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EC4106: DISCRETE AND INTEGRATED ANALOG CIRCUITS LABORATORY LIST OF EXPERIMENTS: COMPULSORY EXPERIMENTS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Design of an RC Low Pass filter circuit & observing its response to sinusoidal and square wave inputs. Design of an RC High Pass filter circuit & observing its response to sinusoidal and square wave inputs. Obtaining the frequency response of an emitter follower circuit and calculation of its gain-bandwidth product. Obtaining the frequency response of a two stage RC coupled amplifier & analysing the loading effect on the first stage. Design of an RC Phase Shift Oscillator (Using IC 741 OP AMP) and calculation of its frequency of oscillation. Design of a Wein Bridge Oscillator (Using IC 741 OP AMP) and calculation of its frequency of oscillation.
7.

Design of a Hartley Oscillator and calculation of its frequency of oscillation. Design of Relaxation Oscillator (Using UJT 2N2646) and calculation of its frequency of oscillation. Design of a Bootstrap Time Base Generator (using IC 741 OP AMP) and observation of the output waveforms. Design of a Miller Time Base Generator (Using IC 741 OP AMP) and observation of the output waveforms. Design of a R-2R ladder network for conversion of a 4-bit digital signal to an analog equivalent signal.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

Design of analog-to-digital Comparator circuit for conversion of an analog signal to 8-bit digital signal.

OPTIONAL EXPERIMENTS:
13.

Verification of Af = A/(1-L) for a voltage shunt feedback circuit (Using IC 741 OP-AMP). Design of a Colpitts Oscillator and calculation of its frequency of oscillation. Design of a Counter type A/D converter. Obtaining the frequency response of JFET amplifier & calculation of its gain-bandwidth product. Obtaining the frequency response of 1st order inverting active low pass filter circuit using IC 741 OP-AMP. Obtaining the frequency response of 1st order inverting active high pass filter circuit using IC 741 OP-AMP. Obtaining the frequency response of inverting active band pass filter circuit using IC 741 OP-AMP. Obtaining the frequency response of 1st order non-inverting active low pass filter circuit using IC 741 OP-AMP. Obtaining the frequency response of 1st order non-inverting active high pass filter circuit using IC 741 OP-AMP. Implementation of cascode (CE-CB) amplifier and plotting its frequency response.

14.

15. 16.
17.

18.

19.
20.

21.

22.

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DISCRETE & INTEGRATED ANALOGUE CIRCUITS LABORATORY

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON DESIGN OF AN RC LOW PASS FILTER CIRCUIT & OBSERVING ITS RESPONSE TO SINUSOIDAL AND SQUARE WAVE INPUTS.

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA, RANCHI

AIM: Design of an RC Low Pass filter circuit & observing its response to sinusoidal and square wave inputs. APPARATUS: 1. Function Generator 2. Ac Millivoltmeter 3. CRO 4. Breadboard COMPONENTS: 1. 2. 3. 4. THEORY: Passive RC circuit acts as Low Pass filter if output is taken across capacitor. It also acts as integrator for high time constant. For sinusoidal signal voltage Gain is given by
A= 1 jf 1+ f0

Resistor Wish board Connecting wires Capacitor

Where f0 is critical frequency given by

f0 =

1 2 C R

For square wave input it acts as integrator if time constant RC is high with respect to swing time of input wave and under this condition output voltage is given by approximately
V0 = 1 Vi dt RC

PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. 2. Apply ac sinusoidal input voltage of 1milivolt from function generator. 3. Connect ac Millivoltmeter across capacitor 4. Vary frequency of ac input and measure output voltage. 5. Instead of sinusoidal signal apply square wave input and study output waveform by CRO.

OBSERVATIONS: Input voltage=1 mV Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RESULT PRECAUTION: Frequency (Hz) 50 70 90 100 200 Measured Voltage Gain O/P Voltage 20 log10(| In mV Vout/Vin|) Theoretical Voltage Gain

1. The breadboard should be handled carefully. 2. The base portions of wires and connection shouldnt touch during the

experiment, as it would result distortion at output.

