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LECIA 1 TO BE(a fi):

afirmativ I am Im You are Youre He is She is It is We are Hes Shes Its Were interogativ Am I? I am not Are you? Is he? Is she? Is it? Are we? Are you? Are they? You are not He is not She is not It is not We are not You are not They are not negativ Im not Youre not Hes not Shes not Its not Were not Youre not Theyre not you arent he isnt she isnt it isnt we arent you arent they arent

You are Youre They are Theyre

Expresii uzuale: Who are you? I am Lavinia. What are you? I am a teacher.

ARTICOLUL NEHOTRT
SINGULAR: a(un, o) - naintea cuv. care ncep cu o cons. an(un, o) - naintea cuv. care ncep cu o vocal PLURAL: se formeaz adugnd litera s ex: doctors = doctori n rom. se folos. sunt doctor i sunt un doctor iar n engl. doar sunt un doctor (sunt doctor se traduce n engl. cu sunt un doctor) (Sunt doctor = I am a doctor) - aceast diferen ntre engl. i rom se ntlnete numai la singular. ex: a doctor =un doctor ex: an engineer

ARTICOLUL HOTRT
SG.: the teacher = profesorul (the se pronun cu naintea cons. i cu i naintea vocalelor) PL: se adaug s the teachers = profesorii

Exprimarea vrstei se face n englez cu vb. a fi nu cu vb. a avea ca n romn. She is 5 years old = Ea are 5 ani. De asemenea culorile(Ce culoare au ochii ti? What colour are your eyes?)

LECIA 2
sg. THIS = acesta, aceasta pl. THESE = acetia, acestea

THAT = acela, aceea Expresii uzuale:


This is That is It is a French Russian Romanian ONE.

THOSE = aceia, acelea

These are Those are They are Those are English books.;They are English ones. Romanian ONES.

ex: What books are those?

NTREBRILE DISJUNCTIVE(nu-i aa?, aa-i?, nu?) arent I?


arent you? isnt he, she, it? arent we, you, they?

am I?
are you? is he, she, it? are we, you, they? (vezi can, may, must; there is, there are)

Ex.:

You are a teacher, arent you? Suntei profesor, nu-i aa?

-----------------------------------

You arent a teacher, are you? Nu eti profesor, nu-i aa?

n englez nu se folosete dubla negaie ca n romn.

LECIA 3 TO HAVE( a avea)


I have (got) You have (got) He has (got) She has (got) It has (got) We have (got) You have (got) They have (got) Ive got Youve got Hes got Shes got Its got Weve got Youve got Theyve got

GENITIVUL(POSESIA)
Pt. numele de fiine se folosete de obicei genitivul cu apostrof

s la singular: la plural:

Tony is Mr. Cliffords son.(Tony este fiul dl. Clifford) Tony is the Cliffords son (Tony este fiul Clifforzilor)

Genitivul cu of se poate folosi cu orice categorie de substantive, inclusiv cu numele de


fiine, ns n mod obinuit cu subs. care nu reprezint nume de fiine. ex: The colour of my pullover(culoarea puloverului meu) Mai rar: n mod obinuit: The name of this boy is Tony. This boys name is Tony. (Numele ac. biat este Tony.)

LECIA 4 CAN = a putea n sensul de:


- capacitate, a ti - permisiunea pt. pers. 2 i 3 rar 1 Can your wife cook? Can I see your father? No, you cannot(cant).

Can she take your tape-recorder?

MAY = a putea n sensul de:


-permisiunea pt. persoana 1 -posibil, probabil 20420n1320u 259;m acas?) May I open the window? Why must we stay at home? ( De ce tb. s st&# Because Mr. Clifford may come. (Pt. c s-ar putea s vin dl. Clifford) It may be difficult, but you must learn it.(O fi ea grea, dar tb. s o nvei.) He may be your friend, but... (aciiune viitoare)

MUST =
trebuie I must read this book.

probabil(n sensul de trebuie) He must be at school now.(Probabil c e la c. acum.) (aciune nceput n trec. i contin. n prez. i posibil n viitor)

STILL = nc ( n continuare) YET = nc (deja)

Shes still very prety.(E nc f. drgu)

Can your baby walk yet? (Copilaul tu poate deja s mearg?) He cant walk yet. (Nu poate s mearg nc.) (aciune care nu a nceput dar poate ncepe oricnd)

(= totui

Ex.: And yet she was ready in time(i totui a fost gata la timp))

ntrebrile disjunctive cu can, may, must se formeaz respectnd regula c n englez nu se folos. dubla negaie ca n romn. You cannt sing this song, can you? Nu ti s cni cntecul ac. nu-i aa?

LECIA 5
NTREBRILE CU DO I DOES(Prezentul Simplu)
Do you smoke? Yes I do. No, I dont. Does he learn Russian? nva rusete? He, she, it does Fumezi? I, you, we, they do

Yes, he learn Russian. Yes, he does. No he doesnt.

LA

at se folosete cu verbele de stare pe loc to se folosete cu verbele de micare


Particularitate: I am at home. mai

(Tony is at school.) (Tony goes to school) I go home.(la verbele de micare nu se folosete to n expresii cu home).

De regul dup in, with, under, before, after, at, to se folosete the i subs.: - I like to read in the garden. - I like to play with the boys. Excepii: home, school, college... pupil go home. After school they want to go to the cinema. me = pe mine you = pe tine him = pe el her = pe ea it = pe el us = pe noi you = pe voi them = pe ei, ele our = nostru your = tu, ta, ti, tale, dtale, dvs their= lor my = meu, mea, mei, mele your = tu his = lui her = ei After the lesson the

Expresii uzuale:
to be right = a avea dreptate to be wrong = a nu avea dreptate ex.: Am I right? ( Am dreptate?) You are wrong(N-ai dreptate)

LECIA 6

n momentul de fa
(now...) I am i You are He is She We You They are speaking French. playing the violin. drinking milk.

IMPORTANT

prezentul

simplu n

n general, mod obinuit


(always, every day...) I speak French You He She play the violin drink milk speaks French plays the violin drinks milk speak French play the violin

continuu:

We You

Interogativ: DoI,you,we,the y French?

Am

speaking

Does he,she,it
the garden the house the sitting-room

Lavinia is singing They drink milk Tony is reading Theyre playing Lavinia is going Tony is coming Theyre taking Spot

in

into
(deplasare,micare,direcie)

Expresii uzuale: There is a bottle of whisky on the table, insnt there?


(Este o sticl de w. pe mas, nu-i aa?)

There are many cakes in the refrigerator, arent there?


(Sunt multe ...

Expresii uzuale: neither...nor


(cnd vb. e afirmativ) Nu e nici din fier nici din aur. sau

either...or
(cnd vb. e negativ) - regula dublei negaii It is neither iron nor gold.

It isnt either iron or gold. Nu tb. nici s citeti prea mult i nici s te odihneti prea mult. You must neither read too much nor rest too much. You musnt either read too much or rest too much.

LECIA 7 TO BE - past
I was You were He was She was It was We were You were They were Ex: Were you at home last night? They were glad to see us. Ai fost acas asear? S-au bucurat(au fost bucuroi) cnd ne-au vzut. I was not(wasnt) You were not(werent) Was I? Were you? Was I not?(wasnt I?) Were you not?(werent you?)

