You are on page 1of 4

Structures 2008: Crossing Borders

2008 ASCE

GeneralUpdateoftheASCE Report:DesignofBlastResistant BuildingsinPetrochemical Facilities


Author: WilliamL.Bounds,FluorCorporation,SugarLand,Texas Inresponsetoinputfromindividualsandcompaniesinthepetrochemicalindustry,in1995 the ASCE Petrochemical Committee established several task committees for the purpose of developing and publishing design information on current practice. Five specific subjects were deemedtobeofthegreatestinteresttothepetrochemicalcommunityanchorboltembedment, secondary containment, seismic design, wind loading, and blast resistant design. The task committee on blast resistant design was then formed with membership representing design engineers, blast design specialists, owner companies, and product manufacturers. The task committee spent two years preparing a stateofthepractice reportthat was published in 1997. The report was prepared based on the expressed need for more uniform design information to protectagainsttheeffectsofaccidentalindustrialexplosions.Sinceitspublication,thereporthas been widely accepted throughout the petrochemical structural engineering community, and is consideredasignificantreferencefortheblastresistantdesigncommunityingeneral. In2005,thePetrochemicalCommitteefeltthatanupdatetoseveralofthe1997reportswas needed in order to address recent technical advances. The reports selected for update were anchorboltembedment,wind loading,seismicdesign,andblastresistantdesign.Thusthetask committee on blast resistant design was reformed. The previous representative mix of design engineers, blast design specialists, owner companies, and product manufacturers was again pursued and obtained. Several members from the original committee also served on the new committee and provided a degree of continuity. The task committee first met in January 2006 andcompleteditsworkinJanuary2008. Thebasisoftheupdatedreport, topromotetheuseof uniformdesigninformationinorderto protectagainsttheeffectsofaccidentalindustrialexplosions,wasretained.Significantelements oftheoriginalreport,suchasthebasicprocedure(Figure1),useofsimplifieddesign methods including empirical load determination, response charts, numerical integration, and SDOF equivalent response calculations, were retained. Much original information from TM 51300 (Structures to Resist the Effects of Accidental Explosions) was also retained. The report continues to emphasize the use of design examples to illustrate the proper implementation of designmethods. The updated report incorporates errata discovered from the previous report. A number of sections were edited for greater clarity and understanding. Updated design standards were incorporated such as ACI 31805, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, and AISC36005,SpecificationforStructuralSteelBuildings.Updatedblastdesignreferenceswere alsoconsideredincludingPDCTR0608,SingleDegreeofFreedomStructuralResponseLimits for Antiterrorism Design, the ASCE blast standard currently in progress, and API RP 753, ManagementofHazardsAssociatedwithLocationofProcessPlantPortableBuildings.

Copyright ASCE 2008


Downloaded 19 Mar 2012 to 202.170.57.243. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright. Visit http://www.ascelibrary.org

Structures Congress 2008

Structures 2008: Crossing Borders

2008 ASCE

1
OwnerSpecs &Standards

3
ExplosionHazard Identification

2
BuildingRequirements: Criticality,Occupancy, Layout,Siting,etc. Owner Owner

Standard Practice

Site Study

New

Existing

4
FreeField BlastParameters

5
BuildingPerformance Requirements

7
Component Loads

6
SelectMaterials& StructuralSystem Material Properties

11
Analysis Method Preliminary MemberSizes

10

9
Deformation Limits

Equivalent SDOF Static

MDOF

12
DesignEngineer DesignEngineer Structural Analysis No Is DeformationLimit Satisfied?

13
Foundation Design

Yes

14 15
Ancillary Design

Details& Documentation

FIGURE1BLASTRESISTANTDESIGNPROCESS Several advanced analysis topics are given greater discussion in the updated report due to their increased usage in petrochemical plant design. These topics include Computational Fluid Dynamicstocomputeblastwaveeffectsincomplexenvironments,andNonlinearFiniteElement

Copyright ASCE 2008


Downloaded 19 Mar 2012 to 202.170.57.243. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright. Visit http://www.ascelibrary.org