R1 10kOhm_5% C1 1.6nF

Fig Circuit for Low pass Filter

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DISCRETE & INTEGRATED ANALOGUE CIRCUITS LABORATORY

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON DESIGN OF AN RC HIGH PASS FILTER CIRCUIT & OBSERVING ITS RESPONSE TO SINUSOIDAL AND SQUARE WAVE INPUTS

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA, RANCHI

AIM: Design of an RC High Pass filter circuit & observing its response to sinusoidal and square wave inputs. APPARATUS: 1. Function Generator 2. Ac Millivoltmeter 3. CRO 4. Breadboard COMPONENTS: 1. Resistor 2. Wish board 3. Connecting wires 4. Capacitor THEORY: Passive RC circuit acts as High Pass filter if output is taken across resistor. It also acts as differentiator for low time constant. For sinusoidal signal voltage Gain is given by
A= 1 jf 1 0 f

Where f0 is critical frequency given by


f0 = 1 2 C R

For square wave input it acts as differentiator if time constant RC is small with respect to swing time of input wave and under this condition output voltage is given by approximately
V0 = R C dVi dt

PROCEDURE: 6. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. 7. Apply ac sinusoidal input voltage of 1milivolt from function generator. 8. Connect ac Millivoltmeter across capacitor 9. Vary frequency of ac input and measure output voltage.

10.

Instead of sinusoidal signal apply square wave input and study output waveform by CRO.

OBSERVATIONS: Input voltage=1 mV Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RESULT: PRECAUTIONS: 1. 2. The breadboard should be handled carefully. The base portions of wires and connection shouldnt touch during the experiment, as it would result distortion at output. Frequency (Hz) 50 70 90 100 200 Measured Voltage Gain O/P Voltage 20 log10(| In mV Vout/Vin|) Theoretical Voltage Gain

C1 1.6nF R1 10.0kOhm_1%

Fig Circuit for HIGH PASS Filter

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DISCRETE & INTEGRATED ANALOGUE CIRCUITS LABORATORY

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON OBTAINING THE FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN EMITTER FOLLOWER CIRCUIT AND CALCULATION OF ITS GAINBANDWIDTH PRODUCT

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA RANCHI

AIM:- Obtaining the frequency response of an emitter follower circuit and calculation of its gain-bandwidth product. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Multimeter 2. AC Millivoltmeter 3. Signal Generator 4. Power Supply THEORY: Figure depicts an emitter follower circuit. It is also a common collector configuration of the transistor. The important feature of this circuit is given below.
1. The biasing arrangement used is potential divider biasing. 2. No collector resistance has been used, i.e. the collector of the transistor 3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

8.

has been connected t the supply directly. In the emitter circuit an emitter resistance, RE has been connected, but without any bypass capacitor. This results in the negative feedback. Coupling capacitor have been used on the input as well as on the output side. When Vi goes positive, the forward bias, Vb increases resulting in an increase the emitter voltage. Since Ve = Vb VBE and VBE remain constant effectively. This means that output voltage is almost the same as its input voltage. This means that output voltage at the emitter terminal follows the input signal applied to the base terminal. This justifies the name (emitter follower) given to this circuit. The voltage gain of this amplifier is little less than unity. The input impedance of this circuit is very high. The output impedance is very low. This circuit is used for impedance matching. It is used as last stage of measuring instruments and signal generators. This circuit is capable of delivering power to a load without requiring much power at the input. Therefore, it can be used as a buffer stage of an amplifier.

PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig. 2. Set the input signal to 5 mV and 1 KHz, measure the output voltage and calculate the gain. 3. Vary the frequency of the input signal from 15 Hz to 1 MHz. Measure the output voltages. Calculate gain for each reading. Take at least ten readings.

4. Plot the frequency response curve on a semilog graph paper with gain on the vertical axis and frequency on the horizontal axis. 5. From the frequency response curve, determine the corner frequencies, f1 and f2. Calculate the band width.