TO HAVE - past
I, You, He, She, It, We, You, They

had

Ex: She had a pet when she was a little girl.(Ea a avut un animal favorit cnd era mic.) ---------------Have, had se mai folosesc n englez pt. : - a se distra: had a good time - a mnca, a bea : He had a lovely meal.; She had a glass of beer.; had dinner. - doar HAD se mai folosete pt.: a trebuit, trebuia(vezi lecia 10) =trecutul lui must

CAN- past
I, You, He, She, It, We, You, They

could

Ex.: He couldnt go to school yesterday.


Se mai folosete n englez i cu vb. care arat o aptitudine. - Could you ride well at that time? (Clreai bine pe vremea aceea?) - Could he ski when he was young? (tia s schieze cnd era tnr?) Yes, he could ski very well.

Expresii uzuale: MUCH = mult, mult MANY = muli, multe He never eats much. He hasnt got many records.

A LOT (OF) = mult, mult,muli,multe De obicei, se folosete a lot (of) n propoziiile afirmative n loc de much sau many: - He likes to eat a lot. - She has a lot of friends. Se mai folosesc n expresii : ct, cte - Ct cost? = How much is it? - Cte fiice avea? = How many daughters had he?

LECIA 8 GRADELE DE COMPARAIE ALE ADJECTIVELOR 1. adjectivele de o silab formeaz comparativul adugnd ER i superlativul adugnd EST:
high(nalt) tall(nalt) higher(mai nalt) taller(mai nalt) longer (the) highest(cel mai nalt) (the)tallest(cel mai nalt) (the)longest :despre lucruri :despre persoane

long(lung) -

2.adjectivele de o silab terminate ntr-o singur consoan precedat de o singurvocal dubleaz consoana final nainte de er i de est:
big bigger thinner - (the)biggest - (the)thinnest

thin(subire)-

3.adjectivele de o silab terminate n -e adaug numai -r ; -st:


nice(drgu, gustos) fine - nicer - finer - (the)nicest - (the) finest

4.adjectivele terminate n y precedate de o consoan schimb y cu i i se adaug er i est:


dry(uscat) drier - (the) driest

CONJUNII I EXPRESII UZUALE

Tony is as young as me(John;I am) not so tall as not as short as older than Mary(he is;them) the younger of the two the tallest of the three (of us all;of you all;of all)

la fel de...ca i nu aa de...ca i nu la fel de...ca i mai...dect mai...din ei doi(cteodat i cel mai din doi) cel mai...din

Adjectivele din mai multe silabe formeaz comparativul cu more i superlativul cu the most. (R nu se pronun cnd more este rostit izolat sau este urmat de
un cuv. care ncepe cu o consoan; dar se pronun cnd cuv. urmtor ncepe cu o vocal ex: more interesting) confortable careless more confortable more careless (the) most confortable (the) most careless neatent(neglijent)

Unele adjective form. comparativul i superlativul n mod neregulat:


much(mult,mult) many(muli,multe) good better (the) best more(mai mult) - (the)most(cel mai mult)

bad(ru,prost) ill(bolnav)

worse(mai ru)

(the) worst(cel mai ru)

Folosirea prepoziiilor from(de,din,de pe) se folosete doar n propoziiile care nu exprim ideea de existen in, on, under, behind n celelalte propoziii
The dress in the wardrobe is blue. Rochia din dulap este albastr. Vrea s ia rochia din dulap.

She wants to take the dress from the wardrobe. The mouse on the cheese looks very clever.

oarecele de pe cacaval pare f. detept. Mama vrea s ia oarecele de pe

My mother wants to take the mouse from the cheese.

The elephant under the bad is a toy elephant. Elefantul de sub pat este un elefant de j. My baby takes the elephant from under the bed. ia elefantul de sub pat.

The cat behind the curtain is in fact a kitten. Pisica de dup perdea este de fapt o pisicu The cat is coming out from behind the curtain. Pisica iese de dup perdea.

Expresii uzuale:
Its too dear. Its quite cheap. E prea scump(). E destul de ieftin.

grow = a cultiva(legume), a crete(hair, oranges); grown-ups=aduli

LECIA 9 Expresii uzuale(din Viitorul Simplu): Will you please open the window? Will you please come with me? IMPORTANT:
Vrei, te rog, s deschizi fereastra? Vrei, te rog, s vii cu mine?

PAST TENSE simple


Aciune terminat n trecut

La verbele regulate se formeaz prin adugarea terminaiei ed la forma de infinitiv(forma gsit n dicionar; ex.:to like) ; la interogativ se folosete did; negativ: did not(didn).

Am cntat bine la pian?


Did I play the yesterday? piano well?

A muncit dl. Clifford mult(din greu) ieri?


Did Mr. Clifford work hard

Yes, you played it very well. Yes, you did. No, you didnt play it very well.

Yes, he worked very hard. No, he did not work very hard.

La verbele neregulate se formeaz astfel: S+forma2 a vb.(lista cu vb. neregulate se nva pe de rost Engl. fr prof./p.358) n cazul condiionalelor(if clause) trecutul simplu se poate traduce cu condiionalul-optativ romnesc a cnta iar T.P.S. cu a fi cntat(n principal se folosete would(should)=a...sau would (should) have=a fi...(vezi lecia 18)). ntrebrile disjunctive la past tense(cu did) I played tennis well, didnt I? I didnt play tennis well, did I? Am jucat tenis bine, nu-i aa? N-am jucat tenis bine, aa-i?

ATENIE(din Andrei Banta)


Pt. c PrezentulPerf.S. i Trecutul S. se traduc la fel tb. precizat: Dac momentul(last months; three days ago) sau aciunea este localizat sau dac textul este de domeniul unei relatri, reportaj se folosete Trecutul S. Deci, Past Tense arat un moment determinat(terminat n trecut) al aciunii de cele mai multe ori precizat prin adverbe de timp precis iar Present Perfect are ca funcie principalindicarea anterioritii(moment nceput n trecut i continuat i n prezent sau termin. f. recent).

Expresii uzuale:
always never often = adesea seldom = (a)rareori ever = vreodat sometimes

IMPORTANT:

PARTICIPIUL TRECUT
Participiul trecut al verbelor regulate se formeaz ntocmai ca i trecutul lor. Part. trecut al vb. neregulate se nva din lista de vb. neregulate de la pg. 358. Ex.: There are many learned men in our country. Sunt muli oameni nvai n . ns. Many appreciated writers took part in the conference. Muli scriitori apreciai au luat parte la conferin.

ADVERBUL
Adverbul se formeaz de obicei prin adugarea terminaiei ly adjectivului din care provin dar exist i adverbe care au aceeai form cu adjectivul crora le corespunde. n cazul adugrii terminaiei ly intervine o schimbare de sens. Ex.: hard= din greu, intens hardly= cu greu, de abia Adjectiv Adverb

She is nice careless beautiful

She writes nicely carelessly beautifully

Adverbe cu aceiai form ca adjectivul:fast, hard, etc. The plaine is fast(Avionul este rapid) It goes fast(El merge repede)

LECIA 10
IMPERATIVUL (FORMA NEGATIV) Do not Dont ask that! say it!

HAD se mai folosete n expresii pt.: TREBUIA, A TREBUIT (must = trebuie)


Trebuia neaprat s ajung acolo la timp. I really had to be there in time

A trebuit s fac baie n 10 min.

She had to bath in ten minutes.

A trebuit s te duci s-i vezi aa de trziu? Did you have to go and see them so late? Nu trebuia s-i spui. EXPRESII: LET
Lets go! S mergem! S-i ia cinele de aici!

You didnt have to tell her.

Let her take her dog away! Let her bath quickly! Let him speak!

