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REMBASS is a ground-based, all-weather, day-and-night, battlefield surveillance, target development, and early warning system capable of remote operation under field conditions. The basic purpose of REMBASS is to detect, locate, classify, and report personnel and vehicular (wheeled and tracked) activities in real-time within the area of deployment. With a meteorological sensor attached, it will also sense and collect weather information. It uses remotely monitored sensors emplaced along likely enemy avenues of approach. These sensors respond to seismic-acoustic energy, infrared energy, and magnetic field changes to detect enemy activities. The sensors process the data and provide detection of classification information which is incorporated into digital messages and transmitted through short burst transmission to the system sensor monitor programmer set. The messages are demodulated, decoded, displayed, and recorded to provide a time-phased record of enemy activity. This system complements other manned/unmanned surveillance systems such as ground surveillance radar, unmanned aerial vehicles, and night observation devices. The system provides division, brigade, and battalion commanders with information from beyond the forward line of own troops (FLOT), and enhances rear area protection. It can be deployed anywhere in the world in a tactical environment in support of reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition (RSTA) operations. The system consists of eleven major components: a passive infrared (IR) sensor, magnetic (MAG) sensor, seismic/acoustic (SA) sensor, radio repeater. Sensor Monitoring Set (SMS), radio frequency monitor (referred to as portable monitoring set (PMS)) , code programmer, antenna group, power supply, mounting rack, and Sensor Signal Simulator (SSS). A set consists of eight IR sensors, eight MAG sensors, thirty-two SA sensors, eight radio repeaters, one SMS, three PMS, two code programmers, one antenna group, one power supply, one mounting rack, and one SSS. (1) Magnetic Sensor, DT-561/GSQ. This is a hand-emplaced, MAG sensor. The MAG sensor detects vehicles (tracked or wheeled) and personnel carrying ferrous metal. It also provides information on which to base a count of objects passing through its detection zone and reports their direction of travel relative to its location. The monitor uses two different (MAG and IR) sensors and their identification codes to determine direction of travel. (2) Seismic Acoustic Sensor, DT-562/GSQ. This is a hand-emplaced SA classifying sensor. It detects targets and classifies them as unknown, wheeled vehicle, tracked vehicle, or personnel. (3) Passive Infrared Sensor, DT-565/GSQ. This is a hand-emplaced, IR detecting sensor. The sensor detects tracked or wheeled vehicles and personnel. It also provides information on which to base a count of objects passing through its detection zone and reports their direction of travel relative to its location. The monitor uses two different (MAG and IR) sensors and their identification codes to determine direction of travel. (4) Radio Repeater, RT-1175/GSQ. This is an expendable/recoverable, digital/analog radio repeater used to extend the broadcast range of radio messages from anti-intrusion sensors to a monitoring set. It receives, processes and relays messages from either an anti-intrusion sensor or another like radio repeater. Several repeaters may be used in a station-to-station chain, one sending to another, to relay messages over a long distance. (5) Sensor Monitoring Set, AN/GSQ-187. The SMS has a dual channel receiver with a permanent hard copy recorder and a temporary visual display (TVD). The SMS receives, processes, displays, and records sensor information relating to 60 sensor ID codes. Detections and classification are displayed as: dashes (-) for unknown targets, (T) for tracked vehicles, (W)