OBSERVATIONS: (i) Frequency response Observation S. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Voltage gain at 1 KHz = Lower cut-off frequency, f1 = Upper cut off frequency, f2 = Band width = f2 - f1 PRECAUTIONS: RESULTS: Frequency Output Voltage Voltage Gain

+Vcc

R1 20kohm

Cc
20uF

BC 177
20uF

E Vi
R2 20kohm C2 RE 1kohm Ro 1kohm

+ Vout -

Fig. Experimental set up for studying an emitter follwer circuit

DEPARTMENT

OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DISCRETE & INTEGRATED ANALOGUE CIRCUITS LABORATORY

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON OBTAINING THE FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF A TWO STAGE RC COUPLED AMPLIFIER & ANALYSING THE LOADING EFFECT ON THE FIRST STAGE

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA RANCHI

AIM:- Obtaining the frequency response of a two stage RC coupled amplifier & analysing the loading effect on the first stage. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Signal Generator 2. AC Millivoltmeter 3. CRO 4. Power Supply THEORY: Figure depicts a two-stage RC-coupled CE amplifier. Common power supply VCC has been used for both the transistors. The two transistors used are identical. The resistors R1 and R2 form the potential divider biasing arrangement for the transistors. The emitter resistance RE has been used for stabilization purpose. In this circuit the output of the first stage is developed across the collector resistance. This output of the first stage is coupled to the second stage through a coupling capacitor CC. The output of the first stage is fed to the base of the second stage is through a coupling capacitor, CC and a resistance in parallel path. For this reason this coupling is known as RCcoupling. The purpose of the capacitor, Cin is series with the input signal remains to allow only the ac current from signal source to flow into the input circuit. The coupling capacitor, CC is termed so because it allows signal to flow from the output of the first stage to the input of the second stage. It is also known as blocking capacitor because it blocks the dc current from flowing into the biasing circuit of the second stage. In this way, the biasing arrangement of the second stage remains unaffected. A switch A has been incorporated between the two stages of this amplifier so as to facilitate the study of first stage alone. We know that in a single-stage CE amplifier the phase of the output signal is reverse to that of the input signal. But in case of two-stage amplifier as the one consideration, this reversal of phase takes place twice. Therefore, in a 2-stage CE amplifier, the phase of the output signal remains same as the phase of the input signal. If the gain of the first stage working independently is A1 and that of the second stage is A2. The overall gain of the 2-stage combined together would be less than A1 x A2. It is because the second stage of the amplifier works as load on the first stage. Due to its loading effect the gain of the first stage is reduced. PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit a shown in Fig. 2. Determine the Q-point of both the transistors, by observing the values of IC and VCE. Ensure that both the transistors operate in the active region.

4.

5. 6.

7.

1. Adjust the frequency of the input signal to 1 KHz, and observe the output on a CRO. Gradually, increase the input voltage till the output waveform on CRO starts distorting. Note this value of the input signal. This gives the maximum signal handling capacity of the amplifier. Repeat the same procedure for single stage of the amplifier by opening the switch S. Adjust the amplitude of the input signal to a suitable value so that the output is not distorted and choose the frequency to be 1 KHz. Then measure the outputs at the first stage as well as at the second stage. Calculate the gain of the first stage, second stage and the overall gain as well. Open the switch S and measure the gain of the first stage, Compare this value with the value obtained with the switch S closed. Now, we wish to make observation for plotting the frequency response of the amplifier under consideration. First, open the switch S. Set the input signal frequency to 1 KHz. It is assumed that an RC-coupled amplifier has the maximum gain in the range of 1 KHz. Note down the gain of the first stage of the amplifier under these conditions. Vary the frequency to the lower side and determine a frequency at which the gain reduces to 0.707 times its maximum value. This is lower cut-off frequency (f1). Next, increase the frequency of the signal beyond, 1 KHz. Again locate a frequency above 1 KHz at which the gain reduces to 0.707 times its maximum value. This is upper cut-off frequency (f2). Calculate f2-f1. This is the bandwidth. Take a few readings at different frequencies so that a smooth curve of the frequency response can be drawn. Next, repeat the step 6 with switch S closed. This gives you the frequency response of both the two stages of the amplifier. Let the two cut-off frequencies obtained are f1 and f2. The bandwidth can be calculated as f2 f1.

OBSERVATIONS: The observations made in this experiment should be recorded as given below. Q-point VCC = ---V. VC1 = ----- V, IC1 = ------- mA VC2 = ----- V, IC2 = ------ mA Maximum input signal for which output is undistorted. For 2-stages amplifier = ------ mV For single-stage amplifier = ----- mV. Loading effect on the first-stage. Gain of the first stage alone = Gain of the first stage-coupled to the second stage = Frequency response data for the first-stage only.