S fac baie repede! Las-l s vorbeasc! come;stay; read

Let me, him, her, it, us, them

EXPRESII: HERE; THERE(iat,am ajuns,poftim)


Here he is. Iat-l(aici). Iat-l pe prietenul meu Charlie(aici)

Here is my friend Charlie. Here he come. There he is.

Uite-l c vine(aici). Iat-l(acolo). Iat-i pe vecinii notri.(acolo)

There are my neighbours.

EXPRESII: THERE MUST; THERE MAY


There must be a misunderstanding. There may be trouble for you there. Trebuie s fie o nenelegere. S-ar putea s ai necazuri acolo.

EXPRESII: May I introduce my son to you? How do you do? Ce mai faci?,Bun ziua

I am glad to meet you. mi pare bine s v cunosc. It was nice meeting you. Mi-a fcut plcere s v cunosc. EXPRIMAREA I ORDINEA N PROPOZIIE PT. PRONUMELE:

mie, ie, lui, ei, nou, lor


Give me that book, please.

to me, you, him, her, us, them


D-mi, te rog, cartea aceea.

Give it to me, not to my brother. Did he lend you the newspaper? Did he lend the newspaper to you?

D-mi-o mie, nu fratelui meu. i-a mprumutat ziarul? ie i-a mprumutat ziarul?

No, he didnt. He lent it to my sister. Nu. I l-a mprumutat surorii mele.

LECIA 11
IMPORTANT:

PAST TENSE continuous


S + to be(trecut) + vb+ing Ex.: You were reading a magazine. Mrs. Clifford was sewing when Tony came. I was sleeping when the rain started.

Citeai o revist.
D-na. C. cosea cnd Tony a venit.

Dormeam cnd ploaia a nceput.

They were dancing while Lavinia was learning. Dansau n timp ce L. nva. Was the sun shining when she looked out of the window? NTREBRILE DISJUNCTIVE: The sun was shining in the sky, wasnt it? The sun was not(wasnt) shining in the sky, was it?

Expresii uzuale:

so.....that

att de.....nct

I was so tired last night that I slept like a log(butean). It is so late that I cant call in at the butchers.(E att de trziu nct nu pot trece pe la mcelrie) We are so busy that we cant go to the cinema with you. Expresii: had(pt. trecut), must(pt. prez.) + past participle M-am coafat ieri. Trebuia s m ntlnesc cu o veche prieten. i-ai reparat pantofii, nu?

I had my hair done yesterday. I had to meet an old friend.

You had your shoes mended, hadnt you?

She had to have a new dress made. You must have your nails manicured.

Trebuie s-i fac(s-i dea la fcut) o rochie nou. Trebie s v facei manichiura.

Numele unor magazine se formeaz prin adugarea s numelui profesiei: barbers(hairdressers) = frizerie grocers = bcnie(zahr, fin, cafea) butchers = mcelrie confectioners = cofetrie chemists = farmacie tailors = croitor

LECIA 12(SHALL and WILL)

VIITORUL SIMPLU(NEDEFINIT)
Ex.: I shall begin now. You will see him tomorow. He will write her a letter.

THE FUTURE INDEFINITE

Voi ncepe acum Ai s-l vezi mine. i va scrie o scrisoare.


Vor fi fructe din belug, nu-i aa? go by train make a good impression be late

There will be plenty of fruit, wont there? I We shall ll shall not He She It You They shant will ll will not wont

ATENIE: SHALL i WILL se pot inversa ntre persoanele I, II sau III pt. a exprima pt. pers I ideea de voin, promisiune, hotrre iar pt. pers. II i III ideea denecesitate, ordin, obligaie.

Ex.: I will do my best.

i promit s fac tot posibilul.

You shall drink that glass of milk, even if you dont like it. i poruncesc s bei p... He shall tell her the truth. El trebuie s-i spun adevrul.

Will poate avea sensul de a vrea, a voi, a binevoi


Ex.: Will you bring me that book? He wont go to school I wont explain him the rule again. I wont see him again. Vrei s-mi aduci cartea aceea? Nu vrea s se duc la coal. Nu vreau s-i explic regula din nou. (atenie: will nu shall)

Nu vreau s-l mai vd.

TO BE GOING TO a. se poate folosi n locul viitorului cu shall i will:


He is going to leave for London. It is going to rain. Are s plou. Va pleca la Londra.

b. exprim intenia:
I am going to take one suit-case with me.(Am de gnd s iau un sg. geamantan cu mine)

CAN nu are viitor. La viitor se nlocuiete cu to be able to(a putea, a fi n stare)


Ex.: I shall be able to visit you next week(Voi putea s v fac o vizit sptmna viitoare)

MUST nu are viitor. La viitor se nlocuiete cu to have to(a trebui)


Ex.: He will have to go there on Monday(Va trebui s se duc luni acolo).

SHALL N NTREBRI se traduce adesea prin conjunctivul romnesc


Ex.: Shall I ring you up tomorrow? S-i telefonez mine? Shall I bring you the book? S-i aduc cartea?

LECIA 13

PREZENTUL PERFECT SIMPLU


traducere: am citit n propoziii

lucreaz;o are n fraze pt. exprimarea anterioritii


vezi crile de liceu cls. X selecii Ex.: Ai(ai) citit cartea aceasta? N-au plecat nc, nu-i aa? S+have/has+vb.(III) Have you read this book? They havent gone yet, have they?

Atenie: Prez. Perf. Simplu pt. to be i to have Forma III a vb. to be este been; a nu se confunda din acest motiv PPS cu alte timpuri. Ex.: De cnd sunt prieteni? How long have they been friends? Sunt prieteni de ani de zile. They have been friends for years.(since 1960) De cnd are maina aceea?

How long(since when) has she had that car? Se folosete cu FOR i SINCE

Atenie: folosirea n fraze e n fc. de timpul din romnete: Trecutul simplu(ac. termin. n trecut) She has had it since she graduated. O are de cnd a absolvit facultatea.

She has had it since she has worked in this office. O are de cnd lucreaz n acest birou. Prez.Perf.Simplu(ac. prez.) Pt. diferena dintre PPS i TS vezi ex. 247/p.208 din Engl. fr prof. ncep. n trec. i cont. n

PREZENTUL PERFECT CONTINUU


S+HAVE+BEEN+ VB+ing

Aciunea: nceput n trecut, continuat n prez. i posibil n viitor; Atenie: se deosebete de PPS datorit verbelor cu aspect progresiv continuu(a citi, a nva, a preda,a conduce(maina), etc.)
Ex.: What has he been doing since this morning? He has been revising for his exam. Ce face de azi diminea?

nva pt. examen. De cnd predai...

How long have you been teaching in this school?

Important: pt. a vedea diferena ntre PPS, PPC i TS (ex.249/p210):

1. De cnd nvei englezete? 2. Ce-ai fcut ieri diminea?

PPC aciune trecut,prez.,~viitor i verb progresiv cont. TS(did) ac. trecut ncheiat i timpul precizat exact

3. Ce-ai fcut toat sptmna aceasta? PPS interval de timp nc nencheiat etc. Expresii uzuale: big i large se refer la volum, capacitate sau cantitate iar great la importan This volume is very thick.It has many pages. empty = gol(goal) full = plin() The engine of a car is heavy. It is not light. This question is difficult. It is not easy. Prepoziii i expresii:
There is a piece of cheese on a plate on the kitchen table. (Este o bucat de brnz, pe o farfurie, pe masa din

thick = gros

greu; uor greu: uor

buctrie.)

