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CV6107 (Part II)
Lecture 4 – Composite Column
Chiew Sing-Ping
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Nanyang Technological University
Scope of Lecture 4
General
Local buckling of steel element
Simplified calculation method
Axial compression
Resistance to compression and bending
moment
Worked example
2
Composite columns
Composite columns often offer significant economic
advantages over either structural steel or reinforced
concrete alternatives.
High load carrying capacities and high flexural
rigidities with smaller sizes at reduced costs.
Excellent inherent fire resistances.
Can be very strong - range of capacities for the same
external dimensions resulting in same column size
externally in all floors of a building.
3
Application of composite columns
4
5
Cross-section of composite columns
Composite columns may be classified into two main types:
Concrete encased composite section
• Partially encased steel section
• Fully encased steel section
Concrete in-filled composite section
• Circular steel hollow section
• Rectangular steel hollow section
6
Concrete encased sections
a) Full encased
b) partially encased
7
Concrete-filled hollow sections
a) concrete-filled
rectangular hollow
ti
sec on
b) concrete-filled
circular hollow
ti
sec on
c) concrete-filled
circular hollow
section with
encased H-section
8
Local buckling
Fully encased steel sections
b
c
b
c
c y
y
The concrete cover thickness should not
be less than the lager of the two following
c
z
• ≥ 40mm
• ≥ b/6
t
w
h
h c
t
c
f
z
9
Local buckling- partially encased/concrete
filled sections
Cross-section
Max (d/t), max (h/t) and max (b/t)
t
Circular hollow
Steel section
d
y
235
max
(
d t =
/
)
90
f
y
z
t
Rectangular hollow
Steel section
zzz
235
max
(
h / t
)
h
= 52
z
y
f
y
z
b
Partially encased
I-section
235
max b / t
(
)
= 44
f
t
f
y
f
y
z
10
Calculation Methods
Two(2) methods for calculating the resistance of composite columns:
General Method
• Second-order effects and imperfections taken into account in
calculation
• Can be used for asymmetric sections
• Needs suitable numerical software
Simplified Method
• Full interaction between the steel and concrete sections until failure
• Geometric imperfections and residual stresses taken into account
in calculation, usually using European buckling curves
• Plane sections remain plane
11
Simplified design method -
Limitations
The simplified method is subject
to the following limitations:
b c
0.2 ≤ δ ≤ 0.9
c
b
c
y
y
Depth to width ratio: 0.2 < h /b <5.0
c
c
c
z
The relative slenderness
λ< 2.0
t
w
Steel reinforcement area:
h
h c
0.3% ≤ A s /A c < 0.6%
t
c
f
z
Concrete cover :
• y-direction: 40 mm < c y < 0.4 b c
• z-direction: 40 mm < c z <0.3 h c
12
Cross-sections resistance to axial
compression
Cross-section resistance to axial compression is the sum of the plastic
compression resistances of each of its elements:
Concrete encased steel section
b c
= A f
+ 0.85 A f
+ A f
N pl,Rd
a
yd