Input signal = 5 mV Voltage gain at a frequency of 1 KHz = Lower cut off frequency f1 = Upper cut off frequency f2 = Band width f2 f1 = Frequency response data for the two-stages coupled together. Input signal = 2 mV Voltage gain at a frequency of 1 KHz = Lower cut-off frequency = f1 = Upper cut-off frequency = f2 = Band width = f2- f1 = OBSERVATION TABLE: Complete frequency response data S. No. Frequency Output voltage First-stage Twoalone stages coupled Voltage gain FirstTwostage stages alone coupled

RESULTS: Based on the observations recorded above following results can be drawn 1. The Q-points of transistors are. T1 : IC1 = ----- mA VC1 = ---- V T2 : IC2 = ----- mA VC2 = ---- V Therefore, both the transistors are functioning in active region. 2. Maximum signal handling capacity of the first stage = ---- mV. Maximum signal handling capacity of both the stages coupled = ---- mV. 2. The loaded gain of the first stage is much less than its unloaded gain. 3. The gain of 2-stage amplifier in much more than that of the single stage amplifier. However, the bandwidth is reduced. PRECAUTIONS: Following precautions should be taken care of while performing this experiment.

1. All connections should be neat and tight. 2. The zero setting of the instruments should be checked before connecting them in the circuit. 3. The value of input signal may change while performing this experiment. Care should be taken to observe this change. 4. For a wide range of frequency (i.e. midrange). The gain of the amplifier remains constant. Only a few readings should be taken in this range. On the other hand the gain varies on both sides of this range. Sufficient readings should be taken on both sides of this range.

+Vcc

33kohm

R1

1kohm

Rc

R1 Cc
10 0 uF 33kohm

Rc
1kohm

Cc
10 0 uF

CIN

T1
10 0 uF

T2 S R2
2.2kohm

R2

R2 Vin
3.3kohm

RE
220 ohm 25uF

Vout

CE

3.3kohm

RE

220 ohm

25uF

CE

Fig. RC COUPLED TWO-STAGE AMPLIFIER

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DISCRETE & INTEGRATED ANALOGUE CIRCUITS LABORATORY

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON DESIGN OF AN RC PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR (USING IC 741 OP AMP) AND CALCULATION OF ITS FREQUENCY OF OSCILLATION.

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

MESRA RANCHI

AIM: Design of an RC Phase Shift Oscillator (Using IC 741 OP AMP) and calculation of its frequency of oscillation. EQUIPMENTS: 1. 2.
3.

DUAL DC POWER SUPPLY CRO BREADBOARD.

COMPONENTS: 1. 2. 3. IC 741 RESISTOR 1M, 10K, 33K. Capacitor 0.1f.

ABOUT OP-AMP IC 741: The 741 is the godfather of all operational amplifiers (amplifiers on a chip). Although most up-to-date designs beat it for speed, low noise, etc, it still works well as a general purpose device. One of its advantages is that it is compensated (its frequency response is tailored) to ensure that under most curcumstances it won't produce unwanted spurious oscillations. This means it is easy to use, but the down-side of this is the poor speed/gain performance compared to more modern op-amps.

The 741 is usually supplied in an 8-pin DIL (Dual In Line) or DIP (Dual Inline Package, or sometimes Dual Inline Plastic) package with a pinout shown above. This has proved so popular that many other competing op-amps

have adoped the same package/pinout. Hence for many applications the various op-amps are drop in replacements or upgrades for one another. These days there is a large family of 741 type devices, made by various manufacturers. Sometimes one manufacturer will make different versions, which work better than others in some respect. Each has a slightly different part number, but it generally has 741 in it somewhere! The values given below are typical for an ordinary 741, better versions (more expensive) may give better results... Typical values of Basic Parameters: Rail voltages : +/- 15V dc (+/- 5V min, +/- 18V max) Input impedance: Around 2MegOhms Low Frequency voltage gain: approx 200,000 Input bias current: 80nA Slew rate: 0.5V per microsecond Maximum output current: 20mA Recommended output load: not less than 2kilOhms Note that, due to the frequency compensation, the 741's voltage gain falls rapidly with increasing signal frequency. Typically down to 1000 at 1kHz, 100 at 10kHz, and unity at about 1MHz. To make this easy to remember we can say that the 741 has a gain-bandwidth product of around one million (i.e. 1 MHz as the units of frequency are Hz). THEORY: The RC phase shift oscillator consists of an op-amp as amplifier and 3 RC cascade networks as the feedback circuit. The op-amp is used in the inverting mode, so output signal will be 180 out of phase. The feedback RC network provides the exactly 180 phase shift. So the total phase shift is 0. The gain of the amplifier is also kept large to produce oscillation. The frequency of oscillation is given by F= 0.065/RC. PROCEDURE: 1.
2.

