preferred Branch (x) North Western Free State

Colliery Other

Postal address where you want your journal to be delivered Note that admission to the Society is conditional upon payment of subscription fees, within three months of the date of confirmation of your acceptance by the Council. Further note, it remains the responsibility of the individual member to notify the MVS of any change in the above details. Internal Application Yes No

Please list any other affiliation you have to any other professional bodies: Signature of Applicant: Date:

RECOMMENDATION OF SUPPORTERS
From personal knowledge of the applicant and in consideration of his/her qualifications as stated herein, we recommend him to the Council of the Society as being a fit and proper person to be admitted as a * Fellow / Member / Associate. * Fellow / Member / Associate (Name in block letters) (Name in block letters) (Signature) * Fellow / Member / Associate (Signature) Note: This application must be signed by TWO supporters who are members of the Society, at least one of them must be a Fellow. Applicants who are unable to produce supporters for geographical or other reasons or who require further information regarding eligibility, should write to the Secretary, enclosing this application form duly completed as far as possible.

FOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY


Accepted as Date
Registered as Section 21 Company in terms of the Companies Act, 1973: No 2003/009353/08 Journal of the Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa, January/March 2010 25

Chairman Membership Committee