for wheeled vehicles, and (P) for personnel. The TVD can simultaneously display up to ten sensor ID codes with detection or classification information. A keyboard allows the operator to program the SMS operation: set radio frequency (RF) channels, establish hard copy recorder format, initiate system operational checks or built in test (BIT), and calculate target speed. A separate display shows the keyboard functions and calculations. (6) Radio Frequency Monitor, R-2016/GSQ. This is a single-channel PMS with a TVD. The PMS receives, processes, and displays sensor ID codes and detection/classification messages. (7) Code Programmer, C-10434/GSQ. The programmer is a portable device used to program sensors and repeaters to the desired operating channel, ID code, mission life, arm mode, and gain. It is also used to condition newly installed batteries in sensors and repeaters. It has a built in visual self test to ensure the proper information programmed into the sensor or repeater. (8) Antenna Group, OE-239/GSQ. The antenna group consists of an omnidirectional unity gain antenna, a mast assembly, a pre-amplifier suitable for mast mounting and an RF multicoupler. It is used with the SMS and the PMS. Up to four monitoring devices can use the antenna group simultaneously. (9) Power Supply, PP-8080/GSQ. The power supply is a custom flyback-type switching regulator that converts external power sources (24 volts direct current (dc), 115 or 220 volts alternating current) to 12 volts dc nominal prime power. The power supply can be used to power the SMS, repeater or SSS. (10) Mounting Rack MT-4825/GSQ. The mounting rack is an aluminum angle shock mounted rack. It is used to mount the repeaters in helicopters. (11) Sensor Signal Simulator (SSS) SM-755/GSQ. The SSS is similar in appearance to the SMS. It has the capability to receive, record, edit, copy, and retransmit an operational scenario involving any two of the 599 REMBASS channels. It also has the capability to transmit prerecorded scenarios. These functions are accomplished without any additional support equipment. The SSS allows institutional or unit sustainment training in either a classroom or field environment without the use of REMBASS/IREMBASS sensors. The operator can monitor the outputs of the SSS on the PMS or SMS. (12) Batteries. The sensors and the PMS use BA-5589/U lithium batteries. The repeaters, SMS, and SSS all use BA-5590/U lithium batteries.

Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS)

The awareness and use of passive sensor technologies for remote battlefield applications has greatly increased over the last few decades. Advances in digital signal processing (DSP) have spawned faster yet smaller and low-power computer chips that provide an opportunity for executing computationally extensive algorithms in real time. These advances have made the development of practical unattended ground sensors (UGS) possible. They can exist in various sizes and forms, contain several sensor technologies, can be deployed by several means, and can report information on or about different types of targets.

UGS consist of a variety of sensor technologies that are packaged for deployment and perform the mission of remote target detection, location and/or recognition. Ideally, the UGS are small, low cost and robust, and are expected to last in the field for extended periods of time after deployment. They are capable of transmitting target information back to a remote operator. These devices could be used to perform various mission tasks including perimeter defense, border patrol and surveillance, target acquisition, and situation awareness. UGS can be designed to locally process target information, such as detection, bearing estimation, tracking, classification and/or identification. They can also be used for reporting battle damage assessment (BDA) in standoff strike scenarios. In order to support the varied missions of UGS systems, robust and reliable communication links must provide timely message transmissions back to a command and control (C2) center. Optimum performance of UGS systems is based on terrain, weather, and background noise estimates. Select computer models are used to predict performance and identify optimal deployment sites. UGS Devices may consist of a battery-powered, single or multiple co-located sensors, with signal processing capability to analyze target characteristics, and transmit target recognition information to a remote monitoring location. UGS can be deployed by one of many different techniques. Miniaturization and cost reduction of components is a high priority, to facilitate packaging into artillery projectiles, large deployment from an airborne target or from a launched canister, or hand placement. Artillery and air deployment requires UGS and electronics to be highly robust, shock resistant and weather proof. The operational life of UGS can be greatly extended with smart power management, which can extend the useful life of the device beyond that of normal, continuous operation. Smarts could be designed into the electronics to monitor the environment every several seconds with minimum power requirement. Once target detection is established, the UGS could power themselves up for normal real time monitoring operations. Typical UGS have limited ranges of detection and identification. These limitations are generally due to background noise or weather and diurnal changes. A need exists to deploy several UGS devices in the vicinity of one another to ensure continuous monitoring of detected targets. A network of nodes that uses multiple sensor technologies can accurately locate and identify battlefield targets. In addition, they can perform valuable BDA by monitoring activities before and after each attack. UGS should be made as affordable as possible. Cost can become an issue if the price of any one of these devices gets too high. Smart packaging of UGS in addition to self-location and orientation of sensors greatly improves their performance capability for deployment. Sensor fusion capability at the device level greatly enhances the probability of detection and probability of correct identification of target over range. Sensors built within UGS are generally passive in nature and can include acoustic, seismic, magnetic and IR capability. Correlation of features from various sensor technologies greatly enhances the target-recognition capability. A robust communication link is key to a successful remote deployment of UGS, for without it, robust target measurements could not be extracted for monitoring. Communication bandwidth

and transmission power should preferably be low. Data compression and data encryption could be used for secure Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) and Low Probability of Detection (LPD).