3. frequency. 4. Compare the measured frequency with F= 0.065/RC.

Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit 1. Observe the sinusoidal output on CRO. Measure the time period of the sinusoidal wave and calculate its

RESULT: PRECAUTION:

R1 30kohm

Rf 1Mohm

-10V
4 2 3 R2 30kohm 7 1 5 741 U1

Vout

+10V
0.01uF 0.01uF 0.01uF

10kohm

10kohm

10kohm

Fig. RC PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DISCRETE & INTEGRATED ANALOGUE CIRCUITS LABORATORY

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON DESIGN OF A WEIN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR (USING IC 741 OP AMP) AND CALCULATION OF ITS FREQUENCY OF OSCILLATION.

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA RANCHI

AIM: Design of a Wein Bridge Oscillator (Using IC 741 OP AMP) and calculation of its frequency of oscillation. EQUIPMENTS: 1. 2. 3. DUAL DC POWER SUPPLY CRO BREADBOARD

COMPONENTS: 1.
2.

3. 4.

IC 741 RESISTORS 1.8K, 3.3K CAPACITORS 100KpF POTENTIOMETER 47K

ABOUT OP-AMP IC 741: The 741 is the godfather of all operational amplifiers (amplifiers on a chip). Although most up-to-date designs beat it for speed, low noise, etc, it still works well as a general purpose device. One of its advantages is that it is compensated (its frequency response is tailored) to ensure that under most curcumstances it won't produce unwanted spurious oscillations. This means it is easy to use, but the down-side of this is the poor speed/gain performance compared to more modern op-amps.

The 741 is usually supplied in an 8-pin DIL (Dual In Line) or DIP (Dual Inline Package, or sometimes Dual Inline Plastic) package with a pinout shown above. This has proved so popular that many other competing op-amps

have adoped the same package/pinout. Hence for many applications the various op-amps are drop in replacements or upgrades for one another. These days there is a large family of 741 type devices, made by various manufacturers. Sometimes one manufacturer will make different versions, which work better than others in some respect. Each has a slightly different part number, but it generally has 741 in it somewhere! The values given below are typical for an ordinary 741, better versions (more expensive) may give better results... Typical values of Basic Parameters: Rail voltages : +/- 15V dc (+/- 5V min, +/- 18V max) Input impedance: Around 2MegOhms Low Frequency voltage gain: approx 200,000 Input bias current: 80nA Slew rate: 0.5V per microsecond Maximum output current: 20mA Recommended output load: not less than 2kilOhms Note that, due to the frequency compensation, the 741's voltage gain falls rapidly with increasing signal frequency. Typically down to 1000 at 1kHz, 100 at 10kHz, and unity at about 1MHz. To make this easy to remember we can say that the 741 has a gain-bandwidth product of around one million (i.e. 1 MHz as the units of frequency are Hz). THEORY: In a WEIN bridge oscillator the WEIN bridge is connected between the amplifiers input terminals. When the wein bridge is balanced the resonant frequency is given by: F=

1 2 RC

Av =

R1 + R f R1

PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit 1

2. Observe the output on CRO adjust the gain of amplifier using potentiometer to produce oscillation. 3. Measure the time period of the sinusoidal wave and calculate its frequency. 4. Compare the measured frequency with F=
1 2 RC

RESULT: PRECAUTION:

R1 1.2kohm

Key = a 10K_LIN R2 50% U1

+12V
4 2

6 3 7 1 5 741

Vout

-12V
R3 1kohm R4 1kohm C1 0.01uF C2

0.01uF

Fig. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF A WEIN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DISCRETE & INTEGRATED ANALOGUE CIRCUITS LABORATORY