There are several chairs round the kitchen table.(n jurul mesei din buctrie sunt mai multe scaune) Below(sub) the kitchen floor there is a cellar(pivnia) and above(deasupra) the kitchen ceiling, there is the garret(podul).
The cupboard is against one of the kitchen walls and opposite the cupboard there is the clock. (Dulapul se afl lipit de unul dintre pereii buctriei i fa n fa cu dulapul se afl ceasornicul.)

below the clock = sub ceas

under gas cooker = sub aragaz

a butterfly comes through the window = un fluture intr pe(prin) fereastr it flies up to = zboar n sus throws the butterfly out of the window = arunc fluturele pe fereastr

LECIA 14
alt, alt book Another ali, alte books Other cealalt book The other celelalte books altul, alta is Another alii, altele are Other cellalt, cealalt is The other ceilali, celelalte others are is are is are here on the table in front of you

in the room on the floor

This old car is

mine(a mea) your his hers ours yours theirs

It belongs to

me(mie)

These French magazines are

They to

you belong him her us you them

This fat little dog is This bad tape-recorder is

It belongs to

Expresii uzuale: He cant hear. Hes deaf. He cant see. Hes blind. smell=miros; odour=miros (plcut sau neplcut) fragrance = miros plcut(parfum) No, I cant. I have a cold(guturai).

Can you smell the smell of roast chicken?

Exprimarea faptului de a fi mirat i impresionat What a charming girl! How pretty your house is!
Ce fat fermectoare! Ce drgu e casa voast!

EXPRESII UZUALE: which=pe care,care(din mai muli(multe)); what = care Which of them shall I lend you? Which book did you like best? Pe care vrei s i-o (i le) mprumut? Care carte i-a plcut mai mult? Nu i deosebesc ntotdeauna.

My sons are twins. I dont always know which is which. What is your name? What is the capital of France?

Imperativul cu YOU exprim un ordin categoric sau precizeaz persoana:


You stop that noise at once! ncetez imediat cu zgomotul! Tu fiebe oule n timp ce eu prjesc pinea. both= amndoi doi dintre ei

You boil the eggs while I toast the bred!

EXPRESII UZUALE: two of them= doi dintre ei I saw two of them in the street this morning.

The two of them(both of them) are very fat.

amndoi

LECIA 15 Compuii lui some, any, no + thing, where, body, one (+ else)
EXPRESII UZUALE: some: se folosete n propoziiile afirmative i se traduce prin nite, ceva, civa, cteva, puin(). Ex.: There is some tea left(A mai rmas nite(puin) ceai). any: n prop. interogative i negative =nite, cteva, civa, puin(), vreo respectiv=nu, nici un, nici o. Ex.: Is there any milk in that bottle? E puin lapte n sticl? any n prop. afirmative = oricare, orice Ex.:Take any record you like.

no se folosete n propoziiile negative, cu verbul la form afirmativ i se traduce prin nu, nici un, nici o, ca i not any. Ex.. He has no new people(s). N-are nici un elev nou. EXPRESII UZUALE: somebody(someone) = cineva(prop. afirm.) anybody(anyone) = cineva(prop. inter.),nimeni(prop. neg., vb. neg.), oricine(prop. afirm.) nobody(no one) something = ceva somewhere = undeva anything = ceva(prop. interog.),nimic(prop. neg.,vb. la forma neg.),orice(prop. afirm.) anywhere = undeva,nicieri,oriunde nothing = nimic nowhere = nicieri ATENIE:

CEVA: something n prop. afirm. i anything n cele interogative NIMIC: nothing cnd vb. e afirmativ i anything cnd vb. e negativ UNDEVA: somewhere n prop. afirm. i anywhere n prop. interog.

NICIERI: nowhere cnd vb. e afirmativ i anywhere cnd


vb. e neg.

ORIUNDE: anywhere n prop. afirm.


Somebody, someone, something, somewhere ct i formele lor pt. interogativ i negativ (anybody, nobody) pot fi nsoite de else = -alt Ex.: I saw somebody(someone) else there (Am vzut pe altcineva acolo). Pt. obinuirea dintre prop. afirm. i cele inter. i neg. ex. 306/247

nici unul (una) any i none =dintre mai muli either i neither = din doi

any=vreunul Ex.:Have you met any of my pupils?(I-ai cun. pe vreunii dintre elevii mei?) any=nici unul Ex.: I dont know any of them. Nu cunosc pe nici unul. (vb. la f. neg.) none=nici unul Ex.: I know none of them. Nu cunosc pe nici unul. (vb. la f. afirm.)

either=vreunul Ex.: Have you met either ( vreuna ) of my two daughters? either = nici unul Ex.. I havent met either of them. N-am cunoscut pe nici una. neither = nici unul Ex.. Ive met neither of them. N-am cunoscut pe nici una. S-A NTMPLAT, DIN NTMPLARE, FCUT S, NTMPLTOR = It so happened that I I happened It so happened that we heard (didnt hear) the telephone bell. (S-a ntmplat s auzim tel.) We happened to hear (not to hear) the telephone bell. The girl happened to be very pretty. EXPRESII: You are wicked = Eti ru ( n general ) You are being wicked = Eti ru (n cazul de fa cu implicaia c de obicei nu este) Se folosete i cu : nasty(nesuferit), mean(urcios,meschin) POLISEMIA LUI JOIN: NTMPLAREA A

- a uni - a se ntlni - a se nscrie

A bridje joins the two banks(Un pod unete cele dou maluri)

He is going to join our club.(Se va nscrie n clubul nostru)

- a se altura(la o petrecere, joc, conversaie) - a se nrola (n armat) A ATEPTA He joined the army.

to wait for - implic ateptare activ to expect - implic ateptare pasiv

LECIA 16
Cnd pronumele interogativ sau subs. precedat de un adjectiv interogativ este subiect, predicatul din propoziia interogativ rmne la forma obiniut (cea din propoziiile afirmative):What impressed you most? Whose (al cui, a crui) horse came first? Cnd sunt complemente directe, interogativul se formeaz cu do, does sau did: What do you want? Whom did you which The man(driver, girl) whom(that) I saw is mad(cousin). Whom = who(n scris i n vorbirea ngrijit) meet? =

Whom (that) se folosete cu persoane.

whom = pe care, pe cine, cruia

The picture (statue, painting) which (that) I noticed was very expensive.

Which (that) se folosete cu lucruri, animale. myself; yourself; himself; herself; itself; ourselves; yourselves; themselves
se folosete n diateza reflexiv n anumite expresii, i ca pronume de ntrire: M privesc n oglind = I am looking myself in the mirror. Vorbea singur = He was talking to himself. Am fcut-o eu nsumi = I did it myself. Pronumele de ntrire se poate plasa dup subiect(I myself read it)cnd accentuiaz sensul sau la sfritul propoziiei(I read it myself)

EXPRESII UZUALE: unul pe altul, unul pe cellalt = each other = one another diateza pasiv S + to be + past participle EXPRESII UZUALE:(neither(nor), either) Nici mie nu-mi place piperul. I dont like pepper either. Neither do I like pepper. (atenie se inverseaz) Nici el nu poate comite astfel de erori. Neither (Nor) can he commit such errors. He cant commit such errors either. Nici el nu este un om gelos. He isnt a jealous man either. Neither (Nor) is he a jealous man. EXPRESIA: LA FEL I My parents bedroom is upstairs and so is mine. I like this scent(parfum) and so does my sister. I shall go to the library tomorrow and so will my friend. EXPRESIA: DA, AA ESTE A fost obraznic. Da, aa este. He was cheeky. So, he was.