c
cd
s
sd
b
h
h c
13
Cross-sections resistance to axial
compression
Concrete filled steel hollow section
= A f
+ A f + A f
N pl,Rd
a
yd
c
cd
s
sd
t
t
zzzz
d
y
h
y
z
z
14
Cross-sections resistance to axial
compression
Concrete filled circular steel hollow section
y
N
A f
+
A f
1
t f ⎟ ⎞ +
A f
pl,Rd
a
a
yd
c
cd
a
s
sd
d f
ck
t
Use in desi
g
n if:
• Relative slenderness λ ≤ 0.5
d
• e/d < 0.1, where e =M Ed /N Ed
15
Concrete filled circular steel hollow section
For 0 < e/d < 0.1:
η =η + −η
(1
)(10 e / d )
a
ao
ao
t
η
=η − 10 e / d )
(1
a
co
d
For e = 0:
η
= η = 0.25(3 + 2λ)
a
ao
2
η
= η
= 4.9 −18.5λ + 17λ
c
co
For e/d > 0.1:
η
= 1
η
= 0
a
c
16
Relative Slenderness
N
pl,Rd
λ=
N
cr
is the N pl,Rd calculated using
γ
=γ =γ = 1.0
c
a
s
N pl,Rk
N
is the elastic critical force
cr
2
π EI
(
) eff
N =
cr
2
L
17
Effective flexural stiffness
Steel section
(EI ) = E I + E I + K E I
eff
a
a
s
s
e
cm
c
K e = 0.6
Reinforcement
E cm , secant modulus
of concrete EC2
Concrete
18
Effective flexural stiffness
(
EI
)
= E I + E I + K E
I
eff
a
a
s
s
e
c,eff
c
K e = 0.6
1
E
= E
c,eff
cm 1
+
(
N
/
N
)
ϕ
G,Ed
Ed
t
creep coefficient
EC2
N G,Ed permanent part of axial design load
19
Buckling Resistance
A composite column has sufficient resistance to buckling if:
N Ed
1.0
χN
pl,Rd
the reduction factor
(EC3)
1
χ=
1.0
2
2 ≤
φ+ φ −λ
[
φ=0.51+αλ−0.2 +λ
(
)
2
]
N pl,Rd
λ=
N cr
20
Buckling curves for composite columns
α the imperfection factor which allows for different levels of imperfection in the
columns (EC3)
=0.21
for buckling curve a
= 0.34
for buckling curve b
=0.49
for buckling curve c
Plastic resistance
1 .0
x
b
0.0
1.0
λ 2.0
21
Buckling curves for composite columns
Cross-section
Limits
Axis of buckling
Buckling curve
Concrete encased section
y y
-
b
y
z-z
c
z
Partially concrete encased
Section
y-y
b
y
z-z
c
z
Circular and rectangular
hollow section
ρ≤ 3%
y-y
a
s
y
z 3% <
ρ
≤ 6%
z-z
b
s
Circular hollow section with
y-y
b
y
z-z
b
z
Partially encased H section
with crossed H section
any
b
y
z
22
Second-order amplification of
bending moments
The amplification factor:
1
k =
≥ 1.0
1
− N
/
N
Ed
cr,eff
N
cr,eff
is the critical normal force
2
π EI
(
)
eff,II
N
=
cr,eff
2
L
(
)
(
)
EI
= K E I + E I + K
E I
eff,II
o
a
a
s
s
e,II
cm
c
β
is an equivalent moment factor
23
Second-order amplification of
bending moments
Factor β for the determination of moment
Moment distribution
Moment factors β
First –order bending
moment from
M
Ed
mem er mper ec on
b i
f
ti
β=1.0
M
Ed
End moments:
M Ed
r M Ed
β=0.66+0.44r
-
1≤
r
≤1
but
β≥0.44
24
Resistance of cross-section to compression
and uniaxial bending moment
Interaction curve for compression and bending
-Fully encased H section
25
Interaction curve for compression and
bending moment
Points A :
0.85f cd
f yd
f sd
-
-
-
- N pl,Rd
Fully encased H-section --- Points A
M A =0
N A = N pl,Rd
26
Interaction curve for compression and
bending moment
Points B :
0.85f cd
f yd
f sd
-
-
h n
M pl,Rd
-
+ 2h n
h n
No axial force
+
Fully encased H-section --- Points B