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON DESIGN OF A HARTLEY OSCILLATOR AND CALCULATION OF ITS FREQUENCY OF OSCILLATION

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA RANCHI

AIM: Design of a Hartley Oscillator and calculation of its frequency of oscillation. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Transistorised power supply 2. CRO with calibrated time base/ frequency counter. THEORY: An Hartley oscillator essentially consists of a tapped coil and a capacitor across it as shown in Fig. This forms the tank circuit of the oscillator. The biasing to the transistor is done through the resistors R1 and R2 such that the amplifier operated in class C. The pulses of current flow through the parallel tuned circuit at a rate determined by the resonant frequency of the tank circuit i.e. f = 2 The voltage developed across L and C (i.e. tank circuit) is fed back to the base emitter junction. The variable tap inductor and the capacitor of 0.02F form the feed back circuit. It produces the *** phase relationship. Hartley, oscillator is used to generate radio frequencies. A coil known as radio frequency choke (RFG) is connected in series with dc supply. It provides short circuit for dc currents and offers very high impedance to the high frequency currents. PROCEDURE: This experiment can be performed in the following steps. 1. Connect the circuit as shown in Fig. 2. Connect CRO at the output terminals of the oscillator. Measure the time period of the sine wave generated by the oscillator by suing the calibrated time base of the CRO. Then calculate the frequency of oscillations of the oscillator. OBSERVATIONS: The time period of the wave shape of the Output = ----- sec. The frequency of oscillation = f = 1/T = ---- KHz PRECAUTIONS: 1. All connections should be neat and tight.

2. The measurement on CRO should be taken attentively.

+Vcc 22.5V
RFC

0.02uF

R1 33kohm C 50%

2N1613
0.06uF 0.05uF 4.7kohm

R2 10kohm

Fig. THE HARTLEY OSCILLATOR

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DISCRETE & INTEGRATED ANALOGUE CIRCUITS LABORATORY

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON DESIGN OF RELAXATION OSCILLATOR (USING UJT 2N2646) AND CALCULATION OF ITS FREQUENCY OF OSCILLATION

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA RANCHI

AIM: - Design of Relaxation Oscillator (Using UJT 2N2646) and calculation of its frequency of oscillation APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. Wish board 2. D.C. Power Supply Or Trainer Kit 3. C.R.O CIRCUIT COMPONENT: 1. UJT 2N2646 2. Resistors (33, 1K, 33KPOT) 3. Capacitors (0.01F) 4. Connecting wires THEORY: PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. 2. Before switching ON the power supply, make sure that the connections are correct. 3. Observe the waveforms at points A, B1, and B2 as shown in the circuit diagram respectively using CRO. 4. Plot the observed waveform. 5. Measure the waveforms amplitude and time period and tabulate the same in observation table. 6. Repeat step-5 for different values of R. OBSERVATIONS: Sl. No. 1 2 3 R (K) 20 30 50 V (Volts) T (msec) F=1/T (Hz) =1-e-1/FRC

RESULT:

PRECAUTION:

+VEE(10v)

+VBB(10v)
RB2 1kohm

30kOhm Key = a 50%

A --+ Vc

E
C1 0.1uF

B2 --+
RB1 33ohm

--+

B1

VB2

---

VB1 -----

Fig. RELAXATION OSCILLATOR CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DISCRETE & INTEGRATED ANALOGUE CIRCUITS LABORATORY

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON DESIGN OF A BOOTSTRAP TIME BASE GENERATOR (USING IC 741 OP AMP) AND OBSERVATION OF THE OUTPUT WAVEFORMS

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA RANCHI

AIM: - Design of a Bootstrap Time Base Generator (using IC 741 OP AMP) and observation of the output waveforms APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. Wish board D.C. Power supply Function generator Or Trainer Kit C.R.O

CIRCUIT COMPONENT: 1. IC 741 2. Resistors (122K) 3. Capacitor (10 pF) 4. Connecting wires ABOUT OP-AMP IC 741: The 741 is the godfather of all operational amplifiers (amplifiers on a chip). Although most up-to-date designs beat it for speed, low noise, etc, it still works well as a general purpose device. One of its advantages is that it is compensated (its frequency response is tailored) to ensure that under most curcumstances it won't produce unwanted spurious oscillations. This means it is easy to use, but the down-side of this is the poor speed/gain performance compared to more modern op-amps.