LECIA 17 ATENIE - CONCORDANA TIMPURILOR N FRAZE


ROMNETE 1. T - P 2. T- T 3. T-V 4. V-V ENGLEZ TT TT Perf. Simplu sau Cont. T Simplu - Future in the Past V- P. Simplu

1. A. mi spuneai c vrei s te odihneti un timp. You told me that you wanted to rest for a while. B. Sperai c profesorul nu poate veni.

atenie spuneai sperai se traduce cu T.S nu cu T.C.

You hoped that the theacher couldnt come. C. Mi-a spus c sora ei e la coal. He told me that her sister was at school. n rom. se poate folosi trecut - prezent(i t.-t.) dar n englez numai trecut - trecut. 2. A. I thought that Lavinia had finished the book. B. Speram c a fcut o bun impresie acolo. I hoped he had cut a good figure there. C. Ne-a spus c btrnul a fost clcat de o main. She told us that the old man had been run over by a car. atenie had been este TPS D. Le-am spus c-i vizitez pe prinii lor de muli ani. I told them that I had been visiting their parents for many years. TPCont. atenie speram se trad. cu T.S.

Cnd n rom. se folosete trecut- trecut (sau trecut- prezent dar este o ac. trecut anterioar unei alte ac. trecute i neterminat) n englez se folosete Trecut-Trecut Perfect Simplu sau Cont.
Regula e uor de dedus pt. c prin astfel de fraze se exprim anterioritatea(pt. care se folos. TPS sau TPC)

3. A. Eram sigur c nu v va dezamgi. I was sure that he wouldnt disapoint you. B. Spunea c va trebui s se coafeze. She said she would have to have her hair done. C. Ai promis c nu-l vei certa. You promised you wouldnt scold him. n rom. se folosete trecut - viitor iar n engl. se folosete trecut - Future in the Past. 4. n englez, cnd n propoziia principal se folosete viitorul, n propoziia subordonat temporal (introdus prin when, whenever, till, until, as soon as, as long as, etc.) sau condiional(introdus prin if ) se folosete prezentul. I shall see you when (if ) I have time (it is possible). EXPRESII: atenie spunea, eram se trad. cu TS

for me, you, him, her, us, you, them O sa-i cumprm un cadou. Well buy a present for her.

FOLOSIREA LUI SEVERAL I MORE Mi-a spus c are mai multe romane englezeti. She told me she had several English novels. several se folosete cnd poate fi nlocuit i cu cteva, civa

Mi-a spus c are mai multe cri romneti dect englezeti. She told me she had more Romanian books than English books.

LECIA 18
Exprimarea condiionalului optativ din rom. a mnca se face cu should i would. n engleza contemporan would se poate folosi i la pers. I sg. i pl. Ex.: I would like a vrea s, mi-ar plcea s am fi foarte bucuroi s

We would be very glad El n-ar face una ca asta.

He wouldnt do such a thing.

(El) ar putea s citeasc ac. carte Engl. He could read this English book. ATENIE He might lose it. PRINCIPALA ar...(would, should+vb.) (Future in the Past) cntat T.P.S. Ar putea s o piard. IF CLAUSE Dac ar (had+vb.3) ar cnta T.S. fi

atenie: ar putea = could Pt. a ine minte regula : n mod normal ambele ar trebui s se formeze cu F. in the Past dar are prioritate principala. Am face o excursie n Italia dac am economisi destui bani.

We should go on a trip to Italy if we saved enough money. Dac n-a fi vzut eu nsumi, nu mi-a face griji. If I hadnt seen it myself I shouldnt worry.
Se mai poate folosi urmtoarea form: vezi tabelul de la sfritul leciei

T.S.

T.P.S.

Atenie pt. c la la unele prop. sensul e clar de viitor dar se exprim prin trecut : Ex.: Dac vremea ar fi frumoas ne-am duce la plimbare. If the weather were fine we should go for a walk.

AR TREBUI = I, You, He, She, We, You, They should


Ex.: You should go and see the film. Ar trebui s te duci s vezi filmul.

(should not(shouldnt)

A PUTEA, AI PUTEA
Ex.: N-am putea fi suprai pe ea. We couldnt be angry with her.

I could, You could

Ai putea cumpra aceast cravat pentru tata? Could you buy this tie for father.

AR PUTEA(n sensul de posibilitate)


It might rain in the afternoon. S-ar putea s plou dup-amiaz.

They might come any minute now. Ar putea sosi din clip n clip.

AR FI PUTUT (MIGHT HAVE VB3)


He might have helped you. It might have snowed. Te-ar fi putut ajuta. S-ar fi putut s ning.

They might have gone to the seaside.

EXPRIMAREA TIMPULUI a fi cumprat, ai fi cumprat... should(would)+have+vb3

Ex.: Would you have bought that...? Yes, I should have bought it.

Ai fi cumprat acel... Da, l-a fi cumprat.

EXPRESIA: ar fi trebuit S+should(la toate pers.)+have+vb3


Ex.: I should have given him a good thrashing, but I hadnt the heart. (Ar fi trebuit s-i trag o btaie bun dar nu m-a lsat inima.) He shouldnt have stolen them. (N-ar fi trebuit s le fure.)

EXPRESIA: a fi putut, ai fi putut... S+could+have+vb3


Ex.: I could have solved the problem. Could you have eaten all the cakes? A fi putut rezolva problema.

IF CLAUSE
IF CLAUSE TPS(had+vb3) dac a fi, ai fi...+vb. PRINCIPALA should(would)+have+vb3 a fi, ai fi...+vb.

atenie: ar fi trebuit = had had ar fi putut = could have

If the mud hadnt been so deep, the wheels of the car wouldnt have got stuck in it. Dac noroiul n-ar fi fost att de mare, roile mainii nu s-ar fi npotmolit n el.

We shouldnt have missed the train if we had hurried a bit. N-am fi pierdut trenul dac ne-am fi grbit puin.
Se mai poate folosi urmtoarea form: Had we hurried a bit, we shouldnt have missed the train.

ALT FORM A CONDIIONALEI

IF CLAUSE Should(la toate pers.)+ vb.1

PRINCIPAL S+should(pers. 1)+ vb. 1 would

Should they invite me to the party, I should refuse them. Dac m-ar invita la petrecere i-a refuza. Should you call on the Cliffords now you would meet Lavinia there.

LECIA 19
Diferite excepii: 1. Dup verbele to make i to let urmeaz infinitivul scurt (fr to): Ex.: He made her come with him. He let her come with him. A pus-o s vin cu el. A lsat-o s vin cu el.

2. Dup verbe ca to see, to hear, to watch, to feel urmez fie infinitivul scurt, fie forma n ing: Ex.: I heard her sing(ing). Am auzit-o cntnd.

She watched him eat(ing) L-a privit cum mnnc. 3. Dup verbe ca to want, to wish, to expect, to like poate urma un acuzativ+infinitivul cu to. Ex.: She wanted him to go. Ea voia ca el s plece. They expected Mary to answer. Se ateptau ca Mary s rspund.

Aceast construcie se folosete atunci cnd aciunea celui de-al doilea verb este fcut de alt persoan dect subiectul primului verb. Dac acuzativul se omite, se subnelege c aciunea celui de-al doilea verb este nfptuit de subiect. Ex.: She wanted him to go. She wanted to go. Ea vroia ca el s plece. Ea vroia s plece.

