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NATIONAL LAW INSTITUTE UNIVERSITY

LEGAL RESEARCH METHOD


PROJECT ON

COMPUTER AND SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

Submmitted By: Sumit Singh Bagri Roll No. 2011BALLB34 Enrl No. A-1082

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Table Of Contents

1. COMPUTER

2. SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH 3. COMPUTER IN SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

4 5

4. CONCLUSION

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Computer:
A computer is a programmable machine designed to automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic and logical operations. An important class of computer operations on some computing platforms is accepting the input from the operator and then giving the result as output in formatted form for the use of the computer operator. The interface between the computer and the human is termed as the user interface. Some of the major parts of computer are motherboard, CPU, memory, hard drive and video card. Motherboard is the major part which constitute of all the circuits or we can say it is the heart of the computer. Memory of the computer holds all the pre-processed, processed and post-processed data, hard drive is used to store the data in the computer for further use. CPU executes series of instructions that make it read, manipulate and store the data. The major characteristics of the computer are its speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility, power of remembering, no IQ, no feelings, and storage capacity. Computer is used in each and every aspect of human life. Some of the important uses of computers are word processing, internet, digital video and audio composition, mathematical calculations, banks, travel, telecommunications, defence, education, business, marriages, news, robotics, weather analysis, etc. We can say that computers will superhead the quest of eradicating social problems like illiteracy and poverty. Today it is difficult to imagine the world without computers. Some Advantages are: communication is improved, pay bill's online, and people have access to things they would not have had before (for instance old people who cannot leave the house they can buy groceries online) Computers make life easier. Some of the disadvantages are: scams, fraud, people not going out as much, we do not yet know the effects of computers and pregnancy or the emissions that computers make, bad posture from sitting too long at a desk, repetitive strain injuries and the fact that most organisations expect everyone to own a computer, viruses and spyware.

Sociological Research:Social research refers to research conducted by social scientist. Social research methods may be divided into two broad categories:

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Quantitative Designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid and reliable general claims.

Qualitative Designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality.

Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena; from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agents' social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets, to the investigation of ancient historical documents. The methods rooted in classical sociology and statistics have formed the basis for research in other disciplines, such as political research, media studies, and market research. The methods that sociologists use to study these topics can be quite diverse, but many rely on survey research methods and quantitative analysis. Others employ ethnographic and other qualitative methods, such as focused interviews and group discussions. These approaches can be complementary, with results from each approach filling in results from the others. For example, the quantitative methods can describe the large or general patterns, while the qualitative approaches may help researchers understand how individuals perceive and respond to those patterns. Social research is based on logic and empirical observations. Social research involved the interaction between ideas and evidence. Ideas help social researchers make sense of evidence, and researchers use evidence to extend, revise and test ideas.

Computer in sociological research:Computer is one such device that is capable of handling numerous data and operating on them in the desired manner. Sociological research is basically the study of any social phenomena and then drawing conclusion from the data collected, in order to expand the understanding about the society. Data collected is primarily of two types:1. Quantitative data- those data that can be expressed in statistical or number form. 2. Qualitative data- those data that is all about human feelings, ideas, understanding about any phenomena and interpretation of any event.

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These data can be collected through the following methods: 1. Questionnaire 2. Interviews 3. Observation Any research involves three basic steps:1. Collection of data 2. Analysis of data 3. Drawing conclusion All these steps are included in any typical sociological research. And computer as a device helps in all these three steps. Starting with collection of data, data can be collected through any of the above mentioned method. If doctrinal method of research is being used, then the first hand data collected can easily be stored in a computer because of mass storage facility. In case, non-doctrinal method of research is used, then also the vast secondary data can be stored in a computer. The data stored can be arranged in any desired manner, which help in easy analysis of data. Data can be stored as simple text, if it is qualitative data, or in the form of tables, graph and charts, if the data is quantitative. Going by the methods of research one by one we find that computers hold a great place in all of these methods. Starting with questionnaire method, computers can be used if data is to be collected from large number of people, living in distance place. Questionnaires can be mailed to all the desired respondents and they can even send their responses through mail and all this can be done in the minimum possible time. If the questionnaire is pre-coded then the responses received can be arranged in an assembled manner that makes analysis easier as every question has limited range of options. Similarly, if interview method of research is used and the questionnaire is pre-coded then again computers can be used in a manner described above. Now going to observation method, it is basically studying the group by being physically there. This also requires continuously noting down the observation in a detailed but simple manner. The observations can be easily noted down in a computer and saves the researcher from carrying multiple stationery and gadgets.

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The next step is analysis of the collected data. Analysis of data involves detailed study of the data collected and then comparing it with data of other sectors or divisions i.e. inter-sectoral comparison or comparing it with data of over a period of time i.e. inter-temporal comparison. Computer helps in easy analysis of data by making comparison easier as data can be presented in the most simplest manner such as graphs and tables. For example- If graphical data of live-in-relationship in society is available for two decades or for two strata of society, then they can be easily analysed to draw conclusion of the status or condition of live-inrelationship in society. The next and the final step in a research is drawing conclusion from the data analysed. When it comes to use of computer in this particular step, they have no direct use in drawing conclusion but have a great role when it comes to presentation of the conclusion drawn. If the final result is presented in a manner that gives us the basic idea just by a glance and does not require reading lengthy text, then it becomes highly attractive. For example : if we draw a pie-chart to show the level of literacy in different states, then just by looking at the diagram, we can say which state has the highest literacy by looking at the area of the pie diagram covered by each state. The above paragraphs dealt with the use of computer in sociological research and we found that computers have a large number of use. This brings us down to stating the following advantages offered by computers in sociological research: 1. Easy and mass storage of data 2. Simplified presentation of data 3. Visual understanding of the theme and the result 4. Saves time of arranging data 5. Safe storage of data as data may sometimes get lost if stored in paper form 6. Easy availability of data as a soft copy of it can always be carried 7. Saves up the use of multiple other resources such as stationary However, it is also true that computers have a very limited use if qualitative data is being used for research as such research is more about analysis of any phenomena and in-depth thinking for drawing conclusions. For example: if a research is being carried out to find whether prostitution is good or bad for society then computers will end up having minimum
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use as this research is more about understanding peoples view and the prevalent practices of the society. On the other hand, if the research is about the level of prostitution is different society or among different strata of people in terms of income, then the statistical data need to be collected and it becomes a quantitative data. Here, computer will have great relevance ranging from storing of raw data, to their systematic arrangement, proper comparison and then the final presentation of their result.

Conclusion:
Now we can say that computers are very useful in sociological research as it helps in various aspects of the research like storage of large amount of data, quick analysis of the information, data is automatically arranged and hence the time and the work load is also reduced using the computers for such researches. The data stored in computer can be easily carried from one place to another by just taking the backup of the data in pen-drive or the hard disk or any other external storage media. It also helps in the security of the data from theft, burn, etc. as we can use various security measures in the access of the data or information and by applying such security measures only the authorised person can access the information. And through internet we can easily transfer the data from one place to another within few seconds. Thus we can say that using computers in sociological researches helps us to make the research easy, simple, convenient, and secure.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://www.wikipedia.org/ http://www.sociology.org.uk

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