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# CHAPTER

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Fourth Edition Ferdinand P. Beer, E. Russell Johnston, John T. DeWolf

## Lecturer: Nazarena Mazzaro, Ph.D. Aalborg University Denmark

Torsion

MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Last class Strain =/L Strain-stress diagram (ductile brittle) Hooks Law: =E. Under elastic deformation =PL/AE (homogeneous rod) Pi Li (non homogeneous rod) =

AE
i i

Statically indeterminate problems -> Temperature changes: =(T)L, =(T) Poisons ratio: = -lateral /axial Shearing strain : =G

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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Contents

First part 45 min
Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses Axial Shear Components Shaft Deformations Shearing Strain Stresses in Elastic Range Normal Stresses Torsional Failure Modes

## Second part 45 min

Angle of Twist in Elastic Range Shafts with variable cross sectional area Statically Indeterminate Shafts Design of Transmission Shafts Stress Concentrations

Exercises 2 hr

## Nazarena Mazzaro, AAU

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Twisting torques

Twisting torque is a couple T - T that have the same magnitude but different directions. T and T are vector quantities that can be represented by vectors or curved arrows. Typical applications: transmission shafts

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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Torsional Loads on Circular Shafts

Interested in stresses and strains of circular shafts subjected to twisting couples or torques Turbine exerts torque T on the shaft Shaft transmits the torque to the generator Generator creates an equal and opposite torque T

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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Net Torque Due to Internal Stresses

Net of the internal shearing stresses is an internal torque, equal and opposite to the applied torque,
T = dF = ( dA)

Although the net torque due to the shearing stresses is known, the distribution of the stresses is not. Distribution of shearing stresses is statically indeterminate must consider shaft deformations. Unlike the normal stress due to axial loads, the distribution of shearing stresses due to torsional loads can not be assumed uniform.
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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Axial Shear Components

Torque applied to shaft produces shearing stresses on the faces perpendicular to the axis. Conditions of equilibrium require the existence of equal stresses on the faces of the two planes containing the axis of the shaft. The existence of the axial shear components is demonstrated by considering a shaft made up of axial slats. The slats slide with respect to each other when equal and opposite torques are applied to the ends of the shaft.

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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Shaft Deformations

From observation, the angle of twist of the shaft is proportional to the applied torque and to the shaft length.
T L

When subjected to torsion, every cross-section of a circular shaft remains plane and undistorted. Cross-sections for hollow and solid circular shafts remain plain and undistorted because a circular shaft is axisymmetric. Cross-sections of noncircular (nonaxisymmetric) shafts are distorted when subjected to torsion.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Shaft Deformations H: Shaft does not remain undistorted -> observer in A would argue that CD move away from him; observer in B would argue that CD move away from him. -> CD lie in the same circle as CD. The original circle rotates in its own plane.

H: each plane does not rotate as a solid rigid slab -> observer in A would argue to see (a); observer in B would argue to see (b). -> Any diameter of a cross section remains straight (c)
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Shaft Deformations

If all sections are to remain plane and undistorted the torques the ends of the shaft must remain plane and undistorted. The torques must be applied to rigid plates. The resulting deformation will be uniform across the entire shaft.

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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Shearing Strain

Consider an interior section of the shaft. As a torsional load is applied, an element on the interior cylinder deforms into a rhombus. Since the ends of the element remain planar, the shear strain is equal to angle of twist. It follows that
L = or =

ANIMATION

max =
c and = max L c

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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Stresses in Elastic Range

Multiplying the previous equation by the shear modulus,
=
c

max G =

G max

## From Hookes Law, = G , so

=
J = 1 c4 2

max

The shearing stress varies linearly with the radial position in the section. Recall that the sum of the moments of elementary forces is equal to the torque on the shaft at the section,
T = dA = max 2 dA = max J c c

4 4 J = 1 c2 c1 2 c min = 1 max c2
Nazarena Mazzaro, AAU

## The results are known as the elastic torsion formulas,

max =
Tc T and = J J

ANIMATION
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Polar Moment of Inertia Moment of Inertia J: Polar Moment of Inertia of a beams cross-sectional area measures the beams ability to resist torsion. The larger J is the less the beam will twist. 4
J = 2 dA circulararea J =

J refers to how difficult it is to get an object to rotate on an axis. The farther away from the axis of rotation the mass is, the harder it is to make it turn. I: Moment of Inertia of a beams cross-sectional area measures the beams ability to resist bending. The larger I is, the less the beam will bend. 2

I y = x dA

## Nazarena Mazzaro, AAU

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Example 3.01
a) What is the largest T that can be applied to the shaft if 120 MPa. b) What is the min in the shaft? a) Tmax ? By which 120 MPa (<y) T=J max/c; c is the outer radio=0.03 m
J=

4 (c2 c14 ) =

## (0.034 0.02 4 ) = 1.021.10 6 m 4

then T=4.08 kN b) min occurs in the inner surface and is obtained by: min = (c1/c2)max=
= (0.02/0.03)120 = 80 MPa

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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Normal Stresses

Elements with faces parallel and perpendicular to the shaft axis are subjected to shear stresses only. Combination of normal and shearing stresses may be found for other orientations. Consider an element at 45o to the shaft axis,
F = 2( max A0 ) cos 45 = max A0 2 F max A0 2 = = max A A0 2