4. Dup verbe ca to belive, to consider, to think, to report se folosete aceeai construcie (She belives him to be a good student) cu deosebirea c ideea poate fi exprimat i n felul urmtor: She belives that he is a good student. He She is said was heard to sing very well to speak English correctly to have a good English pronunciation.

The student The girl

happens seems is likely is sure

prez. trecut viitor

They The children The Browns

are were will be

given offered lent

some new book some picture postcards pens

Exprimarea unor lucruri generale (impersonale) diateza pasiv:


Valuable archaelogic discoveries are made in our country nowadays. n zilele noastre se fac descoperiri arheologice preioase n ara noastr. Valuable archaelogic discoveries are being made in our country nowadays. n zilele noastre(chiar n momentul de fa) se fac descoperiri arh. preioase n . ns. Many interesting opinions were put forward at the conference yesterday. La conferina de ieri s-au expus multe preri interesante. Modern blocks of flats have been built in Bucharest in the last few years. n ultimii ani s-au construit n Bucureti blocuri moderne. He told me that new data about outer space had been obtained. Mi-a spus c s-au obinut date noi n legtur cu spaiul cosmic. Rich crops will be obtained this year. Anul acesta se vor obine recolte bogate.

Diat. pasiv se formeaz cu participiul trecut.


Pt. accentuare se poate folosi do la imperativ i la indicativul prezent i trecut, n propoziiile afirmative: Do come here! I do want it. She did know it. Vino-ncoace (neaprat, te rog)! O vreau (cu adevrat, neaprat). O tia (cu siguran, fr ndoial). atenie vb.1

Expresii uzuale:

A face mai bine s, ai face mai bine s...=I had better + vb.1
Ex.: He had better start learning. Ar face mai bine s nceap s nvee.

A prefera s, ai prefera s...=I had rather +vb.1 I would rather + vb.1


She had rather drink a glass of vermouth than one of lemonade. Ar prefera s bea un pahar de vermut dect unul de limonad. We would rather travel by plane than by train. Am prefera s cltorim cu avionul dect cu trenul.

Expresia Having + vb.(2, 3)= dup ce...

deoarece...(se
as)
pt. m.m.c.p. romnesc

poate

traduce

cu

Ex.:Having raised the tent, the two men congratulated one another. Dup ce au ridicat cortul cei doi brbai s-au felicitat. Having seen the film, I refused the invitation to go with them to the cinema. (As I had seen the film, I refused their invitation to go with them to the cinema.) Deoarece vzusem filmul, am refuzat invitaia lor de a m duce cu ei la cinema.

LECIA 20
(rar ntlnit) ADJECTIVUL POSESIV(my, your, his, her, our, their) CU VB.+ING Ex.: Mother is proud of my speaking English so well. Mama e mndr c eu vorbesc englezete att de bine. I insisted on their staying a little longer.

Am insistat ca ei s stea un pic mai mult. EXPRIMAREA TIMPULUI I SPAIULUI Its a ten minutes walk to their villa. Sunt 10 minute de mers pn la vila lor. Its ten miles to the next village. Sunt 10 mile pn la satul urmtor. Where shall we be in another twenty years? Unde vom fi peste ali 20 de ani? For me, you, him, her, us, them It is important for me to buy a house. She bought a magazine for me to read. Biatului i este greu = Its difficult for the boy = E greu pt. biat Pronumele relative whom, which(la acuzativ) se pot omite, prepoziia care le precede plasnduse la sfrit: Ex.: The man youre talking about is a doctor. (The man about whom youre talking is a doctor.) The book hes looking for is here. (The book for which hes looking is here.) EXPRIMRILE CONCENTRATE sunt specifice limbii engleze; reprezint de obicei condensarea a dou propoziii: He shouted himself hoarse=He shouted until he became hoarse=A strigat pn a rguit. She sang the baby to sleep. EXPRESII UZUALE It is isnt wasnt worth L-a adormit pe copil cntndu-i. to worth = a merita doing it reading that book the trouble(osteneala) atenie: - it isnt, wasnt i nu doesnt -dup worth urmeaz vb.+ing (for-Infinitive construction) atenie: its nu there is

the money
You You

i nu infinitiv(to read)

ought to pay her a visit = S-ar cuveni s-i faci o vizit. ought to have visited her from time to time = S-ar fi cuvenit s o vizitezi din cnd n cnd.

You shouldnt buy so many handkerchiefs = N-ar trebui s cumperi attea batiste. Tom shouldnt have bought that tie = Tom, n-ar fi trebuit s cumpere cravata aceea. You shouldnt have insisted = Nu trebuia s insiti. The doctor must

have been detained in the hospital = Dr. trebuie s fi fost reinut la spital.

He has to learn his lesson = Trebuie s-i nvee leciile. They will have to punish him = Vor trebui s-l pedepseasc.

He is to have a talk with the architect, isnt he? Urmeaz s stea de vorb cu arhitectul, nu? They are to meet and have a talk about the plans for the house= Urmeaz s se ntlneasc i ... He was to go to the mountain = Trebuia(urma) s plece la munte. You dont need to persuade me he is a good architect= Nu trebuie(nu e nevoie) s m convingi c el e
un bun arhitect. You neednt have driven me to the station = N-ar fi trebuit s m duci la gar cu maina.

SHALL, WILL + BE + vb.+ing What will you be doing tomorrow at this time of the day? Ce-o s facei mine la ora asta? At eight oclock tomorow we shall be taking leave of our neighbours. Mine la ora 8 o s ne lum rmas bun de la vecinii notri. Today week they will be basking in the sun at the seaside. De azi ntr-o sptmn vor face plaj la mare. When she is away he will be thinking about her. Cnd ea va fi plecat el se va gndi la ea. Unii vorbitori de limba englez, n vorbirea familiar, omit pronumele cu funcie de subiect. Ex.: Thought youd gone without me. Am crezut c ai plecat fr mine.

Seems rather tedious to me.

Mi se pare cam plicticos.

VOCABULAR
alluring = ademenitor, tentant to admitt = a recunoate asleep = adormit awfully = ngrozitor(oare) bacon = costi to bake(a cake) = a coace(o prjitur) to bask = a se nclzi(la soare);a face plaj to bath = a se sclda, a face baie beard = barb besides = lng,pe deasupra, n afar de to bind,bound,bound = a lega boil = a fierbe careless = neatent(neglijent) ceiling = tavan cheap = ieftin() chips = cartofi pai comb = pieptene confectioners = cofetrie cough = a tui to count = a numra, SOCOTI dear(car) = (main)scump() cel mai drag = dearest elbow = cot ham = unc hen = gin lend, lent = a mprumuta lettuce = salat verde (to speak) loud = (a vorbi) tare to live = a locui to mend = a repara novel = roman (to) pour = a turna, vrsa purse = pung quite(moderate) = ct se poate de (moderat) to race = a ambala(motorul) scold = a certa sentence = propoziie to shedd leaves = a scutura frunzele sheet = cearaf shelf = raft ship = vapor slices of bread = felii de pine slipper = papuc to stirr = a amesteca, a agita stuffy = nchis(aer) sum = adunare

at nceput fleas = purici

first

la swear = a njura tall(tree) = (copac)nalt thick(book) = (carte) groas

fragrance = miros plcut(parfum) tipsy = ameit de butur freckles = pistrui utter = a rosti(cuvinte) fair, blond = blond waiter = chelner fizzy = acidulat() warm = cald gay = vesel wheel = volan grapes = struguri whom = pe care, pe cine = who=which to greet = a saluta whose = al cui, a crui grow = a cultiva(legume), a crete(hair, weak = slbit oranges); grown-ups=aduli wrist-watch = ceas de mn