Structures Congress 2008

Structures 2008: Crossing Borders

2008 ASCE

Analysisforcomplexstructuralconfigurations.Furtherdetailsonthereport'scoverageofthese twotopicsareprovidedinacompanionpaperincludedintheconferenceproceedings.Basedon vigorous internal committee debate, discussion is also included on the wisdom of selecting advanced analysis techniques only for situations where improved results justify the additional computationaleffort. Three other major changes to the updated report are, trailers and blast resistant portable buildings, retrofit of existing buildings, and blast response criteria. Details on the report's implementation of these topics are also covered in companion papers in the conference proceedings. The numerical integration analysis method as described in the updated report has been enhancedandclarified.Updatestouseconsistentnomenclatureandtoprovideimprovedclarity have been incorporated. The effect of static loads is now incorporated into the procedure equations. The presentation of numerical integration in the example chapters were edited for clarity(Figure2).Asinthepreviousreport,theChapter6Appendixdescribesdetailedequations forperforminganumericalintegrationanalysis.Examplesprovidedinthereportillustrateusage andindicatenumerical resultswhenproperly implemented. New sections have been added to the updated report to provide basic coverage of design against blastgeneratedprojectiles,blastdesign in offshorestructures,andblasteffectsonnon buildingstructures. Chapter11coversthedetailedcalculationofashearwallbuildingusingSDOFprocedures. The most significant update is in calculating the blast load on supported elements. The "load tracking"methodwasreplacedwith the"tributaryarea"method.Loadtrackingbasicallyusesthe calculateddynamicreactionfromanumericalintegrationtocalculatethedynamicblastloadona supporting structural element. The tributary area method uses the externally applied blast pressureappliedtoanareaofthewallorroofdeemedtobetributarytothestructuralelement beingdesigned.Forexample,theroofareatributarytoacolumnwouldbedeterminedfromhalf thedimensiontotheadjacentcolumn.NewtotherevisedChapter11arecalculations forsteel connectionssubjectedtothebuilding's blast load.Updateddesigncodes including ACI31805 andAISC36005alsosignificantlychangedthecalculationsequence.Aneffortwasalsomade toproportiontheexamplecalculation'sstructuralelementstoproduceresultsthatareclosetothe limitingcriteria. Chapter 12 provides the design of a steel frame building using simple single degree of freedom methods as well as more advanced nonlinear dynamic finite element analysis. The chapter also includes calculation sequences for the initial trial selection of structural element sizes. Such calculations normally would not be included in a final refined calculation, but are includedinchapter12toillustratetrialmembersizing. Chapter13usessimplifiedmethodstoanalyzetheblastretrofitofamasonrybuilding.The chapterwasupdatedtoreflectACI53005,BuildingCodeRequirementsforMasonryStructures as well as ACI 31805, Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. The example chapter identifiedandexaminesthreeupgradeoptions foramasonrywall inaconcreteframed building.

Copyright ASCE 2008


Downloaded 19 Mar 2012 to 202.170.57.243. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright. Visit http://www.ascelibrary.org

Structures Congress 2008

Structures 2008: Crossing Borders

2008 ASCE

NumericalIntegration(ref:Chapter6,Appendix) AnalysisCaseDescription: Chapter11,Section11.8,roofbeam,caseA DynamicLoadingDescription: if(time<=0.006,105.8*time/0.006,max(105.8105.8*(time0.006)/0.05,0)) timeincrement= mass= stiffness= damping= positiveresistance= reboundresistance= staticload= time (s) 0.000 0.003 0.006 0.009 0.012 0.015 0.018 0.021 0.024 0.027 0.030 0.033 0.036 0.039 0.042 Dyn.Load (kips) 0.00 52.90 105.80 99.45 93.10 86.76 80.41 74.06 67.71 61.36 55.02 48.67 42.32 35.97 29.62 0.003s 0.028ks2/in 54.1k/in 0ks/in 97.5kips 97.5kips 14.9kips y (in) 0.275 0.278 0.298 0.348 0.429 0.537 0.668 0.818 0.982 1.156 1.335 1.512 1.684 1.845 1.991 v (in/s) 0.00 2.83 11.25 21.97 31.63 40.07 47.13 52.69 56.67 58.98 59.59 58.49 55.70 51.27 45.93 a (in/s2) 0 1,884 3,735 3,412 3,029 2,594 2,114 1,597 1,052 490 82 651 1,210 1,665 1,892 KEY=0iselastic KEY=+1ispositiveplastic KEY=1isreboundplastic Z=1isincreasingplasticdeformation Z=2isendofreboundplasticdeformation Z=3isendofpositiveplasticdeformation Z=4iscontinuedelastic Z=5isstartofreboundplasticdeformation Z=6isstartofpositiveplasticdeformation

ye+ (in) 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802

ye (in) 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802 1.802

KEY 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1

effK (k/in) 18,721 18,721 18,721 18,721 18,721 18,721 18,721 18,721 18,721 18,721 18,721 18,721 18,721 18,667 18,667

incrF (kips) 53 369 938 1,511 2,020 2,455 2,810 3,079 3,255 3,338 3,324 3,215 3,011 2,725 2,407

incry (in) 0.003 0.020 0.050 0.081 0.108 0.131 0.150 0.164 0.174 0.178 0.178 0.172 0.161 0.146 0.129

incrv (in/s) 2.83 8.43 10.72 9.66 8.43 7.06 5.57 3.97 2.31 0.61 1.10 2.79 4.44 5.34 6.02

resistance (kips) 14.90 15.05 16.12 18.83 23.20 29.03 36.13 44.25 53.15 62.55 72.20 81.81 91.10 97.50 97.50

Ud 0.15 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.24 0.30 0.37 0.45 0.55 0.64 0.74 0.84 0.93 1.02 1.10

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 6 1

FIGURE2NUMERICALINTEGRATIONEXAMPLE Thetwoyearsofparticipationinthedevelopmentoftheupdatedreporthasbeenrewarding in that the effort provided valuable insight into the various member's backgrounds, representation,expertise,andexperience.Anumberoftopicswererepeatedlydebatedastothe most informative means of presenting new information, and the most unbiased means of describing new technologies, methods of analysis, and products. As are result, the committee envisions that the updated version of the report will continue to be a valuable resource for structuralengineersinthepetrochemicalandindustrialdesigncommunities.

Copyright ASCE 2008


Downloaded 19 Mar 2012 to 202.170.57.243. Redistribution subject to ASCE license or copyright. Visit http://www.ascelibrary.org

Structures Congress 2008