45o =

a is in pure shear. c is subjected to a tensile stress on two faces and compressive stress on the other two. All stresses for a and c have the same magnitude
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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Torsional Failure Modes

Ductile materials generally fail in shear. Brittle materials are weaker in tension than shear. When subjected to torsion, a ductile specimen breaks along a plane of maximum shear, i.e., a plane perpendicular to the shaft axis. When subjected to torsion, a brittle specimen breaks along planes perpendicular to the direction in which tension is a maximum, i.e., along surfaces at 45o to the shaft axis.
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Sample Problem 3.1
Shaft BC is hollow with di= 90 mm and do= 120 mm. Shafts AB and CD are solid of diameter d. Calculate a) max and min in BC, b) the required diameter d of shafts AB and CD if the all in these shafts is 65 MPa.

Solution Apply statics -> free body diagrams to find internal torques. With the internal torques apply =Tc/J

## Nazarena Mazzaro, AAU

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Sample Problem 3.1
a) max is calculated by: max = 2 = where J =

TBCc2 J

4 (c2 c14 ) = (0.064 0.0454 ) = 13.92106 m4 2 2 TBC is calculated with statics and free body M x = 0 = TA + TB TBC = 6 +14 TBC [kN.m]

diagrams

TBC = 20kN.m

TBCc2 (20kN.m)(0.06m) = = 86.2MPa 6 4 J 13.9210 m 45mm min is calculated by: min c1 = min = 86.2MPa = 64.7MPa max c2 60mm

max = 2 =

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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Angle of Twist in Elastic Range

Recall that the angle of twist and maximum shearing strain are related,
max =
c L

In the elastic range, the shearing strain and shear are related by Hookes Law, and recalling max=Tc/J max Tc
max =
G = JG

Equating the expressions for shearing strain and c solving for the angle of twist, with max =
L

TL JG

If the torsional loading or shaft cross-section changes along the length, the angle of rotation is found as the sum of segment rotations
=
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Ti Li i J i Gi
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Example 3.02
What torque should be applied to the end of the shaft to produce a twist of 2 deg? G= 77 GPa.

JG G = 77GPa, L = 1.5m We apply: T = L 2rad calculating: = 2o ( ) = 34.9 103 rad 360o 2 Replacing: T = 1.829kN .m J=

## Nazarena Mazzaro, AAU

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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Shaft with variable cross sectional area
Variable circular cross sectional area, we apply =TL/JG to a disk of thickness dx. d represents the angle by which one face of the disk rotates with respect to the other.

Tdx Tdx d = = JG JG 0

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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Statically Indeterminate Shafts

125mm 125mm

Given the shaft dimensions and the applied torque, we would like to find the torque reactions at A and B. From a free-body analysis of the shaft,
TA + TB = 120 Nm

120 Nm

## A cavity has been drilled

which is not sufficient to find the end torques. The problem is statically indeterminate. Divide the shaft into two components which must have compatible deformations,
= 1 + 2 =
TA L1 TB L2 =0 J1G J 2G LJ TB = 1 2 TA L2 J1

120 Nm

## Substitute into the original equilibrium equation,

LJ TA + 1 2 TA = 90 lb ft L2 J1
TA=69.8Nm TB= 50.2Nm

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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Design of Transmission Shafts

Principal transmission shaft performance specifications are: - power - Speed of rotation Designer must select material and cross-section to meet performance specifications without exceeding allowable shearing stress. Determine torque applied to shaft at specified power and speed,
P = T = 2fT P T= = 2f P
: angular velocity [rad/s] F: frequency of rotation [Hz] P [Nm.Hz=Watts]

Find shaft cross-section which will not exceed the maximum allowable shearing stress,
max =
Tc J

T J 3 = c = max c 2

(solid shafts )

T 4 4 J c2 c1 = = max c2 2c2

(hollow shafts )

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## MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Stress Concentrations

The derivation of the torsion formula,
max =
Tc J

assumed a circular shaft with uniform cross-section loaded through rigid end plates. The use of flange couplings, gears and pulleys attached to shafts by keys in keyways, and cross-section discontinuities can cause stress concentrations Experimental or numerically determined concentration factors are applied as
max = K
Tc J

TJ/c calculated for the smaller diameter shaft, K: stress concentration factor
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MECHANICS OF MATERIALS
Sample 3.6
a) Pmax= 2fT
r a)

D= 190 mm, r= 14 mm, D= 95 mm The shaft is to rotate at 900 rpm transmitting power from a turbine to a generator. The steel used has a all= 55 MPa. a) Determine the maximum power that can be transmitted. b) If the radius is increased so that A=24 mm what will be the percent change in the power, with respect to A=14 mm, that can be transmitted?

J Tc T = max J Kc D 190 r 14 = 2; = = 0.15 K = 1.33 K = d d 95 95 J c 3 (47.5mm) 3 = = = 168.3 103 mm3 c 3 3 J T = max = 6.96kN .m cK 1Hz f = (900rpm) = 15 Hz 60rpm Pmax = 2fT = 656kW
P = 2fT max = K r = 24mm K = 1.2 T = 7.71kN .m; P = 2 (15 Hz )(7710 Nm) = 727 kW Change% = 100 Pb Pa 727 656 = 100 = 10.82% Pa 656

b)

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