Whom = pe care, pe cine, cruia Which = pe care...

pt. persoane se folosete cu lucruri, animale

GUSTURI: dulce=sweet; amar=bitter; srat=salted,salt(y),saline; acru=sour,tart PR:blond=blond,fair-haired; brunet=brunette,dark-haired ;aten=chestnut,brown-haired HAINE: pantaloni=trousers; costum=suit; fust=skirt; rochie=dress; bluz=blouse; cma=shi rt; osete(brbteti)=socks; palton,hain=coat; canadian=sport coat ORA: familiar five (minutes) past twelve (a) quarter past five half-past one twenty-five (minutes) to seven (a) quarter to ten 12.05 5.15 13.30 18.35 21.45 oficial twelve five five fifteen thirteen thirty eighteen thirty-five twenty-one forty-five

DATA: 2nd January 1971 23(r)d April 1996 Expresii:

The second of January, nineteen seventy-one The twenty-third of April, nineteen ninety-six

to learn by heart = a nva pe dinafar saving money = a strnge bani look out of the window = a se uita pe fereastr to cut a good figure = a face impresie bun to pay a visit = a face o vizit to sleep like a log = a dormi butean to call in at the = a trece pe la to take a taxi = a lua un taxi the taxi will take us = taxiul ne va duce to get on(into) the train = a se urca n tren to give a lift = a duce cu maina to ring up = a suna(la telefon) to iron the trousers = a clca pantalonii to be out of order = a fi stricat at once = imediat students in English = studeni la englez which of all = care din toi(toate) to let him alone = a-l lsa n pace we shant(shall not) mind = nu ne suprm(n sensul de viitor) serve me right = aa-mi trebuie to be run over by a car = a fi clcat de o main to have a hangover = a fi mahmur(beat)

bottle of scent = ap de colonie to get in time to = a ajunge la timp I cant grumble = nu pot s m plng what film is on there = ce film ruleaz acolo to pull my leg = a m pcli It isnt worth the trouble = nu merit osteneala They are to leave on Monday = Urmeaz s plece luni. today three weeks = de azi n 3 sptmni; to take leave = a-i lua rmas bun to leave for Italy = a pleca n Italia to have my tooth filled(participiu trecut) = s-mi plombez mseaua to have his hair cut = s se tund two months today; tomorrow three weeks

proverbe:
Barking dogs seldom bite=Cinii care latr rar muc. There is no rose without thorns (ghimpi). Out of sight, out of mind = Ochii care nu se vd se uit. Never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. No man is born wise.
CONJUNCIE= parte de vorbire neflexibil care leag dou propoziii ntr-o fraz sau dou cuvinte cu acelai rol sintactic ntr-o propoziie PREPOZIIE= parte de vorbire neflexibil care exprim raporturi sinctactice de dependen ntre prile diferite ale unei propoziii

to put off = a amna

de repetat ex.: 167/p.144; 169/147; 205/p.179;208/181; 247/208; 443/348 atenie: had = a trebuit, trebuia must = trebuie trecut prezent expresie (interog., neg. cu did have,didnt have)

There must be a mistake. Trebuie s fie o greeal.

The Present Participle(participiul prezent)


The Present Participle (ending in -ing) often corresponds to the Romanian gerunziu. It is also used in the continuous form of verbs. Ex.: Reading a long novel I fell asleep. (Citind...) Walking about the park I was listening to the birds which were singing merrily. The Present Participle is sometimes treated as a noun. In such cases it may be preceded by the definite or the indefinite article or by an adjective. Ex.: The learning of the grammar rules is absolutely necessary. (nvarea...) Building of our school took several months. The solid training of our team helped us win the match We saw a meeting taking place in the market-square. When it used after prepositions it corresponds to a sentence in Romanian: Ex.: M-am gndit s m- duc la un muzeu=I have thought of going to a museum. i mulumesc fiindc m ajui=Thank you for helping me.

The Present Perfect Tense Simple(traducere: am citit, merg) indic anterioritatea fa de prezent
S+have/has+vb.(III) Se folosete n urmtoarele cazuri:

1. cu adverbe care exprim un timp nedefinit sau o frecven ca: ever, never, always, sometimes, often, seldom, rarely, usuallly, frequently, repeatedly Ex.: L-am ntlnit adesea pe la expoziii. I have often met him at some exhibitions. 2.cnd aciunea nu este localizat d.p.d.v. al timpului sau locului Ex.. Am citit cartea. I have read the book.

3. cnd aciunea este nceput n trecut i se continu i n prezent(eventual i n viitor) Ex.: De cnd l cunoti? How long have you known him?

I have known him for five years/since 1970.

Atenie: n cazul verbelor cu aspect progresiv continuu se folosete Present perfect continuous(Ex.: De cnd nvei englezete? How long have you been studying English? I have been learning English for four years/since 1971(since I entered this school). 4. cnd aciunea menionat s-a efectuat n cadrul unui interval de timp nc nencheiat, care mai continu i n prezent(i eventual i n viitor); se folos. cu today, this week... Ex.: L-am vzut de dou ori sptmna/luna/primvara asta. I have seen/met him twice this week/month/spring 5. cnd aciunea s-a efectuat(i terminat) foarte de curnd; se folos. cu: lately, just, recently, in the last few days/weeks, of late Ex.. Abia a sosit. He has just come/arrived I have not seen much of him lately.

n ultima vreme nu l-am prea vzut.

6. cnd aciunea(neprecizat n timp, dar desigur de domeniul trecutului, deci ncheiat) are rezultate, consecine, efecte vizibile n prezent: Ex.: A plouat. It has rained.

7. situaia atipic nlocuind viitorul II din romn n secundarele temporare, n cadrul regulilor corespondenei timpurilor i voi mprumuta/i mprumut cartea dup ce o voi fi citit/ o voi citi/ o citesc eu. I shall/will lend you the the book after/when I have read it.
Evident, n vorbirea indirect prezent perfect se va transforma n past perfect dac principala va fi la un timp trecut: Mi-a spus c va pleca la plimbare dup ce va fi mncat/ dup ce mnnc/ dup ce va mnca. He told me (that) he would go for a walk after/ when he had finished dinner.

THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS


S+HAVE+BEEN+ VB+ing The P. P. C. shows an action which started in the past, is continuing in the present and is likely to continue also in the future. Se folos. cu since i for Ex.: My friends have been living in this town(since 1970; for 5 years). Prietenii mei locuiesc n acest ora.

DIATEZELE DIATEZA ACTIV: aciunea verbului este ndeplinit chiar de subiectul


gramatical(indiferent dac ea se rsfrnge asupra unui complement direct sau nu) Ex.: The boy is reading (a book).

DIATEZA PASIV(THE PASSIVE VOICE): subiectul gramatical sufer aciunea


unui verb tranzitiv, ndeplinit de altcineva(subiectul logic) Se formeaz cu vb to be i participiul trecut. Ex.: A letter was written by the boy yesterday.

DIATEZA REFLEXIV: rsfrngerea aciunii ndeplinite de subiect chiar asupra


lui(verbe reflexive) Ex.: The boy washed and combed himself properly for his sisters wedding.