The 741 is usually supplied in an 8-pin DIL (Dual In Line) or DIP (Dual Inline Package, or sometimes Dual Inline Plastic) package with a pinout

shown above. This has proved so popular that many other competing op-amps have adoped the same package/pinout. Hence for many applications the various op-amps are drop in replacements or upgrades for one another. These days there is a large family of 741 type devices, made by various manufacturers. Sometimes one manufacturer will make different versions, which work better than others in some respect. Each has a slightly different part number, but it generally has 741 in it somewhere! The values given below are typical for an ordinary 741, better versions (more expensive) may give better results... Typical values of Basic Parameters: Rail voltages : +/- 15V dc (+/- 5V min, +/- 18V max) Input impedance: Around 2MegOhms Low Frequency voltage gain: approx 200,000 Input bias current: 80nA Slew rate: 0.5V per microsecond Maximum output current: 20mA Recommended output load: not less than 2kilOhms Note that, due to the frequency compensation, the 741's voltage gain falls rapidly with increasing signal frequency. Typically down to 1000 at 1kHz, 100 at 10kHz, and unity at about 1MHz. To make this easy to remember we can say that the 741 has a gain-bandwidth product of around one million (i.e. 1 MHz as the units of frequency are Hz). THEORY:

PROCEDURES: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. 2. Before switching ON the power supply, make sure that the connections are correct. 3. Observe the waveforms at points A, and pin 6 as shown in the circuit diagram respectively using CRO. 4. Plot the waveform observed.

RESULT: PRECAUTION

Vcc +10v
7 1 5 U1 3 2 1V 0.71V_rms 1000Hz 0Deg C1 10nF 741 4 6

R1 122kohm

Vout

Vee -10v

Fig. BOOT STRAP TIME BASE GENERATOR

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DISCRETE & INTEGRATED ANALOGUE CIRCUITS LABORATORY

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON DESIGN OF A MILLER TIME BASE GENERATOR (USING IC 741 OP AMP) AND OBSERVATION OF THE OUTPUT WAVEFORMS

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

MESRA RANCHI

AIM: - Design of a Miller Time Base Generator (Using IC 741 OP AMP) and observation of the output waveforms APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. 2. 3. 4. Wish board D.C. Power supply Function generator Or Trainer Kit C.R.O

CIRCUIT COMPONENT: 1. IC 741 2. Resistors (115K) 3. Capacitor (10 pF) 4. Connecting wires ABOUT OP-AMP IC 741: The 741 is the godfather of all operational amplifiers (amplifiers on a chip). Although most up-to-date designs beat it for speed, low noise, etc, it still works well as a general purpose device. One of its advantages is that it is compensated (its frequency response is tailored) to ensure that under most curcumstances it won't produce unwanted spurious oscillations. This means it is easy to use, but the down-side of this is the poor speed/gain performance compared to more modern op-amps.

The 741 is usually supplied in an 8-pin DIL (Dual In Line) or DIP (Dual Inline Package, or sometimes Dual Inline Plastic) package with a pinout

shown above. This has proved so popular that many other competing op-amps have adoped the same package/pinout. Hence for many applications the various op-amps are drop in replacements or upgrades for one another. These days there is a large family of 741 type devices, made by various manufacturers. Sometimes one manufacturer will make different versions, which work better than others in some respect. Each has a slightly different part number, but it generally has 741 in it somewhere! The values given below are typical for an ordinary 741, better versions (more expensive) may give better results... Typical values of Basic Parameters: Rail voltages : +/- 15V dc (+/- 5V min, +/- 18V max) Input impedance: Around 2MegOhms Low Frequency voltage gain: approx 200,000 Input bias current: 80nA Slew rate: 0.5V per microsecond Maximum output current: 20mA Recommended output load: not less than 2kilOhms Note that, due to the frequency compensation, the 741's voltage gain falls rapidly with increasing signal frequency. Typically down to 1000 at 1kHz, 100 at 10kHz, and unity at about 1MHz. To make this easy to remember we can say that the 741 has a gain-bandwidth product of around one million (i.e. 1 MHz as the units of frequency are Hz). THEORY:

PROCEDURES: 1. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. 2. Before switching ON the power supply, make sure that the connections are correct. 3. Observe the waveforms at points A, and pin 6 as shown in the circuit diagram respectively using CRO. 4. Plot the waveform observed.