N B = 0
M B = M pl,Rd
1
M
= M
− fW −×
0.85
fW − fW
pl Rd
,
max,
Rd
yd
pan
cd
pcn
sd
psn
2
27
Interaction curve for compression and
bending moment
Points C :
0.85f cd
f yd
f sd
-
M pl,Rd
h n
-
-
2h
n
+
N pm,Rd
h n
+
Fully encased H-section --- Points C
N C = N pm,Rd = 0.85f cd A c
for concrete-encased section
= f d A
for concrete-filled hollow section
c
c
M C = M pl,Rd
28
Interaction curve for compression and
bending moment
Points D :
0.85f cd
f
y d
f d
s
M max,Rd
-
-
-
+
N pm,Rd /2
+
Fully encased H-section --- Points D
N D = N C
1
M
D = M
= fW + × 0.85 fW + fW
max,
Rd
yd
pa
2 cd
pc
sd
ps
29
Concrete filled Hollow section
For circular hollow section
b=h=d, r=d/2-t
A f
A
(2
f
f
)
c
cd
sn
sd
cd
h =
n
2
bf
+
4 t (2
f
f
)
cd
yd
cd
W pa = From Steel Section Tables
4
2
(
b
2
th
)(
2
t
)
2
⎛ h
W =
Ae
[
]
3
2
ps
si
i
W
=
r
r
(
4
π
)
W
p
c
p
s
1
43
⎜ ⎝
2
−− tr ⎟ ⎞ −
n
W
=
ps n
,
Ae ⎣ ⎡ ⎤ ⎦
sn i
,,
z
i
i = 1
2
W
= b − th − W
(
2)
p cn
n
psn
2
W
=−bh W − W
pan
n
pcn
psn
3/26/2012
30
Concrete encased I-section
n
W
= ∑
A
⎡ e
b c
ps n
,
sn i
,,
z
i
⎦ ⎤
i = 1
b
2
W =−bh W − W
pcn
c
n
pa n
,
ps n
,
e z
For h n <h/2-t f
h h c
A
α
f
A
(2
f
α
f
)
y
c
c
cd
sn
sd
c
cd
2
h =
= th
n
W pan
w n
2
b
α
f
+
2
t
(2
f
α
f
)
c
c
cd
w
yd
c
cd
For h/2-t f <h n <h/2
z
A
αα−
f
A
(2
f
f
)
+−
(
bt
)(
h
2
t
)(2
f
−α
f
)
c
c
cd
sn
sd
c
cd
w
f
yd
c
cd
h =
n
2
b α f + bf −α f
2
(2
)
Major -axis
c
c
cd
yd
c
cd
(
bt
)(
h
2
t
2 )
2
w
f
W pa = From Steel Section Tables
W
=
bh
pan
n
n
4
W
= ∑
Ae
[
]
p s
si
i
For h/2<h n <h c /2
i = 1
2
b h
A
αα−
f
Af
(2
−−
f
)
Af
(2
−α
f
)
c
c
c
c
cd
sn
sd
c
cd
a
yd
c
cd
W =
−−WW
h =
pc
4 pa
ps
n
2 b α f
α =
0.85
c
c
cd
c
= W
W p an
p a
3/26/2012
31
Concrete encased I-section
n
W
=
∑ A
⎡ e
b c
ps n
,
sn i
,,
y i
⎦ ⎤
i = 1
b
2
W
= hh − W
− W
p
cn
c
n
p ,
a n
p ,
s n
For h n ≤ t w /2
Af
α
A
(2
f
α
f
)
2
h h c
c
c
cd
sn
sd
c
cd
= hh
h =
W pan
n
y
n
2 h
α
f
+
2
hf (2
α
f
)
c
c
cd
yd
c
cd
For t
/2 < h
< b/2
w
n
z
e y
A
αα
f
A
(2
f
−+−
f
)
tth
(2
)(2
f
α
f
)
c
c
cd
sn
sd
c
cd
w
f
yd
c
cd
h =
n
2
hf
α
+
4
t
f (2
f
α
f
)
c
c
cd
yd
c
cd
Minor -axis
2
th
(
2)
t
2
w
f
W
=
2 th
pan
f
n
W pa = From Steel Section Tables
4
n
W
= ∑
Ae
[
]
For b/2<h n <b c /2
p s
si
i
i = 1
A
αα−
f
A
(2
f
−−
f
)
A
(2
f
−α
f
)
2
c
c
cd
sn
sd
c
cd
a
yd
c
cd
b h
h =
c
c
W =
− WW−
n
2
h α f
pc
4 pa
ps
c
c
cd
= W
W p a n
p a
3/26/2012
32
Resistance of columns to compression and
uniaxial bending moment
N/N pl,Rd
Resistance locus of
1 0
.
the cross-section
χ d =N Ed /N pl,Rd
0
1.0 M/M pl,Rd
μ d =M pl,N,Rd /M pl,Rd
33
Resistance of columns to compression and
uniaxial bending moment
M Ed
M Ed
=
≤α
M
μ M
M pl,N,Rd
d
pl,Rd
M ed
the greatest of the end moments and the maximum
bending moment
M pl,N,Rd the plastic bending resistance =μ d M pl,Rd
a reduction factor
α M
=0.9
=0.8
for S235 and S335
for S420 and S460
if >1.0 should not be used in practice
μ d
34
The influence of transverse shear force
• It can be assumed that the transverse shear V a Ed is carried by the steel
section only.