PAST PERFECT (se poate traduce cu mai-mult-ca-perfectul romnesc(mncase))


anterioritatea unei aciuni trecute fa de o alt aciune trecut 1. simplu
S + had + vb.(III) indicarea unei aciuni sau stri trecute ncepute i terminate naintea unei alte aciuni trecute ori a unui moment din trecut; se folos cu: hardly, scarcely, no sooner, before, when... Ex.: After he had eaten he went for a walk Dup ce mncase/a mncat a plecat la plimbare. Hardly had the teacher come into the room when the pupils surrounded him. S vb.(n constrruciile cu hardly, scarcely, no sooner se schimb ordinea) fi, ai fi...+vb. n condiionale(n if clause)

Atenie: TPS se traduce i cu a

2. continu(se poate traduce cu imperfectul romnesc(nva) sau chiar prezent(locuiesc))


S + had + been + vb.+ing indicarea unei aciuni ncepute naintea unei alte aciuni trecute i nc neterminat continund pn n momentul acela Ex.. When I arrived at Sinaia, it had been raining for three days.

Cnd am ajuns la Sinaia ploua de 3 zile. He had been learning Bulgarian for two years when he went to specialize to Sofia.

nva bulgara de 2 ani cnd s-a dus s se specializeze la Sofia. THE SEQUENCES OF TENSES
A Past Tense is followed by a (should, would) to express a future action. Indic posterioritatea(ulterioritatea) fa de un moment trecut. Ex.: This made Harold think that the Normans would not come any longer that year. He had to swear that he would help William. (A trebuit s jure c l va ajuta pe W.) Formarea substantivelor din verbe: the suffix added to the verb to form the noun is sometimes er, as in climber, sometimes -or, as in editor

Future-in-the-Past

Viitorul simplu(The future indefinite)


Ex.: I shall begin now. You will see him tomorow. He will write her a letter. I We shall ll shall not He She It You They shant will ll will not wont Voi ncepe acum Ai s-l vezi mine. i va scrie o scrisoare. go by train make a good impression be late

Viitorul continuu(Future Tense Continuous)


S + shall(will) + be + vb.+ing

Puin important The Nominative with the Infinitive(to go)(Indefinite or Perfect) is a construction in which the subject of a certain verb which is used in the Passive Voice is also the subject of a second verb which is in that case in the infinitive and which immediately follows the first verb. This construction is used: 1. with verbs denoting sense perception, such as: to see, to hear, etc. and verbs denoting mental activity, such as: to think, to consider, to know, to expect, to believe, to suppose... Ex.: The car was seen to disappear in the distance. Who is said to have lived 2. with the verbs: to say, to report and to make Ex.: The sword was said to have magic powers. 3. with the phrases to be sure and to be certain Ex.: The news is certain to please everybody.

TO WISH + SUBJUNCTIVE
ROM.: CONJUNCTIVUL PREZ.: S MERG PERF.: S FI MERS When the verb to wish is followed by an objective clause the verb in such a clause has to be in the Past Tense: Ex.: I wish I found a larger dictionary. A dori s gsesc un

If that verb is To Be we have to use Past Subjunctive of the verb which is were for all persons singular and plural(I, he, she, it, we, you, they,were). Ex.: I wish I were a student sooner. A dori s fiu student mai repede.

She wishes she were in the mountains now.

If
I. Pr. S. Pr. C. II. Past Tense III. Past P. T. Simple

Main
Future. T. S. Future. T. C. Would(should) + VB. Future in the Past

Would(should) + had + vb.(III) NOUN CLAUSES : alternatives with WHETHER = dac (ns nu condiional) (atenie:weather =vreme) Ex.: He doubted whether formal visits would be of much help. wondered the little girl told the truth. worried discussed FAIRLY (destul de, ct se poate de) - is used with a pleasant or positive idea Ex.: Your composition was fairly good. RATHER(mai degrab, de fapt) - unpleasant or negative idea Ex.: This exercise will be rather difficult. Since poate avea nelesul cteodat de because Ex.: Since he did not get along very well with his brother, he set out to make his own way in the world. COMPOUND ADJECTIVES 1. adjective + noun + -ed or -d 2. noun + Past Participle 3. adverb + Past Participle IF + WOULD If you would like me to try = Dac dorii s ncerc. Wed be very happy if you would come to us next Sunday. Would is used after if when we are interested in the listeners wish or will When wish is followed by a sentence the verb of the subordinate sentence is either in the Past Tense or the Past Perfect Tense: Ex.. I wish I could help them = A vrea s o pot ajuta. I wish I had helped them = A vrea s o fi ajutat. Ex.: gentle-faced middle-aged; man-made well meant(bine intenionat); far-fetched(exagerat)

I wish I knew what is happening = A vrea s tiu ce s-a ntmplat. They wished they had stayed at home = Ar fi vrut s fi stat acas. When wish is followed by the verb to be in the subordinate clause to be is used in the Past Subjunctive, which is were in all persons: Ex.: I wish I were in the mountains. She wished she were a pianist.

The Past Perfect Passive S+had been(past perfect(simple) of to be)+Past participle


Ex.: he had been killed by ...

The Subjunctive Mood


I, He, She, We, You, They + Should + vb. POSIBILITY Present She may be at home. She might be at home now(stronger doubt). Past She may have had an accident. She might have had an accident. PROBABILITY Present Past She must be at home now. She accident. must have had an accident. Trebuie s fi avut un Ar putea s aib un accident. Ar fi putut...

IMPOSIBILITY Present She cant be at home now. Nu poate fi acas acum. Nu ar putea fi la bar acum. Nu ar fi putut s

He couldnt be at a snack-bar now. Past

She couldnt have had any engine trouble. aib ...

VOCABULAR(ncepnd cu cls. X, lecia 10)

above = deasupra account = istorisire to advertise = a face reclam apprentice = a da la ucenicie astonish = uimit augment = a spori avenue = alee, bulevard aware = contient beam = raz beyond = dup beware = a se pzi, a se feri bind, bound = a lega bounce = a ricoa bound = limit, hotar; a sri, legat broad = ntins, larg, lat to cease = a nceta core = nucleu, miez defiant = sfidtor deputy = reprezentant descend = a cobor despise = a dispreui development = dezvoltare, perfecionare dot = punct dumb = mut earnest = serios

manage = a administra, a reui mere = simplu merely = numai, doar, cu totul merry = fericit mock = a ridiculiza nay = ba mai mult occure = a avea loc, a se petrece occure to = a trece prin minte outstrip = a ntrece pearl = pictur presently = imediat proper = cum se cuvine, respectabil rather = mai degrab remote = ndeprtat, de la distan retort = replic roar = vuiet rob = a fura, a jefui scorn = dispre, batjocor skull = craniu skyscrapers = zgrie-nori slang = argou, jargon to slice = a tia(felii) slightly = puin snow-flakes = fulgi de zpad squared = la ptrat

emphasis = accent fatigue = oboseala feebly = slab former = cel dinti fulfill = a executa, a ndeplini furthermore = n plus glance = privire fugar hasty = grbit hence = de aceea, de acum ncolo, de aici inexhaustible = inepuizabil kite = zmeu de hrtie ladder = scar leak = sprtur lest = ca s nu, ca nu cumva (eye)lids = pleoape loaves of breds = pini ntregi lobby = hol

stove = sob stretch out = a ntinde (mna) to stun = a ului swift = grabnic, repede threaten = a amenina thus = astfel trend = direcia to twinkle = a licri, a clipi to urge = a ndemna to utter = a rosti valiant = brav, curajos to vanish = a disprea vengeful = rzbuntor to weld = a suda welfare = bunstare wheel = roata wide = lat, larg wit = isteime within = cuprins n, n interior

EXPRESII: to get along = a se mpca(cu cineva) strong-willed = hotrt on the verge = pe punctul