RESULT:

PRECAUTION:

+10V
7 1 5 U1 3 R 115kohm 6

741 4

Vo

Vi

100Hz Duty Cycle Amp 5V Offset 4V

-10V
C1

3.6nF

Fig. MILLER TIME BASE GENERATOR

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DISCRETE & INTEGRATED ANALOGUE CIRCUITS LABORATORY

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON

DESIGN OF A R-2R LADDER NETWORK FOR CONVERSION OF A 4-BIT DIGITAL SIGNAL TO AN ANALOG EQUIVALENT SIGNAL.

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA, RANCHI

AIM: Convert four bits Digital signal to an Analog equivalent signal using R2R ladder Network APPARATUS: 5. CRO OR MULTIMETER 6. Dual Power Supply (+15V) 7. Trainer board (Microlab-II) COMPONENTS: 5. Op-Amp. IC 741 1 No. 6. Resistor 10K - 22 No.s 7. LED with limiting resistors 8. Wish board 9. Connecting wires (3 & 4 are Operational, if Trainer board not provided) PROCEDURE:

11.

12. 13. 14. 15.

Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. Apply the input bit combinations as per observation table and note down the output voltage. Repeat step-2 for all entries mentioned in observations table. At the end, compare the output voltage observed with theoretically calculated output voltage. calculate the errors of conversion.

OBSERVATIONS: Sl. No. Decimal Equivalent of Binary I/Ps 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Input (V) B3 B2 B1 B0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 5 0 0 0 5 5 0 5 0 0 0 5 0 5 0 5 5 0 0 5 5 5 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 5 5 0 5 0 5 0 5 5 5 5 0 0 5 5 0 0 5 5 5 0 5 5 5 5 O/P Voltage O/P Voltage Theoretically (Analog (V) value) Practically (V)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

R
10kohm 20kohm

R
10kohm

R
10kohm

RF
20kohm

2R

2R

20kohm

2R

20kohm

2R

20kohm

2R

20kohm

- 15v
4 2 741 3 7 1 5

U1

Vout + 15v

5V

RL

10kohm

Fig. R- 2 R Ladder Network

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING

DISCRETE & INTEGRATED ANALOGUE CIRCUITS LABORATORY

LAB INSTRUCTIONS FOR CARRYING OUT PRACTICAL ON DESIGN OF ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL COMPARATOR CIRCUIT FOR CONVERSION OF AN ANALOG SIGNAL TO 8-BIT DIGITAL SIGNAL

BIRLA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MESRA, RANCHI

AIM: Design of Analog-to-Digital Comparator circuit for conversion of an analog signal to 8-bit digital signal. APPARATUS REQUIRED: 1. DC Variable Power Supply (0-5v) 2. DC Power Supply (0-12V 3. Trainer Board (microlab-II) COMPONENTS: 1. IC LM324- 2No.s 2. Resistor 1K - 12 No.s 3. LED with limiting resistor 8 No.s 4. Wish Board 5. Connecting wires (3 & 4 optical, if trainers board is not provided) THEORY:- The operational amplifier is a direct coupled high gain amplifier to which a feedback is added to control its overall response characteristic. It is used to perform a wide variety of linear functions (and also some non-linear operations) and is often referred to as the basic linear integrated circuit. The integrated operational amplifier has gained wide acceptance as versatile and economic building block as a versatile and economic system building block. It offers all the advantages of an integrated circuit, i.e. small size, high reliability, reduced cost, temperature tracking and low off set voltage and current. PROCEDURE: 1. 2. 3. The circuit is connected as shown in the circuit diagram. The input voltage is applied in steps, as given in observation table. Output status is used verified with illumination of LED as mentioned in observation table.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Sl. APPLIED No. INPUT VOLTAG E (V) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. RESULT: PRECAUTIONS: 1.


2.

OUTPUT STATES D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

The breadboard should be handled carefully. base portions of wires and connection shouldnt touched as their would be distortion of output.