,
• The effect of shear only needs to be taken into account if the shear
force is more than 50% of the shear resistance V
of the steel
pl.a.Rd
section.
• the shear area is reduced over the sheared zone (usually the web of the
steel section). A reduced design steel strength in shear area is:
2
⎜ ⎛ 2 V
a,Ed
(1−ρ) f
ρ =
− 1
with
yd
⎝ ⎜ V
pl,a,Rd
35
Resistance of columns to compression and
biaxial bending moments
N/N pl,Rd
N/N pl,Rd
1.0
1.0
N Ed /N pl,Rd
N Ed /N pl,Rd
α
M μ dy
α M μ dy
0
1.0
μ dy
0
μ
1.0
dz
M y /M pl,y,Rd
M z /M pl,z,Rd
a) Axis of anticipated failure (y-y)
b) Axis(z-z)
36
Resistance of columns to compression and
biaxial bending moments
α M μ dy
0
M
/M
y,Ed
pl,y,Rd
μ dy
α M μ dz
μ dz
M z,Ed /M pl,z,Rd
c) Biaxial bending resistance
37
Resistance of columns to compression and
biaxial bending moments
For combined compression and biaxial bending the following conditions
should be satisfied for the stability check with the column length and for
the check at the end.
M y,Ed
≤α
M,y
μ M
dy
pl,y,Rd
μ =μ
M z,Ed
dy
d
≤α
M,z
μ M
dz
pl,z,Rd
μ =μ
dz
d
with
M y,Ed
M z,Rd
α =α
+
1 0
.
M
M,z
μ M
M
dy
pl,y,Rd
μ dz
pl,z,Rd
α =α
M
M, y
38
Worked example
d= 406.4mm
t=12.5mm
y
12 Φ12 bar
C30/37 concrete
z
Effective length =3.0 m
E
=210kN/m 2
s
f sk = 460N/mm 2
N Ed =4000kN
M Ed =50 kNm
39
160.0mm
138.5mm
80.0mm
Design strength:
2
f
= 355 /1.0 = 355N/mm
yd
2
f
=
460 /1.15
=
400N/mm
sd
2
f
=
30.0 /1.15
=
20N/mm
cd
Cross sectional areas:
(
2
2
)
π
406.4
381.4
2
A
=
= 15468.4mm
a
4
2
12x
π (
12
)
2
A
=
= 1357.2mm
s
4
π 381 4
(
.
) 2
2
A
=
1357.2
=
112891.5mm
c
4
Ratio of reinforcement:
ρ= A A =
/
1357.2 /112891.5x100%
=
1.2%
<
6.0%
s
c
Note: if
ρ> 6% , ρ
has to be limited to 6%for calculation
.
40
Check for local buckling:
2
d
/ t =
406.4 /125
=
32.5
<
90
(235 / 355) 59.6
=
Plastic resistance to compression:
=
A f
+
A f
+
A f
N pl,Rd
a
yd
c
cd
s
sd
=
= 8292.0 kN
(
15468.4x355
+
112891.5x20.0
+
1357.2x400.0 /1000
)
(without confinement effect)
Steel contribution ratio:
δ= A f
/ N
=
15468.4x355 /1000 / 8292.0
=
0.66
(0.2
≤δ≤ 0.9)
a
yd
pl,Rd
41
Moment of inertia:
(
4
4
)
π
40.64
38.14
4
I
=
= 30030.7cm
a
64
2
2
2
4
I
=
2x1.131x16.0
+
4x1.131x13.85
+
4x1.131x8.0
=
1736.4cm
s
4
π 38.14
(
)
4
I =
− 1736 4
.
=
102134 2cm
.
c 64
Effective stiffness:
(
EI
)
=
E I
+
E I
+
K E I
eff
a
a
s
s
e
cm
c
(
)
2
=
210x30030.7
+
210x1736.4
+
0.6x32x102134.2 /100
=
86078.6 kNm
=
A f
+
A f
+
A f
N pl,Rk
a
y
c
ck
s
sk
=
(
15468.4x355
+
112891.5x30
+
1357.2x460 /1000
)
=
9502.3 kN
N cr =π
2 (EI )
2
2
2
/ l
x86078.6 / 3
=
94395.7 kN
eff
42
λ= N
N =
9502.3 94395.7
=
0.317
pl,Rk
cr
R
e
d
uc
ti
o
n f
ac o
t
r f
o
r
co u
l
mn b
uc
klin
g:
(
2
]
2
]
φ=
0.5[1
+αλ−
0.2)
+λ =
0.5[1
+
0.21(0.317
0.2)
+
0.317
= 0.563
[
2
2
]
2
2
]
χ= φ+ φ −λ =
1
1
[0.563 0.563 0.317 0.973
+
=
C
on nemen e
fi
t
ff
ec o concre e:
t
f
t
Confinement effect is considered since λ < 0.5 and e/d<0.1 (taking e=0 cm)
2
η
=
4.9
18.5
λ+ λ =
17
0.744
c
co
η
=η =
0.25(3
+ λ=
2
)
0.909
<
1.0
a
ao
t
f ⎞
y
N
A f
+
A f
⎟ +
A f
=
8403 .7
kN
pl, Rd
a
a
yd
c
cd
⎛ ⎜ ⎜ 1
c
s
sd
d
f
ck
43
Check axial compression
χ N
=
0.973 ×
8403.7
=
8176.8kN > N
p l Rd
,
Ed
Note: the increase in axial compression due to confinement effect
= 8403.7 / 8292.0 = 1.014
Therefore a 1.4% increase.
Interaction curve
Plastic section moduli:
W pa = 1940cm
3
12
[
]
3
=
Ae
= 135cm
W ps
si
i
1
3/26/2012
44
2
(
b 2 t
)(
h
2
t
)
3
2
h
(
dt
2)
3
2
W
=
r
r
(
4
π
)
−− −
tr
W
=
W
pc
ps
ps
43
⎝ ⎜
2
⎠ ⎟
6
3
(406.4
25)
3
=
-135 = 9112 cm
6
Neutral axis position
Assume 2 reinforcements lies within the region 2 h n
Af
A
(
2
f
f
)
112891.5
×
20
113
××
(
2
460
20
)
c
cd
sn
sd
cd
h
==
= 42.5mm
n
2
d f
+
4 (2
t
f
f
)
2
×
406.4
× +×
20
4
12.5
×
(
2
×
355
20
)
cd
y
d
cd
Hence, assumption for A sn is verified
Plastic section moduli in the region2 h n :
W psn = 0
2
23
W
= d − th − W
(
2 )
=
38.14
×
4.25
−=
0
689 cm
p cn
n
p sn
2
23
W
= dh − W
− W
=
40.64
×
4.25
689
−=
0
45 cm
pan
n
pcn
psn
M
= f W + f W +=f W
0.5
833.8kNm
max, Rd
yd
pa
cd
pc
sd
ps
3/26/2012
45
M =−−M
fW
0.5
fW −=fW
811kNm
pl Rd
,
max,
Rd
yd
pan
cd
pcn
sd
psn
The resistance force
N
= Af
= 2258kN
pm Rd
,
c cd
Point
Bending Moment
M=0
M A =
0
kNm
A
Compression force
N A =
8403.7
kN
N=N pl,Rd
Bending Moment
M
B =
811
kNm
M=M pl,Rd
B
Compression force
N=0
N
B =
0
kN
Bending Moment
M
C =
811
kNm
M=M pl,Rd
C
Compression force
N
C =
2258
kN
N=N pm,Rd
Bending Moment
M D =
833.8
kNm
M=M pm,Rd
D
Compression force
N=0.5N pm,Rd
N D =
1129
kN
3/26/2012
46
Interaction curve
9000
8000
AA
7000
6000
N
5000
4000
3000
C
2000
D
1000
0
B
0
200
400
600
800
1000
M
3/26/2012
47
Bendin
g
ca acit
p
y
χ ==N N
/
4000 / 8403.7
=
0.48
d
Ed
pl Rd
,
= N
/
N ==
2258 / 8403.7
0.27
χ pm
pm Rd
,
pl Rd
,
1 −
χ
1
− 0.48
d
μ
==
= 0.71
d
1
−χ
10.27
pm
50
M Ed
=
=< 0.09
0.9
μ M
0.71
×
811
d
pl Rd
,
Hence, the composite column is acceptable
3/26/2012
48